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Two hundred and sixty copies of this edition 
have been printed on hand-made paper, of which 
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VOL. V: 17601764 











LETTERS 721-933 1-454 


HORACE WALPOLE . . . ,. * Frontispiece 
From painting by J. GK Eckhardt in National Portrait 

LADY MARY COKE To face p. 156 

From a mezzotint after Ramsay. 


From painting by Sir Joshua Reynolds in Hertford House 


From painting by Sir Joshua Reynolds in possession of the 
Marquis of Hertford. 




721 Thursday [Nov. 

722 Nov. 14, 1760 . 

723 Nov. 24, 1760. 

724 Nov. 27, 1760 . 

725 Dec. 5, 1760 . 

726 Dec. 11, 1760 . 

727 [1760] . . 

728 Jan. 2, 1761 . . . 

729 Jan. 3, 1761 . . . 

730 Jan. 7, 1760 [1761] . 

731 Jan. 22, 1761 . . . 

732 Jan. 27, 1761 . . . 

733 Feb. 7, 1761 . . . 

734 Feb. 12, 1761 . . . 

735 Monday, five o'clock, 

Feb. 1761 

736 March 3, 1761 . . 

737 March 7, 1761 . . 

738 March 13, 1761 . . 

739 Friday night . 

740 March 17, 1761 . . 

741 March 17, 1761 . . 

742 March 21, 1761 . . 

743 March 25, 1761 . . 

744 March [April] 7, 1761. 

745 April 10, 1761 . . 

746 April 10, 1761 . . 

747 April 14, 1761 . . 

748 April 16, 1761 . . 

749 April 28, 1761 . . 

750 May 5, 1761 . . . 

751 May 14, 1761 . . . 

752 May 14, 1761 . . . 


George Montagu .... 6% 

Sir Horace Mann . . . 697 

George Montagu .... 698 
Kev. Henry Zouch . . .699 

Sir Horace Mann . . . 700 

George Montagu. . . . 701 
Earl of Bute. 


Sir Horace Mann . . . 702 

Rev. Henry Zouch . . . 703 

George Montagu. . . . 646 

George Montagu .... 704 

Sir Horace Mann . . . 705 

George Montagu. . . . 706 
Lady Mary Coke. 

Hon. Henry Seymour Conway 707 

Sir Horace Mann . . . 708 
Rev. Henry Zouch . . .710 
George Montagu. . . .713 
Countess of Suffolk . . .719 
Sir Horace Mann . . .711 
George Montagu . . . .712 
George Montagu . . . .714 
George Montagu .... 715 
George Montagu .... 709 
Sir Horace Mann . . . 716 
Hon. Henry Seymour Conway 717 
Sir David Dalrymple . . 718 
George Montagu. . . . 720 
George Montagu .... 721 
George Montagu. . . . 722 
Sir Horace Mann . . .723 
George Montagu .... 724 


List of Letters 


758 June 8, 1761 . . . 

764 June 18, 1761. . . 

765 June 18, 1761. . . 

766 July 5, 1761 . . . 

767 July 6, 1761 . . . 
758 July 9, 1761 . . . 
769 July 10, 1761 . . . 

760 July 14, 1761 . . . 

761 Sunday [July 19, 1761] 

762 July 20, 1761 . . . 

763 July 22, 1761 . . . 

764 July 22, 1761 . . . 

765 July 28, 1761 . . . 

766 July 23, 1761 . . . 

767 July 28, 1761 . . . 

768 [Aug. 6, 1761] . . 

769 Aug. 17, 1761 . . . 

770 Aug. 20, 1761. . . 

771 Tuesday morning 

[Sept. 1761] 

772 Sept. 9, 1761 . . . 

773 Sept. 10, 1761. . . 

774 Sept. 23, 1761. *; 'i 

775 Sept. 24, 1761. . v 

776 Sept. 25, 1761. . V 

777 Sept. 27, 1761. . . 

778 Sept. 28, 1761. . ., 

779 Oct. 6, 1761 . . .' 

780 Oct. 8, 1761 . . v 

781 Oct. 8, 1761 . .- * 

782 Oct. 10,1761 . . -v 
788 Oct. 10, 1761 . ..,-'*; 

784 Oct. 10, 1761 . .. :-l 

785 Oct. 12, 1761 . . . 1; 

786 Oct. 24, 1761 . 

787 Oct. 26, 1761 . 

788 Nov. 7, 1761 . 

789 Nov. 14, 1761. .'. ' . 

790 Nov. 28, 1761. 

791 Nov. 28, 1761 . . ifi 

792 Nov. 80, 1761. . . 

793 Dec. 8, 1761 . . . 

794 Dec. 12, 1761 . . . 

Lady Mary Coke. 
Countess of Ailesbury 
George Montagu . 
George Montagu . 
Earl of Strafford. 
Sir Horace Mann 
George Montagu. 



Hon. Henry Seymour Con way 780 

Grosvenor Bedford . . . 782 

Countess of Ailesbury . . 738 
Earl of Strafford. . . .734 

George Montagu .... 735 

Sir Horace Mann . . . 736 

Hon. Henry Seymour Con way 737 

George Montagu .... 738 

Hon. Henry Seymour Conway 739 

Sir Horace Mann . . . 740 
George Montagu . . . .741 

Earl of Strafford ... 742 

Hon. Henry Seym our Conway 743 

Sir Horace Mann . . . 744 

Grosvenor Bedford . . . 745 

George Montagu .... 746 

Hon. Henry Seymour Conway 747 

Countess of Ailesbury . . 748 

Sir Horace Mann . . . 749 

Sir Horace Mann * -. . 750 

George Montagu. '.- . 751 

Sir Horace Mann . . . 752 

Sir Horace Mann J ' . . 753 

George Montagu. -v . 754 

Countess of Ailesbury . . 755 

Hon. Henry Seymour Con way 756 

George Montagu .... 757 

Hon. Henry SeymourConway 758 

George Montagu .... 759 

Sir Horace Mann . . . 760 

George Montagu .... 761 

Countess of Ailesbury . . 762 

Sir David Dalrymple . . 763 

George Montagu .... 764 

Sir Horace Mann . ' . , 765 

List of Letters 


795 Dec. 21, 1761 . 

796 Dec. 23, 1761 . 

797 Dec. 28, 1761 . 

798 Dec. 30, 1761 . 

799 Jan. 4, 1762 . . 

800 Jan. 26, 1762 . . 

801 Jan. 29, 1762 . . 

802 Feb. 2, 1762 . . 

803 Feb. 6, 1762 . . 

804 Feb. 7, 1762 . . 

805 Feb. 13, 1762 . . 

806 Feb. 15, 1762 . . 

807 Feb. 22, 1762 . . 

808 Feb. 24, 1762 . . 

809 Feb. 25, 1762 . . 

810 Feb. 25, 1762 . . 

811 March 5, 1762 

812 March 9, 1762 

813 March 20, 1762 . 

814 March 22, 1762 . 

815 March 22, 1762 . 

816 April 13, 1762 
817f April 20, 1762 

818 April 29, 1762 

819 April 30, 1762 

820 May 14, 1762 . . 

821 May 20, 1762 . . 

822 May 25, 1762 . . 

823 May 26, 1762 . . 

824 June 8, 1762 . . 

825 June 20, 1762. . 

826 June 30, 1762. . 

827 Wednesday night. 

828 July 1, 1762 . . 

829 July 29, 1762 . . 

830 July 31, 1762. . 

831 July 31, 1762 . . 

832 Aug. 5, 1762 . . 

833 Aug. 5, 1762 . . 

834 Aug. 10, 1762. . 


Sir David Dalrymple 

. 766 

George Montagu . 

. 767 

Sir Horace Mann 

. 768 

George Montagu . 

. 769 


Sir Horace Maim 

. 770 

George Montagu . 

. 771 

Sir Horace Mann 

. 772 

George Montagu . 

. 773 

George Montagu . 

. 774 

Rev. William Cole . 

. 775 

Rev. Henry Zouch . 

. 776 

Earl of Bute .... 


George Montagu . 

. 778 

Dr. Ducarel .... 


Sir Horace Mann 

. 780 

George Montagu . 

. 781 

Countess of Ailesbury 

. 782 

George Montagu . 

. 783 

Rev. Henry Zouch . 

. 784 

Sir Horace Mann 

. 785 

George Montagu . 

. 786 

Sir Horace Mann 

. 787 

Earl of Egremont (?). 

George Montagu . 

. 788 

Sir Horace Mann 

. 789 

George Montagu . 

. 790 

Rev. William Cole . 

. 791 

George Montagu . 

. 792 

Sir Horace Mann 

. 793 

George Montagu . 

. 795 

Sir Horace Mann 

. 7% 

Lady Mary Coke. 

George Montagu . 

. 794 

Sir Horace Mann 

. 797 

Rev. William Cole . 

. 798 

Countess of Ailesbury . 

. 799 

Sir Horace Mann 

. 800 

Earl of Strafford . 

. 801 

Rev. William Cole . 

. 802 

George Montagu . 

. 803 

f Now printed for the first time. 

List of Letters 


Aug. 12, 1762 . 


Aug. 19, 1762. 


Aug. 21, 1762. 



Aug. 29, 1762. 


Sept. 9, 1762 . 


Sept. 9, 1762 . 


Sept. 24, 1762. 


Sept. 24, 1762 . 


Sept. 26, 1762. 


Sept. 28, 1762 . 


Sept. 30, 1762. 



Oct. 1, 1762 . 



Oct. 3, 1762 . 


Oct. 4, 1762 . 


Oct. 14, 1762 . 


Oct. 20, 1762 . 



Oct. 29, 1762 . 


Oct. 31, 1762 . 


Nov. 4 [1762] . 


Nov. 9, 1762 . 


Nov. 13, 1762 . 


Nov. 21, 1762 . 



Nov. 22, 1762 . 



Nov. 30, 1762 . 



Dec. 20, 1762 . 



Dec. 20, 1762 . 


Dec. 23, 1762 . 



Jan. 28, 1763 . 


Feb. 28, 1763 . 



March 4, 1763 



March 14, 1763 



March 16, 1763 



March 16, 1763 



March 25, 1763 



April 6, 1763 . 



[April 1763] . 



Friday night, late 


April 10, 1763 



April 14, 1763 

874f [April 1763] . . 


Sir Horace Mann . . . 804 
Rev. William Cole . . .805 
Rev. Thomas Warton . . 806 
Sir Horace Mann . . . 807 
Hon. Henry Seymour Conway 808 
Grosvenor Bedford ... 809 
Grosvenor Bedford . . . 810 
George Montagu .... 815 
Sir Horace Mann . . . 816 
Hon. Henry Seymour Conway 817 
Rev. William Cole . . *. 818 
Lady Hervey .... 819 
Sir Horace Mann . . .820 
Hon. HenrySeymourConway 821 
George Montagu .... 822 
Sir Horace Mann . . . 823 
Hon. Henry Seymour Conway 824 
Lady Hervey .... 825 
George Montagu .... 826 
Sir Horace Mann . . .827 
Rev. William Cole . . .828 
Henry Fox . . . . .830 
Earl of Oxford . ,. . . 831 
Sir Horace Mann . . . 833 
George Montagu .... 832 
Sir Horace Mann . . . 834 
Rev. William Cole ... 835 


Sir Horace Mann . . . 836 
Hon. HenrySeymourConway 837 
Sir Horace Mann . . . 838 
Earl of Bute. 
Earl of Bute. 
Viscount Nuneham. 
George Montagu . 
George Montagu . 

George Montagu. 
Sir Horace Mann 
George Montagu . 
Contessa Rena. 
f Now printed for the first time. 




List of Letters 


875 April 22, 1763 . . 

876 April 30, 1763 . . 

877 May 1,1763 . . . 

878 May 2, 1763 . . . 

879 May 6, 1763 . . . 

880 May 10, 1768 . . . 

881 May 16, 1763 . . . 

882 May 17, 1763 . . . 

883 May 21, 1763 . . . 

884 Saturday evening 

[May 28, 1763] 

885 May 30, 1763 . . . 

886 June 5, 1763 . 

887 June 16, 1763. . . 

888 June 30, 1763. . . 

889 July 1, 1763 . . . 

890 July 1, 1763 . . . 

891 July 1, 1763 . . . 

892 July 10, 1763 . . . 

893 July 12, 1768 . . . 

894 [July 1763] . . . 

895 July 23, 1763. . . 

896 July 25, 1763 . . . 

897 Aug. 8, 1763 . . . 

898 Aug. 8, 1763 . . . 

899 Aug. 9, 1763 . . . 

900 Aug. 10, 1763 . . . 

901 Aug. 11,1763. . . 

902 Aug. 15, 1763. . . 

903 Sept. 1, 1763 . . . 

904 Sept. 3, 1763 . . . 

905 Sept. 7, 1763 . . . 

906 Sept. 7, 1763 . . . 

907 Sept. 13, 1768. . . 

908 Oct. 3, 1763 . . . 

909 Oct. 8, 1763 . . . 

910 Oct. 17, 1763 . . . 

911 Oct. 18, 1763 . . . 

912 Nov. 12, 1763 . . . 

913 Nov. 17, 1763 . . . 

914 Nov. 17, 1763. . 

915 Nov. 20, 1763. . . 

916 Nov. 25, 1763 . . . 

George Montagu. . . . 844 
Sir Horace Mann . . . 845 
Hon. Henry Seymour Conway 846 
Sir David Dalrymple . .847 
Hon. Henry Seym our Con way 848 
Sir Horace Mann . . . 849 
Rev. William Cole ... 850 
George Montagu. . . .851 
Hon. Henry Seymour Conway 852 

Hon. Heniy Seymour Conway 853 

George Montagu .... 854 

Sir Horace Mann . . . 855 

George Montagu .... 856 

Sir Horace Maun . . . 857 

George Montagu .... 858 

Sir David Dalrymple . . 859 

Rev. William Cole . . . 860 
Bishop of Carlisle. 
Rev. William Cole . . .861 

Rev. William Cole . . . 862 

George Montagu .... 863 

George Montagu .... 864 

Rev. William Cole ... 865 

Dr. Ducarel 866 

Hon. Henry Seymour Conway 867 
Earl of Strafford. . . .868 

Sir Horace Mann . . . 869 

George Montagu. . . . 870 

Sir Horace Mann . . . 871 

George Montagu .... 872 

George Montagu. . . . 873 

Hon. George Grenville . . 874 

Sir Horace Mann . . . 875 

George Montagu .... 876 
Rev. William Cole . . .877 

Sir Horace Mann . . . 878 
Earl of Hertford. . . .879 

George Montagu .... 880 

Earl of Hertford. ... 881 

Sir Horace Mann . . . 882 

George Montagu. . . . 883 

Earl of Hertford. . . 884 

xii List of Letters 

T C 

917 Dec. 2, 1763 . . Earl of Hertford . ... 885 

918 Dec. 6, 1763 . . . Rev. William Cole . . .886 

919 Dec. 9, 1768 ., , =. Earl of Hertford . ... 887 

920 Dec. 10, 1763 . <.-.'" Miss Anne Pitt. 

921 Dec. 12, 1763 ... Sir Horace Mann . . . 888 

922 Dec. 16, 1763. . . Earl of Hertford . ... 889 

923 Dec. 29, 1763. . . Earl of Hertford . ... 890 

924 Dec. 29, 1763 . . . Rev. William Mason . . . 891 


925 Jan. 8, 1764 ... Sir Horace Mann . . .892 

926 Jan. 11, 1764. . . George Montagu . . . .893 

927 Jan. 18, 1764 . . . Sir Horace Mann . . .894 

928 Jan. 22, 1764 . . . Earl of Hertford . . . .895 

929 [Jan. 1764] . . . Countess Temple . . . 896 

930 Jan. 28, 1764 . . . Countess Temple . . .897 

931 Jan. 81, 1764 . . . Rev. William Cole . . . 898 

932 Jan. 81, 1764 . . . Sir David Dalrymple . . 900 

933 Feb. 6, 1764 . . . Earl of Hertford . ... 901 


P. 432, line 4 from below, for 'your brother General' read 'your 
brother [the] General.' 





Arlington Street, Thursday [1760]. 

As a codicil to my last letter, I send you the Bed- 
chamber: there are to be eighteen Lords and thirteen 
Grooms ; all the late King's remain, but your cousin 
Manchester 1 , Lord Falconberg, Lord Essex, and Lord 
Hyndford, replaced by the Duke of Eichmond, Lord Wey- 
mouth, Lord March, and Lord Eglinton 2 ; the last at the 
earnest request of the Duke of York. Instead of Clavering, 
Nassau, and General Campbell, who is promised something 
else, Lord Northampton's brother 8 and Commodore Keppel 
are Grooms. When it was oifered to the Duke of Kich- 
mond, he said he could not accept it, unless something 
was done for Colonel Keppel, for whom he has interested 
himself; that it would look like sacrificing Keppel to 
his own views: this was handsome. Keppel is to be 

Princess Amelia goes everywhere, as she calls it ; she 
was on Monday at Lady Holderness's, and next Monday 
is to be at Bedford House ; but there is only the late King's 

LETTER 721. 1 Robert Montagu 3 Hon. Spencer Compton (173S- 

(circ. 1710-1762), third Duke of Man- 1796), brother of seventh Earl of 

Chester. Northampton, whom he succeeded 

2 Alexander Montgomerie (d. 1770), in 1763. 
tenth Earl of Eglinton. 


2 To Sir Horace Mann [i760 

set, and the court of Bedford : so she makes the houses of 
other people as trist as St. James's was. Good night. 

Not a word more of the King of Prussia : did you ever 
know a victory mind the wind so ? 


Arlington Street, Nov. 14, 1760. 

I AM vexed, for I find that the first packet-boat that 
sailed after the death of the King was taken by the French, 
and the mail thrown overboard. Some of the parcels were 
cast on shore, but I don't know whether they were legible, 
or whether the letter I had written to you was among them, 
and is got to you. It must be very irksome to you not to 
hear from me on that occasion ; and it is particularly so to 
me, as I had given you all the satisfaction imaginable that 
you would be safe. This is of much more consequence 
than the particulars of the news. I repeat it now, but 
I cannot bear to think that you feel any anxiety so long. 
Everything remains so much in the same situation, that 
there is no probability of your being removed. I have 
since given you a hint of purchasing medals, antiquities, or 
pictures for the King. I would give much to be sure those 
letters had reached you. Then, there is a little somebody 
of a German prince, through whose acre the post-road lies, 
and who has quarrelled with the Dutch about a halfpenny- 
worth of postage ; if he has stopped my letters, I shall wish 
that some frow may have emptied her pail and drowned his 
dominions ! There is a murmur of Mr. Mackenzie * being 
Vice-Chamberlain, I trust you have been very well with 
him ; I am so connected with the Campbells 2 that I can 

LETTER 722. * James Stewart 2 Not only Lady Ailesbury was 
Mackenzie, brother of Lord Bute. a Campbell, but Lady Strafford, 
Walpole. sister of Lady Eliz. Mackenzie, was 

1760] To George Montagu 3 

increase it. Why should not you write to him to offer your 
services for any commissions in virtu that the King may be 
pleased to give ? 

Lord Huntingdon s remains Master of the Horse ; nothing 
else is decided yet. The changes in the Household, and 
those few, will constitute almost all the revolution. The 
King seems the most amiable young man in the world ; 
you may trust me, who am not apt to be the Humorous 
Lieutenant 4 and fall in love with Majesty. 

We are all in guns and bonfires for an unexpected victory 
of the King of Prussia over Daun ; but as no particulars 
are yet arrived, there are doubters. The courier comes 
so exactly in cadence with the intended meeting of the 
Parliament, having set out before the late King's death 
could be known, that some people are disposed to believe it 
is a dispatch to the City, which he meant to take by surprise 
sooner than he will Dresden. 

I make this a short letter, for I could only repeat the 
contents of my two last, which I have forgot, and which 
I will flatter myself you have received. Adieu ! 


Strawberry Hill, Monday, Nov. 24, 1760. 

UNLESS I were to send you journals, lists, catalogues, 
computations of the bodies, tides, swarms of people that go 
to court to present addresses, or to be presented, I can tell 
you nothing new. The day the King went to the House, 
I was three-quarters of an hour getting through Whitehall : 
there were subjects enough to set up half a dozen petty 
kings. The Pretender would be proud to reign over the 

a Campbell, and wife of the Earl of ingdon. Walpole. 

Strafford, one of Mr. Walpole's par- * A play of Beaumont and Fletcher, 

ticular friends. Walpole. Walpole. 
8 Francis Hastings, Earl of Hunt- 

B 2 

4 To George Montagu [1760 

footmen only and, indeed, unless he acquires some of 
them, he will have no subjects left : all their masters flock 
to St. James's. The palace is so thronged, that I will stay 
till some people are discontented. The first night the King 
went to the play, which was civilly on a Friday, not on the 
opera-night, as he used to do, the whole audience sung God 
save the King in chorus. For the first act, the press was 
so great at the door, that no ladies could get to the boxes ; 
and only the servants appeared there, who kept places. At 
the end of the second the whole mob broke in, and seated 
themselves. Yet all this zeal is not likely to last, though 
he so well deserves it. Seditious papers are again stuck 
up : one t'other day in Westminster Hall declared against 
a Saxe-Gothan Princess. The Archbishop, who is never 
out of the Drawing-room, has great hopes, from the King's 
goodness, that he shall make something of him that is, 
something bad of him. On the Address, Pitt and his zany 
Beckford quarrelled, on the latter's calling the campaign 
languid. What is become of our magnanimous ally and 
his victory, I know not. In eleven days no courier was 
arrived from him ; but I have been here these two days, 
perfectly indifferent about his magnanimity. I am come to 
put my Anecdotes of Painting into the press. You are 
one of the few that I expect will be entertained with it. It 
has warmed Gray's coldness so much, that he is violent 
about it in truth, there is an infinite quantity of new and 
curious things about it ; but as it is quite foreign from all 
popular topics, I don't suppose it will be much attended to. 
There is not a word of Methodism in it, it says nothing of 
the disturbances in Ireland, it does not propose to keep all 
Canada, it neither flatters the King of Prussia nor Prince 
Ferdinand, it does not say that the City of London are the 
wisest set of men in the world, it is silent about George 
Townshend, and does not abuse my Lord George Sackville 

I76o] To George Montagu 5 

how should it please ? I want you to help me in a little 
affair that regards it. I have found in a MS. that in the 
church of Beckley 1 , or Becksley, in Sussex, there are 
portraits on glass, in a window, of Henry the Third and 
his Queen. I have looked in the map, and find the first 
name between Bodiham and Eye, but I am not sure it is 
the place. I will be much obliged to you if you will write 
directly to your Sir Whistler 2 , and beg him to inform 
himself very exactly if there is any such thing in such a 
church near Bodiham. Pray state it minutely, because if 
there is, I will have them drawn for the frontispiece to 
my work s . 

Did I tell you that the Archbishop tried to hinder The 
Minor from being played at Drury Lane? For once 
the Duke of Devonshire was firm, and would only let him 
correct some passages, and even of those the Duke has 
restored some. One that the prelate effaced was, 'You 
snub-nosed son of a bitch.' Foote says he will take out 
a licence to preach, Sam. Cant against Tom Cant. 

The first volume of Voltaire's Peter the Great is 
arrived, I weep over it ! It is as languid as the campaign ; 
he is grown old. He boasts of the materials communicated 
to him by the Czarina's order but, alas I he need not be 
proud of them. They only serve to show how much worse 
he writes history with materials than without. Besides, it 
is evident how much that authority has cramped his genius. 
I had heard before, that when he sent the work to Peters- 
burgh for imperial approbation, it was returned with orders 
to increase the panegyric. I wish he had acted like a very 

LETTER 723. * Bexhill is the 2 Sir Whistler Webster, second 

place referred to. The window was Baronet, of Battle Abbey, Sussex ; 

in 1774 presented to Horace Walpole d. 1779. 

by Lord Ashburnham, and was 3 The portraits were engraved as 

placed in the chapel at Strawberry a frontispiece to the first volume 

HilL of the Anecdotes of Painting. 

6 To the Rev. Henry Zouch [i760 

inferior author : Knyphausen once hinted to me that I 
might have some authentic papers, if I was disposed to 
write the life of his master 4 but I did not care for what 
would lay me under such restrictions. It is not fair to use 
weapons against the persons that lend them and I do not 
admire his master enough to commend anything in him 
but his military actions. Adieu ! 

Yours ever, 

H. W. 


Arlington Street, Nov. 27, 1760. 

You are extremely kind, Sir, in remembering the little 
commission I troubled you with. As I am in great want of 
some more painted glass to finish a window in my round 
tower, I should be glad, though it may not be a Pope, to 
have the piece you mentioned, if it can be purchased 

My Lucan is finished, but will not be published till after 
Christmas, when I hope you will do me the favour of accepting 
one, and let me know how I shall convey it. The A necdotes 
of Painting have succeeded to the press : I have finished 
two volumes ; but as there will at least be a third, I am not 
determined whether I shall not wait to publish the whole 
together. You will be surprised, I think, to see what 
a quantity of materials the industry of one man (Vertue) 
could amass! and how much he retrieved at this late 
period. I hear of nothing new likely to appear ; all the 
world is taken up in penning Addresses, or in presenting 
them ; and* the approaching elections will occupy the 
thoughts of men so much that an author could not appear 
at a worse era. 

4 Frederick the Great. 

1760] To Sir Horace Mann 


Arlington Street, Dec. 5, 1760. 

WHEN I mentioned the brocadella two or three times 
to you, it was not from impatience for the patterns, but 
because I thought my first letter about them had mis- 

I have now received the samples, but they are so small 
that I cannot form any judgement of the pattern. I will 
beg you to follow your own method, and send me some 
pieces by the first person that will bring them, that is, 
a quarter of a yard or thereabouts of each ; but they must 
be of three colours. I am sure I remember such at Florence, 
particularly at Madame Kinuncini's or Madame Eicardi's, 
I think the former's ; it was in a bedchamber where she 
saw company when she was with child. Of two colours 
they make them here very well, but they cannot arrive 
at three. I do not approve damask at all, for as there 
will be no pictures in the chamber, nothing is more trist 
than a single colour. 

Don't think I took ill your giving away my books : I had 
really forgot them ; you shall certainly have another set, 
and one for Lady Mary Wortley 1 , who scolded me by 
Stosch. I shall send you a curious pamphlet, the only 
work I almost ever knew that changed the opinions of 
many. It is called Considerations on the present German 
War, and is written by a wholesale woollen-draper 2 ; but 
the materials are supposed to be furnished by the faction 
of the Yorkes. The confirmation of the King of Prussia's 
victory near Torgau does not prevent the disciples of the 

LETTER 725. l The famous Lady 2 Isaac Manduifc. Walpole. Israel 
Mary Wortley Montagu, who. was (not Isaac) Mauduit (1708-1787). 
then in Italy. Walpole. 

8 To Sir Horace Mann [1760 

pamphlet from thinking that the best thing which could 
happen for us would be to have that monarch's head shot 
off. There are letters from the Hague, that say Daun is 
dead 8 of his wounds. If he is, I shall begin to believe 
that the King of Prussia will end successfully at last. It 
has been the fashion to cry down Daun ; but, as much 
as the King of Prussia may admire himself, I dare say he 
would have been glad to have been matched with one much 
more like himself than one so opposite as the Marshal. 

I have heard nothing lately of Stosch, and am told he 
has been ill at Salisbury. This climate is apt to try foreign 
constitutions. Elisi, the first singer, cannot get rid of a 
fever, and has not appeared yet. The comic opera pleases 
extremely; the woman Paganini has more applause than 
I almost ever remember ; every song she sings is encored. 

I have little to tell you more of the new reign. The 
King is good and amiable in everything he does, and 
seems to have no view but of contenting all the world ; 
but that is not just the most attainable point. I will tell 
you a bon mot of a Mrs. Hardinge, a physician's wife and 
a bon mot very often paints truly the history or manners 
of the times. She says, it is a great question what the 
King is to burn in his chamber, whether Scotch-coal *, New- 
castle-coal, or Pitt-coaL The Bedchamber, I was going to 
say, is settled, but there are additions made to it every 
day ; there are already twenty Lords and seventeen Grooms. 
To the King's own set are added all the late King's, but 
Lord Hyndford, Lord Essex, the Duke of Manchester, and 
Lord Falconberg ; added, are the Duke of Eichmond, Lord 
Weymouth, Lord March, and Lord Eglinton; and, since 
that, two Tory Lords, Oxford 8 and Bruce 6 . General Camp- 

8 He was dangerously wounded, 6 Edward Harley (1726 - 1790). 

but lived until 1766. fourth Earl of Oxford. 

4 Alluding to Lord Bute, the Duke Afterwards Earl of Ailesbury. 
of Newcastle, and Mr. Pitt. Walpole. 

1760] To Sir Horace Mann 9 

bell, Mr. Nassau, and Mr. Clavering are omitted; Mr. 
Compton, and I forget who, are new Grooms, with three 
Tories, Norbonne Berkeley, George Pitt, whom you re- 
member, and Northey. Worsley, Madame Suares' old 
cicisbeo, is made Surveyor of the Board of Works ; he was 
this King's Equerry, and passes for having a taste for 
architecture, of which I told you the King was fond. Lord 
Rochford is amply indemnified by a pension on Ireland of 
two thousand a year. Of a Queen, the talk is dropped ; 
and no other change is likely to be made yet. We have 
already been in danger of losing this charming young King ; 
his horse threw him the day before yesterday, and bruised 
his head and shoulder ; with difficulty they made him be 
blooded. He immediately wrote to the Princess that she 
might not be frightened, and was well enough to go to 
the play at night. 

Thank you for your kindness to Mr. Strange ; if he still 
persists in his principles, he will be strangely unfashion- 
able at his return. I, who could make great allowances 
in the last reign, cannot forgive anybody being a Jacobite 

As you have a print of my eagle, I will be obliged to 
you if you will employ anybody at Eome to pick me up 
an altar as like to the pedestal of the eagle as they can. 
I don't insist upon an exact resemblance ; but should like 
it to be pretty much of the same height and size : it is for 
my Vespasian, which is to answer the eagle in a recess in 
my approaching gallery. Adieu ! 

P.S. As I was going to seal my letter, the post brought 
me one from Stosch, who is at the Bath, and says he shall 
be in town in a month. The secret expedition is beating 
about off Portsmouth. 

10 To George Montagu [i?6o 


Arlington Street, Dec. 11, 1760. 

I THANK you for the inquiries about the painted glass, 
and shall be glad if I prove to be in the right. 

There is not much of new to tell you ; and yet there 
is much dissatisfaction. The Duke of Newcastle has 
threatened to resign on the appointment of Lord Oxford 
and Lord Bruce without his knowledge. His court rave 
about Tories, which you know conies with a singular grace 
from them, as the Duke never preferred any Murray, 
Lord Gower, Sir John Cotton, Jack Pitt, &c., &c., &c., were 
all firm Whigs. But it is unpardonable to put an end to 
all faction, when it is not for factious purposes. Lord 
Fitzmaurice *, made aide-de-camp to the King, has disgusted 
the army. The Duke of Richmond, whose brother 2 has 
no more been put over others than the Duke of Newcastle 
has preferred Tories, has presented a warm memorial in 
a warmer manner, and has resigned the Bedchamber, not 
his regiment another propriety. 

Propriety is so much in fashion, that Miss Chudleigh 
has called for the council books of the subscription concert, 
and has struck out the name of Mrs. Naylor I have some 
thoughts of remonstrating that General Waldegrave is too 
lean to be a Groom of the Bedchamber. 

Mr. Chute has sold his house to Miss Speed 3 for 3,000?., 
and has taken one for a year in Berkeley Square. 

LETTER 726. l William Petty Secretary of State for the Southern 

(1737-1805), Viscount Fitzmaurice, Province, 1766-68 ; Foreign Secre- 

eldest son of first Earl of Shelburne, tary, 1782 ; First Lord of the Trea- 

whom he succeeded in 1761 ; cr. sury (Prime Minister), 1782-83. 

Marquis of Lansdowne, 1784. En- 2 Lord George Lennox, 

tered the army in 1758, and was 3 Henrietta Jane (d. 1783), daugh- 

present at the battle of Minden and ter of Colonel Samuel Speed ; m. 

at the affair of Kampen ; President (1761) Baron de la Peyrifere, after- 

of the Board of Trade, 1762-63 ; wards Comte de Viry. She resided 

1760] To the Earl of Bute 11 

This is a very brief letter; I fear this reign will soon 
furnish longer. When the last King could be beloved, 
a young man with a good heart has little chance of being 
so. Moreover, I have a maxim, that the extinction of party 
is the origin of faction. Good night ! 

Yours ever, 

H. W. 



Having heard that his Majesty was curious about his 
pictures, I recollected some catalogues of the royal collections 
which I had a little share in publishing some years ago. 
I dare not presume to offer them to his Majesty myself; 
but I take the liberty of sending them to your Lordship, 
that, if you should think they may contribute to his 
Majesty's information or amusement, they may come to his 
hand more properly from your Lordship than they could 
do from me. I have added some notes that illustrate a few 

Having dabbled a good deal in this kind of things, if 
there is any point in which I could be of use to your 
Lordship for his Majesty's satisfaction, I should be very 
ready and happy to employ my little knowledge or pains. 
And permit me to say, my Lord, your Lordship cannot 
command anybody who will execute your orders more cheer- 
fully or more disinterestedly, or that will trouble you less 
with any solicitations : an explanation which even esteem 
and sincerity are forced to make to one in your Lordship's 
situation. The mere love of the arts, and the joy of seeing 

for many years with her relative, was written after a call made upon 

Lady Cobham, whose country seat him by herself and a friend. 

was the Manor House, Stoke Poges. LETTER 727. Not in C. ; reprinted 

Here she made the acquaintance of from Lord Orford's Works, voL ii. 

Thomas Gray. She was one of the pp. 376-7. 

heroines of his Long Story, which 

12 To Sir Horace Mann [i?6l 

on the throne a prince of taste, are my only inducements 
for offering my slender services. I know myself too well 
to think I can ever be of any use but as a virtuoso and 
antiquarian ; a character I should formerly have called very 
insignificant; though now my pride, since his Majesty 
vouchsafes to patronize the arts, and your Lordship has 
the honour to countenance genius, a rank of which at most 
I can be but an admirer. 

I have the honour to be, &c., 


Arlington Street, Jan. 2, 1761. 

I NEVER was so rich in letters from you before ; I have 
received four packets at once this morning there had 
been thirteen mails due. It is supposed that the packet- 
boats were afraid of French privateers, who swarmed about 
the Dutch coast, believing that the late King's jewels were 
coming over. I have not yet received the letter by Prince 
San Severino's 1 courier ; but, as you mention the fans in 
a subsequent dispatch, I shall immediately provide them ; 
but, as the packets have been detained so long, I fear 
any courier to Mr. Mackenzie must be departed some time : 
I shall send them by sea, with the books I promised you. 

With regard to enlarged credentials, I cannot think this 
a likely time to obtain them. You yourself hold the com- 
pliment paid to the Emperor 2 extraordinary ; undoubtedly 

LETTER 728. l The Neapolitan and his twenty years of service being 

Minister. Walpole. remembered, he had fair claim to be 

8 ' The Grand Duke of Tuscany to elevated to a position above that of 

whom [Mann] had been originally an Envoy, and to be furnished with 

accredited, had enjoyed increase of additional means to illustrate the 

dignity by becoming Emperor of elevation.' (Mann and Manners, voL 

Germany, and Mann suggested that ii. pp. 70-1.) 
such circumstances being considered, 

1761] To Sir Horace Mann 13 

they would not make that civility greater. Should he send 
a minister in form, I should be glad if increasing your 
dignity would be thought a sufficient return ; but, in my 
own opinion, the Peace will be the best season for pushing 
your request. When that will arrive, God knows ! or who 
will be the person to whom application must be then made. 
Quiet as things are at present, no man living expects or 
believes they can continue so. Three separate ministers 
and their factions cannot hold together in a more phlegmatic 
country than this. The preferment of some Tories had 
already like to have overset the system ; and, though Lord 
Bute avoids preferring his countrymen more sedulously 
than it was supposed he would try to prefer them, the 
clamour is still unreasonably great, nor can all his caution 
or the King's benignity satisfy. 

With regard to foreign affairs, I beg you to be cautious. 
Stick to your orders, and give no opinion : make no declara- 
tion of the King's intentions, farther than you are authorized 
by Mr. Pitt's directions. He is too much a man of honour 
not to support you, if you act by his instructions ; but don't 
exceed them. The German war is not so popular as you 
imagine, either in the closet or in the nation. Mystery, 
the wisdom of blockheads, may be allowable in a foreign 
minister ; use it till you see farther. If I have any sagacity, 
such times are coming as will make people glad to have 
nothing to unsay. Judge of my affection for you, when 
a nature so open as mine prescribes reserve; but I wish 
your fortune to be firm, whatever happens. At present, there 
is no kind of news everybody is in the country for the 
holidays. The laying aside of the expedition gave universal 
pleasure ; as France had had so much time to be upon its 
guard, and the season is so far advanced, and so tempestuous. 

We have lost poor Lord Downe 8 , one of the most amiable 

3 H. Pleydell-Dawnay, Viscount Downe. Walpcle, 

14 To Sir Horace Mann [1761 

men in the world. Frank, generous, spirited, and odd, 
with a large independent fortune, he had conceived a rage 
for the army. He received twelve wounds in the affair 
of Campen ; and though one of them was in his knee, he 
was forced to walk five miles. This last wound was neg- 
lected, and closed too soon, with a splinter in it, not being 
thought of consequence ; and proved mortal. He bid the 
surgeons put him to as much pain as they pleased, so they 
did but make him fit for the next campaign. He languished 
ten weeks; and not a mouth is opened but in praise or 
regret of him. 

I question a little whether you will see the Duchess 
of Hamilton ; these mails have brought so good an account 
of her that, unless she grows worse, they will scarce pass 
Lyons, where they are established for the winter. I never 
heard of that Lord Archibald Hamilton 4 ; he would pass 
his time ill with General Campbell, who is not at all of 
a humour to suffer any impertinence to his wife. 

Thank you much for the seeds ; in return, behold a new 
commission, but, I trust, not a troublesome one. A friend 
of mine, one Mr. Hawkins 5 , is writing the History of Music: 
the sooner you could send us the following books the better ; 
if by any English traveller, we should be glad. 

1. Tutte le Opere di Giuseppe Zarlino. Venezia, 1589; 
2 vols. folio. 

2. History of Music, in Italian, by Gio. Andr. Angelini 
Bontempi. 1695, folio. 

3. Dialogo della Musica antica e moderna, di Vincenzo Galiki. 
Folio, 1602, or 1541, in Firenze. 

4. Musica vaga ed artifiziosa di Romano Michieli. Folio, 
1615, Venezia. 

4 Sir H. Mann did not know that 1799, and died in 1819. 

he was half-brother of the late Duke 6 Afterwards Sir John Hawkins, 

of Hamilton. Wdlpole. He sue- His history was published in five 

ceeded his nephew as ninth Duke in volumes quarto. WalpcHe. 

I76i] To the Rev. Henry Zouch 15 

5. Osservazioni di ten regolare il Coro della CappeUa Ponti- 
ficizia, fatte da Andrea Adami. Quarto, 1714 ; in Roma. 

Any other books of character on the subject will be very 
acceptable ; but, when I review the list and see so many 
thundering folios, I don't expect that any gentleman will 
bring them in his breeches-pocket, or even in his cloak- 

Pray, is there any print of the Cardinal of York 6 ? If 
there is, do send me one. 
Adieu, my good child ! 


SlKj Arlington Street, Jan. 3, 1761. 

I stayed till I had the Lucan ready to send you, before 
1 thanked you for your letter, and for the pane of glass, 
about which you have given yourself so much kind trouble, 
and which I have received ; I think it is clearly Heraclitus 
weeping over a globe. 

Illuminated MSS., unless they have portraits of particular 
persons, I do not deal in ; the extent of my collecting is 
already full as great as I can afford. I am not the less 
obliged to you, Sir, for thinking of me. Were my fortune 
larger, I should go deeper into printing, and having engraved 
curious MSS. and drawings ; as I cannot, I comfort myself 
with reflecting on the mortifications I avoid, by the little 
regard shown by the world to those sort of things. The 
sums laid out on books one should, at first sight, think 
an indication of encouragement to letters ; but booksellers 
only are encouraged, not books. Bodies of sciences, that 
is, compilations and mangled abstracts, are the only salable 
commodities. Would you believe, what I know is fact, 

6 Younger brother of Prince called, by the remaining adherents 
Charles Edward, and after his death to his family, Henry IX. Walpole. 

16 To George Montagu [i7Gi 

that Dr. Hill earned fifteen guineas a week by working 
for wholesale dealers? he was at once employed on six 
voluminous works of botany, husbandry, &c., published 
weekly. I am sorry to say, this journeyman is one of the 
first men preferred in the new reign : he is made gardener 
of Kensington, a place worth two thousand pounds a year. 
The King and Lord Bute have certainly both of them great 
propensity to the arts ; but Dr. Hill, though undoubtedly 
not deficient in parts, has as little claim to favour in this 
reign, as Gideon, the stock-jobber, in the last ; both en- 
grossers without merit. Building, I am told, is the King's 
favourite study ; I hope our architects will not be taken 
from the erectors of turnpikes. 


Arlington Street, Jan. 7, 1760. 

You must not wonder I have not writ to you a long time ; 
a person of my consequence ! I am now almost ready to 
say We instead of /. In short, I live amidst royalty con- 
sidering the plenty, that is no great wonder. All the world 
lives with them, and they with all the world. Princes and 
Princesses open shops in every corner of the town, and the 
whole town deals with them. As I have gone to one, 
I chose to frequent all, that I might not be particular, and 
seem to have views ; and yet it went so much against me, 
that I came to town on purpose a month ago for the Duke's 
levee, and had engaged Brand to go with me and then 
could not bring myself to it. At last, I went to him and 
Princess Emily yesterday. It was well I had not flattered 
myself with being still in my bloom ; I am grown so old 
since they saw me, that neither of them knew me. When 

LETTER 730. Misdated by Horace written in 1761. (See Notes and 
Walpole Jan. 7, 1780 ; evidently Queries, Ang. 4, 1900.) 

I76i] To George Montagu 17 

they were told, he just spoke to me (I forgive him, he is 
not out of my debt, even with that), she was exceedingly 
gracious, and commended Strawberry to the skies. To-night 
I was asked to their party at Norfolk House. These parties 
are wonderfully select and dignified : one might sooner be 
a Knight of Malta than qualified for them ; I don't know 
how the Duchess of Devonshire, Mr. Fox, and I, were for- 
given some of our ancestors. There were two tables at loo, 
two at whisk, and a quadrille. I was commanded to the 
Duke's loo ; he was set down ; not to make him wait, 
I threw my hat upon the marble table, and broke four 
pieces off a great crystal chandelier. I stick to my etiquette, 
and treat them with great respect, not as I do my friend, 
the Duke of York but don't let us talk any more of 
princes. My Lucan appears to-morrow ; I must say it is 
a noble volume. Shall I send it you, or won't you come 
and fetch it? 

There is nothing new of public, but the violent com- 
motions in Ireland 1 , whither the Duke of Bedford still 
persists in going, ^lolus to quell a storm. 

I am in great concern for my old friend, poor Lady Harry 
Beauclerc ; her lord dropped down dead two nights ago, as 
he was sitting with her and all their children. Admiral 
Boscawen is dead by this time Mrs. Osborn a and I are not 
much afflicted. Lady Jane Coke 8 too is dead, exceedingly 
rich ; I have not heard her will yet. 

If you don't come to town soon, I give you warning, I will 

1 In consequence of a dispute with Osborne, Baronet, of Chicksands, 

the Irish Privy Council, Bedford and Bedfordshire. She was the sister of 

his secretary, Bigby, had been burnt Admiral Byng. 

in effigy in Dublin. Bedford did not 8 Lady Jane Wharton, elder 

return to Ireland, and shortly after- daughter of first Marquis of Wharton; 

wards resigned the viceroyalty. m. 1. John Holt ; 2. Robert Coke, of 

a Sarah (d. 1775), only surviving Longford, Derbyshire. Her fortune 

daughter of first Viscount Torring- was left to Miss Draycott, afterwarda 

ton ; m. John, eldest son of Sir John Countess of Pomfret. 


18 To George Montagu 

be a Lord of the Bedchamber, or a Gentleman Usher. If you 
will, I will be nothing but what I have been so many years, 
my own and yours ever, 



Arlington Street, Jan. 22, 1761. 

I AM glad you are coming, and now the time is over, that 
you are coming so late, as I like to have you here in the 
spring. You will find no great novelty in the new reign. 
Lord Denbigh is made Master of the Harriers, with two 
thousand a year ; Lord Temple asked it, and Newcastle and 
Hardwicke gave in to it for fear of Denbigh's brutality in 
the House of Lords does this differ from the etyle of 
George the Second? 

The King designs to have a new motto ; he will not have 
a French one, so the Pretender may enjoy Dieu et mon droit 
in quiet. 

Princess Emily is already sick of being familiar ; she has 
been at Northumberland House, but goes to nobody more. 
That party was larger, but still more formal than the rest, 
though the Duke of York had invited himself and his 
commerce-table. I played with Madam Emily, and we 
were mighty well together so well, that two nights after- 
wards she commended me to Mr. Conway and Mr. Fox, but 
calling me that Mr. Walpole, they did not guess who she 
meant. For my part, I thought it very well, that when 
I played with her, she did not call me that gentleman. 
I was surprised at her being so vulgar ; as she went away, 
she thanked my Lady Northumberland, like a parson's wife, 
for all her civilities. 

I was excessively amused on Tuesday night ; there was 
a play at Holland House acted by children ; not all children, 

1761] To George Montagu 19 

for Lady Sarah Lenox 1 and Lady Susan Strangways 2 played 
the women. It was Jane Shore ; one Price s , Lord Barring- 
ton's nephew, was Gloster, and acted better than three parts 
of the comedians. Charles Fox 4 , Hastings ; a little Nichols, 
who spoke well, Belmour ; Lord Ofaly 6 , Lord Ashbroke 6 , 
and other boys, did the rest but the two girls were 
delightful ; and acted with so much nature and simplicity, 
that they appeared the very things they represented. Lady 
Sarah was more beautiful than you can conceive, and her 
very awkwardness gave an air of truth to the shame of the 
part, and the antiquity of the time, which was kept up by 
her dress, taken out of Montfaucon. Lady Susan was 
dressed from Jane Seymour, and all the parts were clothed 
in ancient habits, and with the most minute propriety. 
I was infinitely more struck with the last scene between 
the two women than ever I was when I have seen it on 
the stage. When Lady Sarah was in white, with her hair 
about her ears, and on the ground, no Magdalen by Corregio 
was half so lovely and expressive. You would have been 
charmed too with seeing Mr. Fox's little boy 7 of six years 

Lirms731. * Lady Sarah Lennox shire, by Sarah, daughter of first 
(1745-1826), seventh daughter and Viscount Harrington; created a 
eleventh child of second Duke of Baronet in 1828. He was a school- 
Richmond ; m. 1. (1762) Thomas fellow and friend of Charles Fox. 
Charles Bunbury, afterwards sixth 4 Charles James Fox (1749-1806), 
Baronet, from whom she was di- third son of Henry Fox, afterwards 
vorced in 1776 ; 2. (1782) Hon. George Lord Holland ; Lord of the Ad- 
Napier. She was the object of miralty, 1770-72; Lord of the Trea- 
George IITs early affection, and sury, 1772-74 ; Foreign Secretary (in 
there seems no doubt that he would Bockingham ministry), March-July, 
have married her but for the in- 1782 ; (in Coalition ministry) April- 
fluence of his mother and Lord Bute. Dec., 1783 ; Feb.-Sept., 1806. 
By her second husband she was the 5 George Fitzgerald (1748-1765), 
mother of Sir Charles Napier and Lord Offaly, eldest son of twentieth 
Sir William Napier. Earl of Kildare ; styled Earl of 

2 Lady Susan Fox-Strangeways, Offaly after the promotion of his 
eldest daughter of first Earl of father (whom he predeceased) to the 
Ilchester. In 1764 she made a ran- Marquisate of Kildare. He was the 
away match with William O'Brien, first consin of Charles Fox. 

an actor. 6 William Flower (1744 - 1780), 

3 Uvedale Price (1747-1829), son second Viscount Ashbrook. 

of Robert Price, of Foxley, Hereford- 7 Henry Edward Fox (1755-1811), 

C 2 

20 To Sir Horace Mann [i76i 

old, who is beautiful, and acted the Bishop of Ely, dressed 
in lawn sleeves and with a square cap ; they had inserted 
two lines for him, which he can hardly speak plainly. 
Francis 8 had given them a pretty prologue. Adieu ! 

You give me no account from Sir Whistler of the painted 
glass ; do press him for an answer. Adieu ! 

Yours ever, 



Arlington Street, Jan. 27, 1761. 

I SHOULD like Marshal Botta's 1 furniture, which you 
describe, if my tenure in Strawberry were as transitory 
as a Florentine commander's ; but, in a castle built for 
eternity, and founded in the most flourishing age of the 
greatest republic now in the world, which has extended 
its empire into every quarter of the globe, can I think of 
a peach-coloured ground, which will fade like the bloom 
on Chloe's cheek? There's a pompous paragraph! A 
Grecian or a Eoman would have written it seriously, and 
with even more slender pretensions. However, though 
my castle is built of paper, and though our empire should 
vanish as rapidly as it has advanced, I still object to peach- 
colour not only from its fading hue, but for wanting the 
solemnity becoming a Gothic edifice: I must not have 
a round tower dressed in a pet-en-l'air. I would as soon 
put rouge and patches on a statue of St. Ethelburgh. You 
must not wonder at my remembering Kinuncini's hangings 
at the distance of nineteen or twenty years : my memory is 
exceedingly retentive of trifles. There is no hurry : I can 

fourth son of Henry Pox, afterwards Charles Fox's tutor at Eton. 

Lord Holland ; entered the army in LITTER 732. l Commander of the 

1770, and became full general in troops in Tuscany for the Emperor 

1808. Francia Walpole. 
8 Eev. Philip Francis, who was 

I76i] To Sir Horace Mann 21 

wait till you send me patterns, and an account of that triple- 
coloured contexture, for which, in gratitude to my memory, 
I still have a hankering. Three years ago I had the ceiling 
of my china-room painted, from one I had observed in the 
little Borghese villa. I was hoarding ideas for a future 
Strawberry even in those days of giddiness, when I seemed 
to attend to nothing. The altar of the eagle is three feet 
two inches and a half high, by one foot eight inches wide. 
If that for the Vespasian should be a trifle larger, especially 
a little higher, it would carry so large a bust better ; but 
I imagine the race of altar-tombs are pretty much of the 
same dimensions. 

So much for myself surely it is time to come to you. 
Mr. Mackenzie, by the King's own order and thought, 
was immediately named plenipotentiary. I fear you have 
not exactly the same pretensions; however, as I think 
services will be pretensions in this reign, the precedent 
I hope will not hurt you. The Peace seems the proper 
period for asking it. 

I have delivered to your brother the famous pamphlet * ; 
two sets of the Royal and Noble Authors for yourself and 
Lady Mary Wortley; a Lucan, printed at Strawberry, 
which, I trust, you will think a handsome edition; and 
six of the newest-fashioned and prettiest fans I could find 
they are really genteel, though one or two have caprices 
that will turn a Florentine head. They were so dear, that 
I shall never tell you the price ; I was glad to begin to pay 
some of the debts I owe you in commissions. All these 
will depart by the first opportunity ; but the set for Lady 
Mary will, I suppose, arrive too late, as her husband is 
dead, and she now will probably return to England. I pity 
Lady Bute 8 ; her mother will sell to whoever does not know 

8 See letter to Mann, Dec. 5, 1760. daughter of Lady Mary Wortley. 
3 Mary, Countess of Bute, only Walpole. 

22 To Sir Horace Mann [1761 

her, all kinds of promises and reversions, bestow lies gratis 
and wholesale, and make so much mischief, that they will 
be forced to discard her in three months, and that will go 
to my Lady Bute's heart, who is one of the best and most 
sensible women in the world ; and who, educated by such 
a mother, or rather with no education, has never made a 
false step. Old Avidien 4 , the father, is dead, worth half 
a million. To his son 6 , on whom six hundred a year was 
settled, the reversion of which he has sold, he gives 1,0001. 
a year for life, but not to descend to any children he may 
have by any of his many wives. To Lady Mary, in lieu 
of dower, but which to be sure she will not accept, instead 
of the thirds of such a fortune, 1,2001. a year ; and after her 
to their son for life ; and then the 1,200Z. and the 1,0001. to 
Lady Bute and to her second son 6 ; with 2,OOOZ. to each of 
her younger children ; all the rest, in present, to Lady Bute, 
then to her second son, taking the name of Wortley, and in 
succession to all the rest of her children, which are numerous ; 
and after them to Lord Sandwich, to whom, in present, he 
leaves about 4,0001. The son, you perceive, is not so well 
treated by his own father as his companion Taaffe 7 is by the 
French court, where he lives, and is received on the best 
footing ; so near is Fort 1'^lveque to Versailles. Admiral 
Forbes told me yesterday, that in one of Lady Mary's jaunts 
to or from Genoa, she begged a passage of Commodore 
Barnard. A storm threatening, he prepared her for it, but 
assured her there was no danger. She said she was not 

* Edward Wortley Montagu, bus- 6 Hon. James Stuart (d. 1818), 

band of Lady Mary. Both were re- afterwards Stuart Wortley - Mac- 

markably avaricious, and are satir- kenzic. 

ized by Pope in one of his Imitations 7 Theobald Taaffe, an Irish adven- 

of Horace, under the names of turer, was, with his associate, 

Avidien and his Wife, Walpole. Wortley Montagu, imprisoned in 

6 Edward Wortley Montagu, jun., Fort I'Evdqtie at Paris, for cheating 

their only son, whose adventures and robbing a person with whom 

deserve better to be known than his they had gamed. Walpole, 
own writings. Walpole, 

I76i] To George Montagu 23 

afraid, and, going into a part of the gallery not much 
adapted to heroism, she wrote these lines on the side: 

Mistaken seaman, mark my dauntless mind, 
Who, wrecked on shore, am fearless of the wind. 

On landing, this magnanimous dame desired the com- 
mander to accept a ring : he wore it as a fine emerald, but 
being over-persuaded to have it unset before his face, it 
proved a bit of glass. 

I know nothing of Stosch, and have all your letters for 
him still. A fortnight Knyphausen 8 told me he was every 
day expected in town. 

News we have of no sort Ireland seems to be preparing 
the first we shall receive. The good Primate 9 has conjured 
up a storm, in which, I believe, he will not employ the 
archiepiscopal gift of exorcism. Adieu ! 


Arlington Street, Feb. 7, 1761. 

I HAVE not written to you lately, expecting your arrival. 
As you are not come yet, you need not come these ten days, 
if you please, for I go next week into Norfolk, that my 
subjects of Lynn may at least once in their lives see me. 
Tis a horrible thing to dine with a mayor ! I shall profane 
King John's cup 1 , and taste nothing but water out of it as if 
it was St. John Baptist's. 

Prepare yourself for crowds, multitudes. In this reign 
all the world lives in one room. The capital is as vulgar as 
a county town in the season of horse-races. There were no 
fewer than four of these throngs on Tuesday last, at the 
Duke of Cumberland's, Princess Emily's, the Opera, and 

8 The Prussian Resident. Walpole, LETTER 733. 1 A cup possessed by 

9 Dr. Stone, Archbishop of Armagh, the Lynn Corporation. 

24: To George Montagu [i?6i 

Lady Northumberland's for even operas, Tuesday's operas, 
are crowded now. There is nothing else new. Last week 
was a magnificent ball at Norfolk House : the two royal 
Dukes and Princess Emily were there. He of York danced ; 
the other and his sister had each their table at loo. I played 
at hers, and am grown a favourite nay, have been at her 
private party, and was asked again last Wednesday, but took 
the liberty to excuse myself and yet am again summoned 
for Thursday. It is trist enough : nobody sits till the game 
begins, and then she and the company are all on stools. At 
Norfolk House were two armchairs placed for her and the 
Duke of Cumberland, the Duke of York being supposed a 
dancer, but they would not use them. Lord Huntingdon 
arrived in a frock, pretending he was just come out of the 
country; unluckily, he had been at court, full-dressed, in 
the morning. No foreigners were there but the son and 
daughter-in-law of Monsieur de Fuentes : the Duchess told 
the Duchess of Bedford that she had not invited the 
ambassadress, because her rank is disputed here you 
remember the Bedford took place of Madame de Mirepoix 
but Madame de Mora danced first, the Duchess of Norfolk 
saying she supposed that was of no consequence. 

Have you heard what immense riches old Wortley has 
left ? One million three hundred and fifty thousand pounds. 
It is all to centre in my Lady Bute ; her husband is one 
of fortune's prodigies. They talk of a print, in which her 
mistress is reprimanding Miss Chudleigh the latter curtseys, 
and replies, ' Madame, chacun a son But.' 

Have you seen a scandalous letter in print, from Miss 
Ford 2 to Lord Jersey ? with the history of a boar's head 

9 Anne (1737-1824), only child of her beauty and talents for music. 

Thomas Ford, Clerk of the Arraigns ; For her letter to Lord Jersey and his 

m. (1762), as his third wife, Philip reply see Gent. Mag. 1761, pp. 33-31 

Tbicknesse, Gainsborough's friend and 79-80. 
and patron. She was celebrated for 

1761] To Lady Mary Coke 25 

George Selwyn calls him Meleager. Adieu ! this is positively 
my last. Yours ever, 



Newmarket, Feb. 12, 1761. 

You would be puzzled to guess, Madam, the reflections 
into which solitude and an inn have thrown me. Perhaps 
you will imagine that I am regretting not being at loo at 
Princess Emily's, or that I am detesting the corporation of 
Lynn for dragging me from the amusements of London ; 
perhaps that I am meditating what I shall say to a set of 
people I never saw ; or which would be more like me 
determining to be out of humour the whole time I am there, 
and show how little I care whether they elect me again or 
not. If your absolute sovereignty over me did not exclude 
all jealousy, you might possibly suspect that the Duchess of 
Grafton has at least as much share in my chagrin as Pam 
himself. Gome nearer to the point, Madam, and conclude 
I am thinking of Lady Mary Coke, but in a style much 
more becoming so sentimental a lover than if I was merely 
concerned for your absence. In short, Madam, I am 
pitying you, actually pitying you ! how debasing a thought 
for your dignity ! but hear me. I am lamenting your fate ; 
that you, with all your charms and all your merit, are not 
yet immortal! Is not it provoking that, with so many 
admirers, and so many pretensions, you are likely to be 
adored only so long as you live? Charming, in an age 
when Britain is victorious in every quarter of the globe, you 
are not yet enrolled in the annals of its fame ! Shall Wolfe 
and Boscawen and Amherst be the talk of future ages, and 

LETTER 734. Not in G. ; reprinted from Letters and Journals of Lady 
Mary Coke, vol. iii. pp. xi-xii. 

26 To Lady Mary Coke [i?6i 

the name of Mary Coke not be known ? 'Tis the height of 
disgrace ! When was there a nation that excelled the rest 
of the world whose beauties were not as celebrated as its 
heroes and its orators? Thais, Aspasia, Livia, Octavia 
I beg pardon for mentioning any but the last when I am 
alluding to you are as familiar to us as Alexander, Pericles, 
or Augustus ; and, except the Spartan ladies, who were 
always locked up in the two pair of stairs making child-bed 
linen and round-eared caps, there never were any women of 
fashion in a gloriously civilized country, but who had cards 
sent to invite them to the table of fame in common with 
those drudges, the men, who had done the dirty work of 
honour. I say nothing of Spain, where they had so true 
a notion of gallantry, that they never ventured having their 
brains knocked out, but with a view to the glory of their 
mistress. If her name was but renowned from Segovia 
to Saragossa they thought all the world knew it and were 
content. Nay, Madam, if you had but been lucky enough 
to be born in France a thousand years ago, that is fifty or 
sixty, you would have gone down to eternity hand in hand 
with Louis Quatorze ; and the sun would never have shined 
on him, as it did purely for seventy years, but a ray of it 
would have fallen to your share. You would have helped 
him to pass the Ehine and been coupled with him at least 
in a lout rime. 

And what are we thinking of ? Shall we suffer posterity 
to imagine that we have shed all this blood to engross the 
pitiful continent of America? Did General Clive drop 
from heaven only to get half as much as Wortley Montagu ? 
Yet this they must suppose, unless we immediately set 
about to inform them in authentic verse that your eyes and 
half a dozen other pair lighted up all this blaze of glory. 
I will take my death your Ladyship was one of the first 
admirers of Mr. Pitt, and all the world knows that his 

I76i] To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway 27 

eloquence gave this spirit to our arms. But, unluckily, 
my deposition can only be given in prose. I am neither 
a hero nor a poet, and, though I am as much in love as if 
I had cut a thousand throats or made ten thousand verses, 
posterity will never know anything of my passion. Poets 
alone are permitted to tell the real truth. Though an 
historian should, with as many asseverations as Bishop 
Burnet, inform mankind that the lustre of the British arms 
under George II was singly and entirely owing to the 
charms of Lady Mary Coke, it would not be believed 
the slightest hint of it in a stanza of Gray would carry 
conviction to the end of time. 

Thus, Madam, I have laid your case before you. You 
may, as you have done, inspire Mr. Pitt with nobler orations 
than were uttered in the House of Commons of Greece or 
Rome ; you may set all the world together by the ears ; you 
may send for all the cannon from Cherbourg, all the scalps 
from Quebec, and for every nabob's head in the Indies ; 
posterity will not be a jot the wiser, unless you give the 
word of command from Berkeley Square in an ode, or you 
and I meet in the groves of Sudbrook * in the midst of an 
epic poem. 'Tis a vexatious thought, but your Ladyship 
and this age of triumphs will be forgotten unless somebody 
writes verses worthy of you both. 

I am your Ladyship's 

Most devoted slave, 



Monday, five o'clock, Feb. 1761. 

I AM a little peevish with you I told you on Thursday 
night that I had a mind to go to Strawberry on Friday 

1 Near Kingston-on-Thames ; the seat of the Dowager-Duchess of Argyll, 
Lady Mary Coke's mother. 

28 To Sir Horace Mann [i?6i 

without staying for the Qualification Bill. You said it did 
not signify No ! What if you intended to speak on it ? 
Am I indifferent to hearing you ? More am I indifferent 
about acting with you ? Would not I follow you in any- 
thing in the world? This is saying no profligate thing. 
Is there anything I might not follow you in ? You even 
did not tell me yesterday that you had spoken. Yet I will 
tell you all I have heard ; though if there was a point in 
the world in which I could not wish you to succeed where 
you wish yourself, perhaps it would be in having you 
employed. I cannot be cool about your danger ; yet 
I cannot know anything that concerns you, and keep it 
from you. Charles Townshend called here just after I came 
to town to-day. Among other discourse he told me of your 
speaking on Friday, and that your speech was reckoned 
hostile to the Duke of Newcastle. Then, talking of regi- 
ments going abroad, he said, . . . 1 

With regard to your reserve to me, I can easily believe 
that your natural modesty made you unwilling to talk of 
yourself to me. I don't suspect you of any reserve to me : 
I only mention it now for an occasion of telling you, that 
I don't like to have anybody think that I would not do 
whatever you do. I am of no consequence : but at least 
it would give me some, to act invariably with you ; and 
that I shall most certainly be ever ready to do. Adieu ! 

Yours ever, 



Arlington Street, March 3, 1761. 

WELL, are not you peevish that the new reign leaves our 
correspondence more languid than the old ? In all February 

LETTER 735. * So in 4to (1798) ed. of Lord Orford's Works, in which this 
letter was first printed. 

I76i] To Sir Horace Mann 29 

not an event worth packing up and sending to you ! Neither 
changes, nor honours, nor squabbles yet. Lord Bute obliges 
everybody he can, and people seem extremely willing to be 
obliged. Mr. Pitt is laid up with a dreadful gout in all his 
limbs ; he did not sleep for fourteen nights, till one of his 
eyes grew as bad as his hands or feet. He begins to mend. 

Whatever mysteries or clouds there are, will probably 
develop themselves as soon as the elections are over, and 
the Parliament fixed, which now engrosses all conversation 
and all purses ; for the expense is incredible. West Indians, 
conquerors, nabobs, and admirals, attack every borough ; 
there are no fewer than nine candidates at Andover. The 
change in a Parliament used to be computed at between 
sixty and seventy; now it is believed there will be an 
hundred and fifty new members. Corruption now stands 
upon its own legs no money is issued from the Treasury ; 
there are no parties, no pretence of grievances, and yet 
venality is grosser than ever! The borough of Sudbury 
has gone so far as to advertise for a chapman ! We have 
been as victorious as the Romans, and are as corrupt : 
I don't know how soon the Praetorian militia will set the 
empire to sale. Sir Nathaniel Curzon 1 has struck a very 
novel stroke ; advertising that the Bang intended to make 
him a peer ; and, therefore, recommending his brother * to 
the county of Derby for the same independent principles 
with himself. He takes a peerage to prove his indepen- 
dence, and recommends his brother to the opposition to 
prove his gratitude! 

Ireland is settled for the present ; the Duke of Bedford 
relinquishes it, with some emoluments, to his court. Lord 
Kilciare's neutrality is rewarded with a marquisate he has 

LETTER 736. l Created Baron Baronet, of Kedleston, Derbyshire ; 

Scarsdale. Walpole. or. Baron Curzon, 1794, and Viscount 

8 Assheton (1730-1820), second son Curzon, 1802. He was not elected 

of Sir Nathaniel Curzon, fourth for Derby county. 

30 To Sir Horace Mann [1701 

been prevailed upon to retain the oldest title in Europe, 
instead of Leinster, which he had a mind to take 3 . Lord 
Temple has refused that island, very unwillingly, I believe, 
or veiy fearfully ; but Mr. Pitt was positive, having nobody 
else in the House of Lords and what is such an only one ! 
Some who are tolerably shrewd, think this indicates more, 
and that Mr. Pitt would not let Lord Temple engage in 
Ireland, when he himself may be thinking of quitting in 
England. Lord Halifax, I believe, will be Lord-Lieutenant. 

Mr. Conway is going to Germany 4 , to his great content- 
ment, as his character is vindicated at last. It may show 
he deserved to lose no glory, but the ensuing campaign does 
not open much prospect of his gaining any. 

The new peerages will soon be declared. Legge 5 is not 
of the number ; and yet has had an intimation to resign, 
being extremely out of favour in the new court, where he 
had been so well, and which he had officiously contrived to 
disoblige very late in the day. Lord Barrington will be 
Chancellor of the Exchequer; Charles Townshend Secretary 
at War ; and Lord Talbot, who is to be an earl, and is much a 
favourite, will succeed Lord Halifax in the Board of Trade fi . 

Voltaire has been charmingly absurd. He who laughed 
at Congreve for despising the rank of author and affecting 
the gentleman, set out post for a hovel 7 he has in France, 
to write from thence, and style himself Gentleman of the 
Bedchamber to Lord Lyttelton, who, in his Dialogues of tlie 
Dead, had called him an exile. He writes in English, and 
not a sentence is tolerable English. The answer is very 
civil and sensible. 

3 And which he afterwards took, Halifax at the Board of Trade, 
with a dukedom. Walpole. 7 Voltaire wrote from ' my castle 

4 To command under Lord Granby. of Ferney in Burgundy.' For his 

5 Henry Bilson Legge, Chancellor letter, and Lyttelton's reply, see 
of the Exchequer. Walpole. Phillimore's Memoirs of Lyttelton, 

8 Lord Sandys succeeded Lord vol. ii. pp. 666-8. 

1761] To the Eev. Henry Zouch 31 

There has been a droll print: her mistress 8 reproving 
Miss Chudleigh for her train of life. She replies, ' Madame, 
chacun a son But.' 

Pray, is there a print of the Cardinal of York, or any 
medal of him ? If there is, do be so good to send them to 
me. Adieu ! 


Arlington Street, March 7, 1761. 

JUST what I supposed, Sir, has happened ; with your 
good breeding, I did not doubt but you would give yourself 
the trouble of telling me that you had received the Lucan, 
and as you did not, I concluded Dodsley had neglected it : 
he has in two instances. The moment they were published, 
I delivered a couple to him, for you, and one for a gentle- 
man in Scotland. I received no account of either, and 
after examining Dodsley a fortnight ago, I learned three 
days since from him, that your copy, Sir, was delivered to 
Mrs. Ware, bookseller, in Fleet Street, who corresponds 
with Mr. Stringer, to be sent in the first parcel ; but, says 
he, as they send only once a month, it probably was not 
sent away till very lately. 

I am vexed, Sir, that you have waited so long for this 
trifle : if you neither receive it, nor get information of it, 
I will immediately convey another to you. It would be 
very ungrateful in me to neglect what would give you a 
moment's amusement, after your thinking so obligingly of 
the painted glass for me. I shall certainly be in Yorkshire 
this summer, and as I flatter myself that I shall be more 
lucky in meeting you, I will then take what you shall be so 
good as to bestow on me, without giving you the trouble of 
sending it. 

8 The Princess-Dowager. Walpole. 

32 To George Montagu ' [i76i 

If it were not printed in the London Chronicle, I would 
transcribe for you, Sir, a very weak letter of Voltaire to 
Lord Lyttelton, and the latter's answer: there is nothing 
else new, but a very indifferent play, called The Jealous 
Wife 1 , so well acted as to have succeeded greatly. Mr. 
Mason, I believe, is going to publish some Elegies : I have 
seen the principal one, on Lady Coventry ; it was then only 
an unfinished draft. 

The second and third volumes of Tristram Shandy, the 
dregs of nonsense, have universally met the contempt they 
deserve : genius may be exhausted ; I see that folly's 
invention may be so too. 

The foundations of my gallery at Strawberry Hill are 
laying. May I not flatter myself, Sir, that you will see the 
whole even before it is quite complete ? 

P.S. Since I wrote my letter, I have read a new play 
of Voltaire's, called Tancred, and I am glad to say that it 
repairs the idea of his decaying parts, which I had con- 
ceived from his Peter the Great, and the letter I mentioned. 
Tancred did not please at Paris, nor was I charmed with the 
two first acts ; in the three last are great flashes of genius, 
single lines and starts of passion of the first fire : the 
woman's part is a little too Amazonian. 


Arlington Street, March 13, 1761. 

I CAN now tell you, with great pleasure, that your 
cousin 1 is certainly named Lord-Lieutenant I wish you joy. 
You will not be sorry too to hear that your Lord North is 

LETTER 737. l A comedy by LETTER 738. Wrongly dated in C. 
George Colman, produced in 1761 at March 19. 
Drury Lane. * The Earl of Halifax. 

1761] To George Montagu 33 

much talked of for succeeding him at the Board of Trade. 
I tell you this with great composure, though to-day has been 
a day of amazement. All the world is staring*, whispering, 
and questioning Lord Holderness has resigned the Seals, 
and they are given to Lord Bute which of the two Secre- 
taries of State is first minister? the latter or Mr. Pitt? 
Lord Holderness received the command but yesterday, at 
two o'clock, till that moment thinking himself extremely 
well at court but it seems the King said he was tired 
of having two Secretaries, of which one would do nothing, 
and t'other could do nothing ; he would have a Secretary 
who both could act and would. Pitt had as short notice of 
this resolution as the sufferer, and was little better pleased. 
He is something softened for the present by the offer of 
Cofferer for Jemmy Grenville, which is to be ceded by the 
Duke of Leeds, who returns to his old post of Justice in 
Eyre, from whence Lord Sandys is to be removed, some 
say to the head of the Board of Trade. Newcastle, who 
enjoys this fall of Holderness, who had deserted him for 
Pitt, laments over the former, but seems to have made 
his terms with the new favourite if the Bedfords have 
done so too, will it surprise you ? It will me, if Pitt sub- 
mits to this humiliation if he does not, I take for granted 
the Duke of Bedford will have the other Seals. 

The temper with which the new reign has hitherto pro- 
ceeded seems a little impeached by this sudden act, and 
the Earl now stands in the direct light of a minister, if 
a House of Commons should choose to cavil at him. 

Lord Delawar kissed hands to-day for his earldom ; the 
other new peers are to follow on Monday. 

There are horrid disturbances about the militia 8 in 

8 Oent. Mag. 1761. Monday, March 9: for the militia. A great number of 

' A terrible riot happened at Hex- pit-men, &c. having attacked a party 

ham, in Northumberland, on the of the Yorkshire Militia, who were 

deputy-lieutenants meeting to ballot sent for to prevent mischief, the 


34 To the Countess of Suffolk [1701 

Northumberland, where the mob have killed an officer 
and three of the Yorkshire militia, who, in return, fired and 
shot twenty-one. 

Adieu ! I shall be impatient to hear some consequence 
of my first paragraph. 

Yours ever, 

H. W. 

P.S. Saturday. 

I forgot to tell you that Lord Hardwicke has writ some 
verses to Lord Lyttelton, upon those the latter made on 
Lady Egremont 3 . If I had been told that he had put on 
a bag, and was gone off with Kitty Fisher, I should not 
have been more astonished ! 

Poor Lady Gower * is dead this morning of a fever in her 
lying-in : I believe the Bedfords are very sorry for there 
is a new opera this evening. 


Friday night. 

WE are more successful, Madam, than I could flatter my- 
self we should be. Mr. Conway (and I need say no more) 
has negotiated so well, that the Duke of Grafton is disposed 
to bring Mr. Beauclerk l in for Thetford. It will be expected, 
I believe, that Lord Vere should resign Windsor 2 in a hand- 
some manner to the Duke of Cumberland. It must be your 
Ladyship's part to prepare this which I hope will be the 

men were obliged to fire, which they Notes and Queries, Feb. 7, 1900.) Col- 
did with such fury for near ten lated with original in Brit. Museum. 
minutes, that forty-two were killed, 1 Hon. Aubrey Beauclerk (1740- 
or have since died of their wounds, 1802), only son of first Baron Vere 
and forty-eight were wounded.' of Hanworth, whom he succeeded 

3 For Lord Lyttelton's verses, and in 1781 ; succeeded his cousin as fifth 
Lord Hardwicke's addition to them, Duke of St. Albans, 1787. He was 
see Ann. Reg. 1761, pp. 240-2. elected as one of the members for 

4 Countess Gower was sister-in- Thetford on March 28, his colleague 
law of the Duchess of Bedford. being General Conway. 

LETTER 789. Misplaced in C. (See 2 The borough of New Windsor. 

I76i] To Sir Horace Mann 35 

means of putting an end to these unhappy differences. My 
only fear now is, lest the Duke should have promised the 
Lodge : Mr. Conway writes to Lord Albemarle, who is yet 
at Windsor, to prevent this, if not already done, till the 
rest is ready to be notified to the Duke of Cumberland. 
Your Ladyship's good sense and good heart make it unneces- 
sary for me to say more. 

I am your Ladyship's 

Most obedient Servant, 



Arlington Street, March 17, 1761. 

You will have no reason to complain now that there is 
a barrenness of events. Here are changes enough to amount 
to a revolution, though it is all so gilded and crowned that 
you can scarce meet a face that is not triumphant. On 
Friday last it was notified pretty abruptly to Lord Holder- 
nesse that he must quit the Seals l , which the King thought 
proper to give to Lord Bute. This measure was as great 
a secret as it was sudden. Mr. Pitt heard it as late as his 
colleague himself. To soften, however, the disagreeableness 
of his not being consulted, and whatever else might be 
unpleasant to him in the measure, Mr. Pitt was acquainted 
that the King bestowed the Cofferer's place on Mr. James 
Grenville, and would restore the department of the West 
Indies, which had been disjoined to accommodate Lord 
Halifax, to the Secretary of State. As Mr. Pitt's passion 
is not the disposal of places, and as he has no dependants 
on whom to bestow them, this feather is not likely to make 
him amends for the loss of his helmet, which it is supposed 
Lord Bute intends to make useless ; and, as he has hitherto 

LETTER 740. 1 As Secretary of State for the Southern Province. 
D 2 

36 To Sir Horace Mann 

behaved with singular moderation, it is believed that his 
taking the Seals in so particular a juncture was determined 
by the prospect of his being able to make a popular peace, 
France having made the most pressing offers. Nothing 
else, I think, could justify Lord Bute to himself for the 
imprudence of this step, which renders him the responsible 
minister, and exposes him to all the danger attendant 
on such a situation. As Groom of the Stole, he had 
all the credit of favourite without the hazard. The 
world does not attribute much kindness to the Duke of 
Newcastle and Lord Hardwicke, who advised him to this 

Lord Halifax goes to Ireland ; Lord Sandys succeeds 
him in the Board of Trade, which is reduced to its old 
insignificance; and the additional thousand pounds a year 
granted to Lord Halifax are turned over to the Duke of 
Leeds, who is forced to quit the Cofferer's place to James 
Grenville, and to return to his old post of Justice in Eyre, 
which Lord Sandys had ; but to break the fall, the Duke 
is made cabinet counsellor, a rank that will soon become 
indistinct from Privy Counsellor by growing as numerous. 
You will ask what becomes of Lord Holdernesse; truly, 
he is no unlucky man. For a day or two he was to be 
Groom of the Stole, with an addition of 1,OOOZ. a year, 
at last he has the reversion of the Cinque Ports for life, 
after the Duke of Dorset, who is extremely infirm. 

When you have digested all this in your head have 
you ? I shall open a new vein of surprise, a new favourite ! 
Lord Talbot is made an earl, and his son-in-law, Eice 2 , a 
Lord of Trade; stay, this is nothing: the new Earl is made 
Lord Steward too ! To pave his way, Lord Huntingdon is 
removed to Groom of the Stole, and the duke of Rutland to 

8 George Rice. 

I76i] To Sir Horace Mann 37 

Master of the Horse j you see great dukes are not immov- 
able as rocks. The comments on this extraordinary pro- 
motion are a little licentious, but, as I am not commentator 
enough to wrap them up in Latin, I shall leave them to 
future expounders ; and the rest of the changes, which have 
less mystery, I shall reduce to a catalogue. 

Legge, turned out from Chancellor of the Exchequer, 
succeeded by Lord Barrington, Secretary at War; he by 
Charles Townshend, Treasurer of the Chambers ; and he 
by Sir Francis Dashwood, at the solicitation of Lord 
Westmorland. Mr. Elliot succeeds James Grenville in the 
Treasury. Lord Villiers 3 and your friend T. Pelham, Lords 
of the Admiralty. Rice, John Yorke, and Sir Edm. Thomas, 
Lords of Trada The new peers, Earl Talbot and Earl of 
Delawar ; Mr. Spencer, Lord Viscount Spencer ; Sir Richard 
Grosvenor, a Viscount or Baron, I don't know which, nor 
does he, for yesterday, when he should have kissed hands, 
he was gone to Newmai'ket to see the trial of a race-horse. 
Dodington, Lord Melcombe ; Sir Thomas Robinson, Lord 
Grantham ; Sir William Irby, Lord Boston ; Sir Nathaniel 
Curzon, Lord Scarsdale ; and Lady Bute, Lady Mount- 
Stuart of Wortley. This is a sensible way of giving the 
English peerage to her family regularly, and approved by 
all the world, both from her vast property and particular 
merit, which is not at all diminished by the torrent of her 
fortune. Lord Carpenter is made Earl of Tyrconnel, in 
Ireland ; and a Mr. Turnour, a Lord * there. The next 
shower is to rain red ribands, but those I suppose you are 
in no hurry to learn. 

The Parliament rises in two days. Mr. Onslow quits the 
chair and the House ; George Grenville is to be Speaker 5 . 

George Bossy Villiers (1785 - 1769. 

1806), Viscount Villiers, succeeded * Lord Winterton. Walpole. 
his father as fourth Earl of Jersey, * This did not happen. 

38 To George Montagu [i76i 

You will not wonder that in a scene so busy and amusing, 
I should be less inquisitive about the Jesuitical war at Eome. 
The truth is, I knew nothing of it, nor do we think more of 
Rome here than of a squabble among the canons of Liege or 
Cologne. However, I am much obliged to you for your 
accounts, and beg you will repay my anecdotes with the 
continuation of them. If Pasquin should reflect on any 
Signora Eezzonica for recommending a major domo 6 to his 
Holiness, pray send me his epigram. 

Thank you for the trouble you have had about the books 
on music ; I paid Stosch eight guineas for the Burgundy, 
and your brother has repaid me. 

If our political campaign should end here, and our German 
one where it is, we still are not likely to want warfare. 
The colliers in Northumberland are in open hostilities with 
the militia, and in the last battle at Hexham the militia 
lost an officer and three men, and the colliers one-and- 
twenty. If this engagement, and a peace abroad, had 
happened in the late reign, I suppose Prince Ferdinand 
would have had another pension on Ireland for coming over 
to quell the colliers. Adieu I 


Arlington Street, March 17, 1761. 

IF my last letter raised your wonder, this will not allay 
it. Lord Talbot is Lord Steward ! The stone which the 
builders refused is become the head-stone of the corner. 
My Lady Talbot, I suppose, would have found no charms 
in Cardinal Mazarin. As the Duke of Leeds was forced 
to give way to Jemmy Grenville, the Duke of Rutland has 
been obliged to make room for this new Earl. Lord 

8 The name of the then Pope was to Lord Talbot's being Lord Steward. 
Bezzonico. The major domo alludes Walpole. 

I76i] To George Montagu 39 

Huntingdon is Groom of the Stole, and the last Duke I have 
named, Master of the Horse the red liveries cost Lord 
Huntingdon a pang. Lord Holderness has the reversion 
of the Cinque Ports for life, and I think may pardon his 

If you propose a fashionable assembly, you must send 
cards to Lord Spencer, Lord Grosvenor, Lord Melcomb, 
Lord Grantham, Lord Boston, Lord Scarsdale, Lady 
Mountstewart, the Earl of Tirconnel, and Lord Wintertown. 
The two last you will meet in Ireland. No joy ever 
exceeded your cousin's or Dodington's. The former came 
last night to Lady Hilsborough's to display his triumph. 
The latter too was there, and advanced to me. I said, 
' I was coming to wish you joy.' ' I concluded so,' replied 
he, 'and came to receive it.' He left a good card yesterday 
at Lady Harrington's, 'A very young Lord to wait on 
Lady Harrington, to make her Ladyship the first offer of 
himself.' I believe she will be content with the Exchequer *. 
Mrs. Grey 2 has a pension of 800 a year. 

Mrs Clive is at her villa for Passion week ; I have writ 
to her for the box, but I don't doubt of its being gone 
but considering her alliance 3 , why does not Miss Eke 
bespeak the play and have the stage box? 

I shall smile if Mr. Bentley and Mtintz and their two 
Hannahs meet at St. James's. So I see neither of them, 
I care not where they are. 

Lady Hinchinbrook and Lady Mansel 4 are at the points 

LETTER 741. * Lord Barrington, Stamford. 

who was apparently an admirer of 3 Miss Bice's brother was married 

Lady Harrington (see letter to Mon- to the only child of Earl Talbot, the 

tagu of Dec. 23, 1769), had just been King's ' new favourite.' 

appointed Chancellor of the Ex- 4 Lady Barbara Villiers (d. June 

chequer. 11, 1761), daughter of second Earl of 

2 Lucy, daughter of Sir Joseph Jersey ; m. 1. Sir William Blackett ; 

Danvers, Baronet, of Swithland, 2. Bussy Mansel, fourth Baron 

Leicestershire; m. (1748) Hon. John Mansel. 
Grey, second son of third Earl of 

40 To George Montagu [i?6i 

of death. Lord Hardwicke is to be Poet-Laureate, and, 
according to modern usage, I suppose it will be made a 
cabinet counsellor's place. Good night ! 

Yours ever, 

H. W. 


March 21, 1761. 

OF the enclosed, as you perceive, I tore off the seal, but it 
has not been opened. 

I grieve at the loss of your suit, and for the injustice done 
you but what can one expect but injury, when forced to 
have recourse to law ? Lord Abercorn asked me this evening 
if it was true that you are going to Ireland ? I gave a vague 
answer, and did not resolve him how much I knew of it. 
I am impatient for the reply to your compliment. 

There is not a word of newer news than what I sent you 
last. The Speaker 1 has taken leave, and received the 
highest compliments, and substantial ones too he did not 
overact, and it was really a handsome scene. 

I go to my election on Tuesday, and, if I do not tumble 
out of the chair and break my neck, you shall hear from 
me at my return. I got the box for Miss Kice. Lady 
Hinchinbrook is dead. 

Yours ever, 

H. W. 


Houghton, March 25, 1761. 

HEBE I am at Houghton ! and alone ! in this spot, where 
(except two hours last month) I have not been in sixteen 
years ! Think, what a crowd of reflections 1 no, Gray, and 
forty churchyards, could not furnish so many ; nay, I know 

LETTER 742. * Arthur Onslow. 

I76i] To George Montagu 41 

one must feel them with greater indifference than I possess, 
to have patience to put them into verse. Here I am, pro- 
bably for the last time of my life, though not for the last time 
every clock that strikes tells me I am an hour nearer to 
yonder church that church, into which I have not yet had 
courage to enter, where lies that mother on whom I doted, 
and who doted on me ! There are the two rival mistresses 
of Houghton, neither of whom ever wished to enjoy it ! 
There too lies he who founded its greatness, to contribute to 
whose fall Europe was embroiled there he sleeps in quiet 
and dignity, while his friend and his foe, rather his false 
ally and real enemy, Newcastle and Bath, are exhausting 
the dregs of their pitiful lives in squabbles and pamphlets ! 

The surprise the pictures gave me is again renewed 
accustomed for many years to see nothing but wretched 
daubs and varnished copies at auctions, I look at these as 
enchantment. My own description of them l seems poor 
but shall I tell you truly the majesty of Italian ideas 
almost sinks before the warm nature of Flemish colouring ! 
Alas ! don't I grow old ? My young imagination was fired 
with Guide's ideas must they be plump and prominent 
as Abishag to warm me now ? Does great youth feel with 
poetic limbs, as well as see with poetic eyes? In one 
respect I am very young; I cannot satiate myself with 
looking an incident contributed to make me feel this more 
strongly. A party arrived, just as I did, to see the house, a 
man and three women in riding dresses, and they rode post 
through the apartments I could not hurry before them 
fast enough they were not so long in seeing for the first 
time, as I could have been in one room, to examine what 
I knew by heart. I remember formerly being often 
diverted with this kind of seers they come, ask what such 
a room is called, in which Sir Kobert lay, write it down, 

LETTER 743. * In the Aedes Walpolianae. 

42 To George Montagu [i76i 

admire a lobster or a cabbage in a market-piece, dispute 
whether the last room was green or purple, and then hurry 
to the inn for fear the fish should be over-dressed how 
different my sensations ! not a picture here but recalls 
a history ; not one, but I remember in Downing Street or 
Chelsea, where queens and crowds admired them, though 
seeing them as little as these travellers ! 

When I had drunk tea, I strolled into the garden they 
told me it was now called the pleasure-ground what a dis- 
sonant idea of pleasure those groves, those dtte'es, where I 
have passed so many charming moments, are now stripped up 
or overgrown ; many fond paths I could not unravel, though 
with a very exact clue in my memory I met two game- 
keepers, and a thousand hares ! In the days when all my 
soul was tuned to pleasure and vivacity (and you will think, 
perhaps, it is far from being out of tune yet), I hated 
Houghton and its solitude yet I loved this garden ; as 
now, with many regrets, I love Houghton Houghton, 
I know not what to call it, a monument of grandeur or 
ruin ! How I have wished this evening for Lord Bute ! 
how I could preach to him ! For myself, I do not want 
to be preached to I have long considered, how every 
Balbec must wait for the chance of a Mr. Wood. 

The servants wanted to lay me in the great apartment 
what, to make me pass my night as I have done my 
evening ! It were like proposing to Margaret Koper to be 
a duchess in the court that cut off her father's head, and 
imagining it would please her. I have chosen to sit in my 
father's little dressing-room, and am now by his scrutore, 
where, in the height of his fortune, he used to receive the 
accounts of his farmers, and deceive himself or us, with 
the thoughts of his economy how wise a man at once, 
and how weak ! For what has he built Houghton ? for his 
grandson to annihilate, or for his son to mourn over ! If 

I76i] To George Montagu 43 

Lord Burleigh could rise and view his representative driving 
the Hatfield stage, he would feel as I feel now poor little 
Strawberry ! at least it will not be stripped to pieces by a 
descendant ! You will think all these fine meditations dic- 
tated by pride, not by philosophy pray consider through 
how many mediums philosophy must pass, before it is 

. . . how often must it weep, how often burn! 

My mind was extremely prepared for all this gloom by 
parting with Mr. Conway yesterday morning moral re- 
flections on commonplaces are the livery one likes to wear, 
when one has just had a real misfortune. He is going to 
Germany I was glad to dress myself up in transitory 
Houghton, in lieu of very sensible concern. To-morrow 
I shall be distracted with thoughts at least images, of 
very different complexion I go to Lynn, and am to be 
elected on Friday. I shall return hither on Saturday, again 
alone, to expect Burleighides * on Sunday, whom I left at 
Newmarket I must once in my life see him on his grand- 
father's throne. 

Epping, Monday night, thirty-first. 

No, I have not seen him, he loitered on the road, and I was 
kept at Lynn till yesterday morning. It is plain I never 
knew for how many trades I was formed, when at this time 
of day I can begin electioneering, and succeed in my new 
vocation. Think of me, the subject of a mob, who was 
scarce ever before in a mob ! addressing them in the town- 
hall, riding at the head of two thousand people through 
such a town as Lynn, dining with above two hundred of 
them, amid bumpers, huzzas, songs, and tobacco, and 
finishing with country dancing at a ball and sixpenny 
whisk ! I have borne it all cheerfully ; nay, have sat hours 
in conversation, the thing upon earth that I hate, have been 

2 His nephew, the Earl of Orford. 

44 To George Montagu [1701 

to hear misses play on the harpsichord, and to see an 
alderman's copies of Eeubens and Carlo Marat. Yet to do 
the folks justice, they are sensible, and reasonable, and 
civilized ; their very language is polished since I lived 
among them. I attribute this to their more frequent inter- 
course with the world and the capital, by the help of good 
roads and postchaises, which, if they have abridged the 
King's dominions, have at least tamed his subjects well ! 
how comfortable it will be to-morrow, to see my perroquet, 
to play at loo, and not to be obliged to talk seriously the 
Heraclitus of the beginning of this letter will be overjoyed on 
finishing it to sign himself 

Your old friend, 


P.S. I forgot to tell you that my ancient aunt Hammond 
came over to Lynn to see me not from any affection, but 
curiosity the first thing she said to me, though we have not 
met these sixteen years, was, ' Child, you have done a thing 
to-day, that your father never did in all his life ; you sat as 
they carried you ; he always stood the whole time.' 'Madam,' 
said I, ' when I am placed in a chair, I conclude I am to sit 
in it besides, as I cannot imitate my father in great things, 
I am not at all ambitious of mimicking him in little ones.' 
I am sure she proposes to tell her remark to my uncle 
Horace's ghost, the instant they meet. 


Arlington Street, March [April] 7, 1761. 

I REJOICE, you know, in whatever rejoices you, and though 
I am not certain what your situation is to be. I am glad you 

LBTTKB 744. Dated by Horace dently written in April. (See Notes 
Walpole March 7, 1761, but evi- and Queries, May 12, 1900.) 

I76i] To George Montagu 45 

go, as you like it. I am told it is Black Rod *. Lady Anne 
Jekyll 2 said she had writ to you on Saturday night. I 
asked when her brother was to go, if before August? she 
answered, 'Yes, if possible.' Long before October you may 
depend upon it ; in the quietest times no Lord-Lieutenant 
ever went so late as that. Shall not you come to town 
first ? You cannot pack up yourself, and all you will want, 
at Greatworth. 

We are in the utmost hopes of a peace ; a congress is 
agreed upon at Ausbourg; but yesterday's mail brought 
bad news. Prince Ferdinand has been obliged to raise the 
siege of Cassel, and to retire to Paderborn ; the Hereditary 
Prince having been again defeated 3 , with the loss of two 
generals, and to the value of five thousand men, in prisoners 
and exchanged. If this defers the Peace it will be grievous 
news to me, now Mr. Conway is gone to the army. 

The town talks of nothing but an immediate Queen ; yet 
I am certain the ministers know not of it. Her picture is 
come, and lists of her family given about; but the latter 
I do not send you, as I believe it apocryphal. Adieu ! 

Yours ever, 


P.S. Have you seen the advertisement of a new noble 
author? A Treatise of Horsemanship, by Henry Earl of 
Pembroke as George Selwyn said of Mr. Greville *, so far 
from being a writer, I thought he was scarce a courteous 

1 Montagu had been appointed Halifax ; m. Joseph Jekyll. She was 
Usher of the Black Bod by his Montagu's first cousin. See Table II. 
cousin the Earl of Halifax, the 3 By Broglie, near Grunberg, in 
newly-appointed Viceroy. Hesse. 

2 Lady Anne Montagu (d. 1766), * Fnlke Greville, author of Maxims 
second daughter of first Earl of and Characters. 

46 To Sir Horace Mann [1761 


Arlington Street, April 10, 1761. 

WELL, I have received my cousin Boothby 1 and the 
packet. Thank you for the trouble you have given your- 
self ; but, another time, I will trust my memory rather than 
my taste. Einuncini's brocadella is frightful ; how could 
I treasure up an idea of anything that consisted of such 
a horrid assemblage as green and yellow ? Those that have 
red, green, and white, are very pretty, and as soon as I can 
determine the quantity I shall want, I will take the liberty 
of employing you for the manufacture. The gallery advances 
by large strides, and when that is complete, I shall furnish 
the Bound Tower. My cousin Boothby is my cousin ; my 
mother and his were first cousins ; but his, happening not 
to be the most amiable person in the world, we have had so 
little connection, that it was perfectly nothing at all. 

If I can find an opportunity of presenting the account of 
the statues, I certainly will, and in a manner not to hurt 
you. Strange's information is, I believe, by no means ill- 
founded, and I give up my advice. Kings, though the 
representatives of Heaven, have none of its all-seeingness 
inserted in their patents, and being obliged to use many 
pair of eyes besides their own, no wonder if they are made 
to pay for all the light they borrow. The young King has 
excellent and various dispositions just so many occasions 
for being imposed upon ! Whatever a king loves, is ready 
money to those who gratify his inclinations except he 
loves what his grandfather did, the money itself. I who 
love the arts, like the King, have found that even I was 
worth cheating. 

Blessed be Providence ! we are going to have peace ; I do 

LETTER 745. * Thomas Boothby Schrimshire, Esq. Walpole. 

I76i] To Sir Horace Mann 47 

not regret it, though the little dabs I save would be almost 
doubled if the stocks continued at low-water mark. France, 
who will dictate even in humiliation, has declared to 
Sweden that she must and will make peace ; that even their 
Imperial Furiousnesses, Tisiphone and Alecto*, would be 
Content with less perdition of the King of Prussia than they 
had meditated ; and when snakes smile, who can help 
hoping ? France adds, that she will even let the Peace be 
made vis-a-vis du Roi de la Grande Bretagne. It is to be 
treated here, and the imps of the two Empresses are to 
reside at Paris, to communicate their instructions ; the 
congress will be afterwards held, for form, at Augsbourg. 
All Canada is offered. I don't believe we shall be intract- 
able, as all Prince Ferdinand's visionary vivacities are 
vanished into smoke ; his nephew is again beaten, himself 
retired to Paderborn, and the siege of Cassel raised. 
Luckily, the French cannot pursue their success for want 
of magazines. 

And so you don't think we are obliged to Mr. Pitt ? Yes, 
I am sure you do. Who would have believed five years ago 
that France would send to Whitehall to beg peace ? And 
why would they not have believed it? Why, because 
nobody foresaw that the Duke of Newcastle and Lord Hard- 
wicke would not be as absolute as ever. Had they con- 
tinued in power, the Duke of Newcastle would now be 
treating at Paris to be Intendant of Sussex, and Sir Joseph 
Yorke would be made a Prince of the Empire for signing the 
cession of Hanover. 'Tis better as it is, though the City of 
London should burn Mr. Pitt in effigy upon the cessation of 
contracts and remittances. And so you and I are creeping 
near to one another again ; we shall be quite sociable when 
there is only all France betwixt us. Will you breakfast 
in the Holbein chamber the first week in June ? 

2 The two Empresses of Germany and Russia. Walpole. 

48 To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway [i76i 

I must announce a loss to you, though scarce a misfor- 
tune, as you never saw her. Your dear brother's second 
daughter s is dead of a consumption. She was a most soft- 
tempered creature, like him, and consequently what he 
much loved. 

As the elections are now almost over, people will begin 
to think of something else, or at least will consider what 
they intend to think about next winter no matter what ! 
Let us sheathe the sword, and fight about what we will. 
Adieu ! 


Arlington Street, April 10, 1761. 

IF Prince Ferdinand had studied how to please me, 
I don't know any method he could have lighted upon so 
likely to gain my heart, as being beaten out of the field 
before you joined him. I delight in a hero that is driven 
so far that nobody can follow him. He is as well at Pader- 
born, as where I have long wished the King of Prussia, the 
other world. You may frown if you please at my impru- 
dence, you who are gone with all the disposition in the 
world to be well with your commander ; the Peace is in 
a manner made, and the anger of generals will not be worth 
sixpence these ten years. We peaceable folks are now to 
govern the world, and you warriors must in your turn 
tremble at our subjects the mob, as we have done before 
your hussars and court-martials. 

I am glad you had so pleasant a passage 1 . My Lord 
Lyttelton would say that Lady Mary Coke, like Venus, 
smiled over the waves, et mare praestabat eunti. In truth, 
when she could tame me, she must have had little trouble 

8 Sarah, second daughter of Gal- LKTTKB 746. J From Harwich to 
fridus Mann. Helvoetsluys. Walpole. 

1761] To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway 49 

with the ocean. Tell me how many burgomasters she has 
subdued, or how many would have fallen in love with her 
if they had not fallen asleep ? Come, has she saved two- 
pence by her charms? Have they abated a farthing of 
their impositions for her being handsomer than anything in 
the seven provinces? Does she know how political her 
journey is thought ? Nay, my Lady Ailesbury, you are not 
out of the scrape ; you are both reckoned des Marechales de 
Guebriant*, going to fetch, and consequently govern the young 
Queen. There are more jealousies about your voyage, than 
the Duke of Newcastle would feel if Dr. Shaw had pre- 
scribed a little ipecacuanha to my Lord Bute. 

I am sorry I must adjourn my mirth, to give Lady 
Ailesbury a pang ; poor Sir Harry Ballendene 3 is dead ; 
he made a great dinner at Almack's 4 for the house of 
Drummond, drank very hard, caught a violent fever, and 
died in a very few days. Perhaps you will have heard this 
before ; I shall wish so ; I do not like, even innocently, to 
be the cause of sorrow. 

I do not at all lament Lord Granby's leaving the army, 
and your immediate succession. There are persons in the 
world who would gladly ease you of this burden. As you 
are only to take the viceroyalty of a coop, and that for 
a few weeks, I shall but smile if you are terribly distressed. 
Don't let Lady Ailesbury proceed to Brunswick : you might 
have had a wife 5 who would not have thought it so terrible 
to fall into the hands (arms) of hussars ; but as I don't take 
that to be your Countess's turn, leave her with the Dutch, 

2 The Marechale de Gu6briant was den, Knight, Usher of the Black Bod. 

sent to the King of Poland with the * Almack's (afterwards Brooks's) 

character of Embassaclress by Louis Club in Pall Mall, founded by 

XTTT to accompany the Princess William Almack (d, 1781), a former 

Marie de Gonzague, who had been valet of the Duke of Hamilton. 

married by proxy to the King of 5 The Countess of Harrington, 

Poland at Paris. Walpole. with whom Conway was formerly in 

8 Uncle to the Countess of Ailes- love. 
bury. Walpole. Sir Harry Bellen- 


50 To Sir David Dairy mple [i761 

who are not so boisterous as Cossacks or Chancellors of the 
Exchequer 6 . 

My love, my duty, my jealousy, to Lady Mary, if she is 
not sailed before you receive this if she is, I shall deliver 
them myself. Good night ! I write immediately on the 
receipt of your letter, but you see I have nothing yet new 
to tell you. 

Yours ever, 



g IB? Arlington Street, April 14, 1761. 

I have deferred answering the favour of your last, till 
I could tell you that I had seen Fingal. Two journeys into 
Norfolk for my election, and other accidents, prevented my 
seeing any part of the poem till this last week, and I have 
yet only seen the first book. There are most beautiful 
images in it, and it surprises one how the bard could strike 
out so many shining ideas from a few so very simple objects, 
as the moon, the storm, the sea, and the heath, from whence 
he borrows almost all his allusions. The particularizing 
of persons, by 'he said,' 'he replied,' so much objected to 
Homer, is so wanted in Fingal, that it in some measure 
justifies the Grecian Highlander ; I have even advised 
Mr. Macpherson l (to prevent confusion) to have the names 
prefixed to the speeches, as in a play. It is too obscure 
without some such aid. My doubts of the genuineness are 
all vanished. 

I fear, Sir, from Dodsley's carelessness, you have not 

6 See note on letter to Montagu of Macpherson's historical writings and 

March 17, 1761. newspaper defences of Lord North's 

LITTER 747. * James Macpherson ministry made him the object of 

(1736-1796), the 'editor' of Fingal, Horace Walpole's special dislike and 

which had recently appeared in contempt. 
London. At a subsequent period 

I76i] To George Montagu 51 

received the Lucan. A gentleman in Yorkshire, for whom 
I consigned another copy at the same time with yours, has 
got his but within this fortnight. I have the pleasure to 
find that the notes are allowed the best of Dr. Bentley's 
remarks on poetic authors. Lucan was muscular enough to 
bear his rough hand. 

Next winter I hope to be able to send you Vertue's History 
of the Arts, as I have put it together from his collections. 
Two volumes are finished, the first almost printed and the 
third begun. There will be a fourth, I believe, relating 
solely to engravers. You will be surprised, Sir, how the 
industry of one man could at this late period amass so near 
a complete history of our artists. I have no share in it, but 
in arranging his materials. Adieu ! 


Arlington Street, April 16, 1761. 

You are a very mule one offers you a handsome stall and 
manger in Berkeley Square, and you will not accept it 

I have chosen your coat, a claret colour, to suit the com- 
plexion of the country you are going to visit but I have 
fixed nothing about the lace. Barret had none of gauze, but 
what were as broad as the Irish Channel. Your tailor found 
a very reputable one at another place, but I would not 
determine rashly ; it will be two or three-and-twenty shillings 
the yard you might have a very substantial real lace, and 
that would wear like your buffet, for twenty. The second 
order of gauzes are frippery, none above twelve shillings, 
and those tarnished, for the species is out of fashion. You 
will have time to sit in judgement upon these important 
points, for Hamilton 1 , your secretary, told me at the 
Opera two nights ago, that he had taken a house near 

LETTER 748. * William Gerard Hamilton, Chief Secretary for Ireland. 

E 2 

52 To George Montagu [1701 

Bushy, and hoped to be in my neighbourhood for four 

I was last night at your plump Countess's 2 , who is so 
shrunk, that she does not seem to be composed of above 
a dozen hassocks. Lord Guildford rejoiced mightily over 
your preferment. The Duchess of Argyle was playing there, 
not knowing that the great Pan was just dead, to wit, her 
brother-in-law 3 . He was abroad in the morning, was seized 
with a palpitation after dinner, and was dead before the 
surgeon could arrive there's the crown of Scotland too 
fallen upon my Lord Bute's head ! Poor Lord Edgecumbe * 
is still alive, and may be so for some days ; the physicians, 
who no longer ago than Friday se'nnight persisted that he 
had no dropsy, in order to prevent his having Ward, on 
Monday last proposed that Ward should be called in and 
at night they owned they thought the mortification begun 
it is not clear it is yet ; at times he is in his senses, and 
entirely so, composed, clear, and most rational ; talks of his 
death, and but yesterday, after such a conversation with his 
brother, asked for a pencil to amuse himself with drawing. 
What parts, genius, and agreeableness thrown away at a 
hazard table, and not permitted the chance of being saved 
by the villainy of physicians ! 

You will be pleased with the following anacreontic, 
written by Lord Middlesex upon Sir Harry Ballendine I 
have not seen anything so antique for ages ; it has all the 
fire, poetry, and simplicity of Horace. 

Ye sons of Bacchus, come and join 
In solemn dirge, while tapers shine 
Around the grape-embossed shrine 
Of honest Harry Bellendine. 

8 The Countess of Bockingham, of Argyll 

Lord Guilford's third wife. * Richard Edgcumbe, second Baron 

3 Archibald Campbell, third Duke Edgcumbe. 

1761] To George Montagu 53 

Pour the rich juice of Bourdeaux's wine, 
Mix'd with your falling tears of brine, 
In full libation o'er the shrine 
Of honest Harry Bellendine. 

Your brows let ivy chaplets twine, 
While you push round the sparkling wine, 
And let your table be the shrine 
Of honest Harry Bellendine. 

He died in his vocation, of a high fever, after the celebra- 
tion of some orgies. Though but six hours in his senses, he 
gave a proof of his usual good humour, making it his last 
request to the sister Tuftons 6 to be reconciled which they 
are. His pretty villa, in my neighbourhood, I fancy he has 
left to the new Lord Lorn 6 . I must tell you an admirable 
bon mot of George Selwyn, though not a new one; when 
there was a malicious report that the eldest Tufton was to 
marry Dr. Duncan, Selwyn said, ' How often will she repeat 
that line of Shakespear, 

Wake Duncan with thy knocking would th,ou couldst ! ' 

I enclose the receipt from your lawyer. Adieu ! 

Yours ever, 


Arlington Street, April 28, 1761. 

I AM glad you relish June for Strawberry. By that tune 
I hope the weather will have recovered its temper. At 
present it is horridly cross and uncomfortable ; I fear we 

6 The Ladies Mary and Charlotte 6 General John Campbell, brother 

Tnfton, daughters of seventh Earl of the Countess of Ailesbury. He 

of Thanet. Lady Mary m. (1768) had become Marquis of Lome in 

Dr., afterwards Sir William, Duncan, consequence of his father's succes- 

and died in 1806. Lady Charlotte sion to the Dukedom of Argyll, 
died unmarried, 1803. 

54 To George Montagu [I?GI 

shall have a cold season ; we cannot eat our summer and 
have our summer. 

There has been a terrible fire in the little traverse street, 
at the upper end of Sackville Street. Last Friday night l 
between eleven and twelve, I was sitting with Lord Digby 2 
in the coffee-room at Arthur's. They told us there was a 
great fire somewhere about Burlington Gardens. I, who am 
as constant at a fire as George Selwyn at an execution, pro- 
posed to Lord Digby to go and see where it was. We found 
it within two doors of that pretty house of Fairfax, now 
General Waldegrave's. I sent for the latter, who was at 
Arthur's ; and for the guard from St. James's. Four houses 
were in flames before they could find a drop of water ; eight 
were burnt. I went to my Lady Suffolk, in Saville Eow, 
and passed the whole night, till three in the morning, 
between her little hot bedchamber and the spot, up to my 
ankles in water, without catching cold. As the wind, which 
had sat towards Swallow Street, changed in the middle of 
the conflagration, I concluded the greatest part of Saville 
Row would be consumed. I persuaded her to prepare to 
transport her most valuable effects -joortantur avari Pyg- 
malionis opes miserae. She behaved with great composure, 
and observed to me herself how much worse her deafness 
grew with the alarm. Half the people of fashion in town 
were in the streets all night, as it happened in such a quarter 
of distinction. In the crowd, looking on with great tran- 
quillity, I saw a Mr. Jackson, an Irish gentleman, with whom 
I had dined this winter at Lord Hertford's. He seemed 
rather grave I said, 'Sir, I hope you don't live anywhere 
hereabouts.' 'Yes, Sir,' said he, 'I lodged in that house 
that is just burnt.' 

LETTKS 749. 1 Friday, April 24. houses were burnt. 
The fire broke out in some stables at 2 Henry Digby (1731-1793), seventh 
the back of Swallow Street ; fourteen Baron Digby ; cr. Earl Digby, 1790. 

I76i] To George Montagu 55 

Last night there was a mighty ball at Bedford House ; the 
royal Dukes and Princess Emily were there ; your Lord- 
Lieut[en]ant, the great lawyer-lords, and old Newcastle, 
whose teeth are tumbled out, and his mouth tumbled in ; 
hazard very deep ; loo, beauties, and the Wilton Bridge in 
sugar, almost as big as the life. I am glad all these joys are 
near going out of town. The Graftons go abroad for the 
Duchess's health. Another climate may mend that I will 
not answer for more. Adieu I 

Yours ever, 

H. W. 


Arlington Street, May 5, 1761. 

WE have lost a young genius, Sir William Williams * ; an 
express from Belleisle, arrived this morning, brings nothing 
but his death. He was shot very unnecessarily, riding too 
near a battery : in sum, he is a sacrifice to his own rashness 
and to ours for what are we taking Belleisle 2 ? I rejoiced 
at the little loss we had on landing for the glory, I leave it 
[to] the Common Council. I am very willing to leave London 
to them too, and do pass half the week at Strawberry, where 
my two passions, lilacs and nightingales, are in full bloom. 
I spent Sunday as if it was Apollo's birthday ; Gray and 
Mason were with me, and we listened to the nightingales 
till one o'clock in the morning. Gray has translated two 
noble incantations 3 from the Lord knows who, a Danish 
Gray, who lived the Lord knows when. They are to be 

LETTER 750, 1 Sir William Peere son and Commodore Keppel) effected 

Williams, fourth Baronet, M.P. for a landing on Belleisle on April 25, 

Shoreh am, and captain in Burgoyne's and finally took possession of the 

Dragoons. At the request of his island on June 7. 

friend, Frederick Montagu, Gray 3 The Fatal Sisters and The Descent 

wrote an epitaph on Will Jams. of Odin, paraphrases from the Ico- 

2 After a repulse on April 8, the landic. 
English forces (under General Hodg- 

56 To George Montagu [i76i 

enchased in a history of English bards, which Mason and 
he are writing, but of which the former has not writ a word 
yet, and of which the latter, if he rides Pegasus at his usual 
foot-pace, will finish the first page two years hence. But 
the true frantic oestnis resides at present with Mr. Hogarth ; 
I went t'other morning to see a portrait he is painting of 
Mr. Fox Hogarth told me he had promised, if Mr. Fox 
would sit as he liked, to make as good a picture as Vandyke 
or Eubens could. I was silent ' Why now,' said he, ' you 
think this very vain, but why should not one speak truth ? ' 
This truth was uttered in the face of his own Sigismonda, 
which is exactly a maudlin whore, tearing off the trinkets 
that her keeper had given her, to fling at his head. She 
has her father's picture in a bracelet on her arm, and her 
fingers are bloody with the heart, as if she had just bought 
a sheep's pluck in St. James's Market. As I was going, 
Hogarth put on a very grave face, and said, ' Mr. Walpole, 
I want to speak to you.' I sat down, and said I was ready 
to receive his commands. For shortness, I will mark this 
wonderful dialogue by initial letters. 

H. I am told you are going to entertain the town with 
something in our way. W. Not very soon, Mr. Hogarth. 
H. I wish you would let me have it, to correct ; I should 
be sorry to have you expose yourself to censure. We 
painters must know more of those things than other people. 
W. Do you think nobody understands painting but painters ? 
H. Oh ! so far from it, there's Keynolds, who certainly has 
genius ; why, but t'other day he offered 100 for a picture 
that I would not hang in my cellar; and indeed, to say 
truth, I have generally found that persons who had studied 
painting least were the best judges of it but what I parti- 
cularly wanted to say to you was about Sir James Thornhill * 
(you know he married Sir James's daughter) : I would not 
4 Sir James ThornhiU, Knight (1675-1734), Sergeant-Fainter to George I. 

I76i] To George Montagu 57 

have you say anything against him ; there was a book pub- 
lished some time ago, abusing him, and it gave great 
offence he was the first that attempted history in England, 
and, I assure you, some Germans have said that he was a 
very great painter. W. My work will go no lower than 
the year 1700, and I really have not considered whether 
Sir J. Thornhill will come within my plan or not ; if he 
does, I fear you and I shall not agree upon his merits. 
H. I wish you would let me correct it besides, I am writing 
something of the same kind myself ; I should be sorry we 
should clash. W. I believe it is not much known what my 
work is ; very few persons have seen it. H. Why, it is 
a critical history of painting, is not it ? W. No, it is an 
antiquarian history of it in England ; I bought Mr. Vertue's 
MSS., and I believe the work will not give much offence. 
Besides, if it does, I cannot help it : when I publish any- 
thing, I give it to the world to think of it as they please. 
H. Oh! if it is an antiquarian work, we shall not clash. 
Mine is a critical work ; I don't know whether I shall ever 
publish it it is rather an apology for painters I think it 
owing to the good sense of the English that they have not 
painted better. W. My dear Mr. Hogarth, I must take my 
leave of you, you now grow too wild and I left him. If 
I had stayed, there remained nothing but for him to bite 
me. I give you my honour this conversation is literal, and, 
perhaps, as long as you have known Englishmen and 
painters, you never met with anything so distracted. I had 
consecrated a line to his genius (I mean, for wit) in my 
Preface ; I shall not erase it ; but I hope nobody will ask 
me if he was not mad. Adieu ! 

Yours ever, 
H. W. 

58 To Sir Horace Mann [1761 


Strawberry Hill, May 14, 1761. 

FROM your silence. I began to fear you was ill ; but 
yesterday I received yours of the 25th of last month, with 
the account of your absence at Pisa. The little convulsions 
which surprised you so much in my letter of March 17th, 
subsided the moment they were settled ; and if any factions 
design to form themselves, they will at least not bespeak 
their colours till next session of Parliament, or till the 
Peace. The latter is the present object, and the stocks at 
least give credit to the professions of France. The im- 
pertinent Bussy (who, I believe, will be a little more humble 
than formerly) is coming, exchanged with Mr. Stanley, but 
with all the impatience of France to treat, they modestly 
proposed that Bussy 1 should come in the man-of-war that 
carried Stanley 2 . This was flatly refused ; and an Irish 
arrangement is made ; the one is to be at Dover, the other 
at Calais, on the 22nd, and if the same wind can blow 
contrary ways at once, they will sail at the same moment ; 
if it cannot, I am persuaded the French weathercocks will 
not blow east till ours have been four-and-twenty hours in 
the west. I am not among the credulous, not conceiving 
why the court of Versailles should desire a peace at the 
beginning of a campaign, when they will have so much 
more in bank to treat with at the end of it. They will 
have Hesse and Hanover ; shall we have the rock of 
Belleisle? That expedition engrosses as much attention 
as the Peace. Though I have no particular friends there, 
I tremble every day in expectation of bloody journals, 

LETTER 751. 1 The Abb6 de Bnsay : for a neutrality for Hanover. Wai- 
he had been very insolent, even to pole. 
the King, in a former negotiation - Hans Stanley, Esq. Walpole. 

To Sir Horace Mann 59 

whether successful or disadvantageous. Sir William Williams, 
a young man much talked of, from his exceeding ambition, 
enterprising spirit, and some parts in Parliament, is already 
fallen there ; and even he was too great a price for such 
a trumpery island we have dozens as good in the north of 
Scotland, and of as much consequence. For the Empress 
Queen, she has marked her Christian disposition to peace 
sufficiently, by forbidding her Knights of Malta to assist 
their religion, lest it should offend the Turk, and take her 
off from pursuing the King of Prussia. 

Your friend, Lord Huntingdon, is safe at least till some 
new court earthquake. To Mr. Dodington you ask what 
you shall say ? Nothing : but to my Lord Melcombe address 
as many lords and lordships as you please, and you cannot 
err : he is as fond of his title as his child could be, if he had 
one. Another of your friends, Lord Northampton, is named 
to return the compliment to Venice s . 

I rejoice that you have got Mr. Pitt 4 ; make him a thousand 
speeches from me, and tell him how much I say you witt 
like one another. You will be happy too in Sir Kichard 
Lyttelton and his Duchess 5 ; they are the best humoured 
people in the world. I promised you another Duchess, the 
famous beauty Duchess, she of Hamilton, but she is returning 
to England. In her room I announce her Grace of Grafton 6 , 
a passion of mine not a regular beauty, but one of the 
finest women you ever saw, and with more dignity and 
address. She is one of our first great ladies. She goes 
first to Genoa an odd place for her health, but she is not 
very bad. The Duke goes with her, and as it is not much 

3 Lord Northampton had been ap- first Lord Lyttelton. Walpole. 

pointed Ambassador to Venice. 6 Anne Liddel, only child of Lord 

* Thomas Pitt, of Boconnock. Wai- Bavensworth, was first married to 

pole. Augustus Henry, Duke of Grafton, 

8 Rachel, Duchess Dowager of and, being divorced from him, 

Bridgwater, married to her second secondly, to John Fitzpatrick, second 

husband, Richard, brother of George, Earl of Upper Ossory. Walpole. 

60 To George Montagu [1761 

from inclination that she goes, perhaps they will not agree 
whither they shall go next. He is a man of strict honour, 
and does not want sense, nor good-breeding ; but is not 
particularly familiar, nor particularly good-humoured, nor 
at all particularly generous. 

I sent your proposal to Dr. Dalton ; the answer was, he 
was in Holland, but was expected in a week neither the 
week nor he are arrived yet. 

As we have a rage at present for burlettas, I wish you 
would send me the music of your present one, which 
you say is so charming. If pleasures can tempt people 
to stay in town, there will be a harvest all summer; 
operas at the little theatre in the Haymarket, and plays 
at Drury Lane. 

I have lost one of the oldest friends I had in the world, 
Lord Edgecumbe ; a martyr to gaming : with every quality 
to make himself agreeable, he did nothing but make himself 
miserable. I feel the loss much, though long expected ; and 
it is the more sensible here, where I saw most of him. My 
towers rise, my galleries and cloisters extend for what? 
For me to leave, or to inhabit by myself, when I have 
survived my friends ! Yet, with these ungrateful reflections, 
how I wish once to see you here ! And of what should we 
most talk ? of a dear friend we have both, alas ! survived. 
Gal served me to talk to of you now I can only talk to you 
of him ! But I will not I love to communicate my satisfac- 
tions my melancholy I generally shut up in my own breast ! 
Adieu ! 


Strawberry Hill, May 14, 1761. 

As I am here, and know nothing of our poor heroes at 
Belleisle, who are combating rocks, mines, famine, and 
Mr. Pitt's obstinacy, I will send you the victory of a 

17G1] To George Montagu 61 

heroine but must preface it with an apology, as it was 
gained over a sort of relation of yours. Jemmy Lumley l 
last week had a party of whisk at his own house; the 
combatants, Lucy Southwell 2 , that curtseys like a bear, 
Mrs. Prujean, and a Mrs. Mackinsy. They played from 
six in the evening till twelve next day; Jemmy never 
winning one rubber, and rising a loser of two thousand 
pound. How it happened I know not, nor why his suspicions 
arrived so late, but he fancied himself cheated, and refused 
to pay. However, the bear had no share in his evil surmises. 
On the contrary, a day or two afterwards, he promised 
a dinner at Hampstead to Lucy and her virtuous sister 3 . 
As he went to the rendezvous his chaise was stopped by 
somebody, who advised him not to proceed. Yet no whit 
daunted, he advanced. In the garden he found the gentle 
conqueress, Mrs. Mackinsy, who accosted him in the most 
friendly manner. After a few compliments, she asked him 
if he did not intend to pay her 'No, indeed I shan't, 
I shan't ; your servant, your servant.' ' Shan't you ? ' said 
the fair virago and taking a horsewhip from beneath her 
hoop, she fell upon him with as much vehemence as the 
Empress-Queen would upon the King of Prussia, if she 
could catch him alone in the garden at Hampstead Jemmy 
cried out murder ; his servants rushed in, rescued him from 
the jaws of the lioness, and carried him off in his chaise to 
town. The Southwells, who were already arrived, and 
descended on the noise of the fray, finding nobody to pay 
for the dinner, and fearing they must, set out for London 
too, without it, though I suppose they had prepared tin 
pockets to carry off all that should be left. Mrs. Mackinsy 
is immortal, and in the Crown Office. 

LETTKE 752. * Hon. James Lum- 2 Hon. Lucy Southwell, second 

ley, son of first Earl of Scarborough ; daughter of first Baron Southwell, 

his sister married the Earl of Halifax, s Hon. Frances Southwell. 
Montagu's uncle. 

62 To George Montagu [JTGI 

I can tell you two more quarrels, that have not ended 
quite so bloodily. Long Herbert has lately made some 
alterations to his house in Berkeley Square : the workmen 
overturned three stone posts. Lady Mary Coke's servants 
disputed with his for the property, and she herself sent him 
a message about them. . . .* 

The last battle in my military journal happened between 
the mother of the last-mentioned dame and Lord Vere. The 
Duchess, who always talks of puss and pug, and who, having 
lost her memory, forgets how often she tells the same story, 
had tired the company at Dorset House with the repetition of 
this narration ; when the Duke's spaniel reached up into her 
lap, and placed his nose as critically . . . 6 'See,' said she, 
'see, how fond all creatures are of me.' Lord Vere, who 
was at cards, and could not attend to them from her 
gossipping, said peevishly, without turning round or seeing 
where the dog was, 'I suppose he smells puss.' 'What!' 
said the Duchess of Argyle, in a passion, ' do you think my 
puss stinks ? ' I believe you have not three better stories 
in Northamptonshire. 

Don't imagine that my gallery will be prance-about-irnible, 
as you expect, by the beginning of June ; I do not propose 
to finish it till next year but you will see some glimpse of 
it and for the rest of Strawberry, it never was more 
beautiful. You must now begin to fix your motions : I go 
to Lord Dacre's the end of this month, and to Lord 
Ilchester's the end of the next between those periods 
I expect you. 

Saturday morning, Arl. Street. 

I came to town yesterday for a party at Bedford House, 
made for Princess Emily ; the garden was open, with French 
horns and clarionets, and would have been charming with 
one single zephyr that had not come from the north-east 

* Passage omitted. 8 Passage omitted. 

1761] To George Montagu 63 

however, the young ladies found it delightful. There was 
limited loo for the Princess, unlimited for the Duchess of 
Grafton, to whom I belonged, a table of quinze, and another 
of quadrille. The Princess had heard of our having cold 
meat upon the loo-table, and would have some. A table 
was brought in, she was served so, others rose by turns and 
went to the cold meat ; in the outward room were four little 
tables for the rest of the company. Think, if George the 
Second could have risen and seen his daughter supping pell- 
mell with men, as it were in a booth ! The tables were 
removed, the young people began to dance to a tabor and 
pipe ; the Princess sat down again, but to unlimited loo, we 
played till three, and I won enough to help on the gallery. 
I am going back to it, to give my nieces and their lords 
a dinner. 

We were told there was a great victory come from Pondi- 
cherry 6 , but it came from too far to divert us from liking 
our party better. Poor George Monson 7 has lost his leg 
there. You know that Sir W. Williams has made Fred 
Montagu heir to his debts. Adieu ! 

Yours ever, 

H. W. 

6 Oent. Mag. 1761. 'Friday, May sary of life. Other accounts say, 

15. Advice was received over land that the siege was obliged to be 

by the way of Bassora from the East raised on account of the monsoons, 

Indies, that the garrison of Pon- but was to be resumed in Jan. (last).' 

dicherry had made a vigorous sally, Pondicherry surrendered to the Eng- 

but were repulsed with great loss, lish under Colonel (afterwards Sir 

and that, on our side, Col. Monson Eyre) Coote and Admiral Stevens on 

had one of his legs shot off by Jan. 15, 1761. 

a cannon ball This account came 7 Colonel (afterwards Lieutenant- 

by the Groine mail, and adds, that General) Hon. George Monson (1730- 

the English expected soon to be 1776), third son of first Baron Mon- 

masters of the place, as they had son, afterwards well known as an 

learned by the prisoners that the opponent of Warren Hastings, 
garrison was in want of every neces- 

64 To Lady Mary Coke [1701 


DEAR MADAM, Strawberry Hill, June 3, 1761. 

I will renounce my new vocation if my zeal hath eaten 
you up. I intended to laugh you out of danger, but I resign 
all the honour that has attended my preaching, if I have 
given you an uneasy moment or a disagreeable thought. 
You answer me too seriously upon the foot of looks ; I wish 
I could always justify myself as well as I can on this 
chapter ! Did ever any man tell a very pretty woman that 
she looked ill, but when it was in her power to look well, 
or when she was sure of looking well immediately ? It is 
brutal a behaviour I think your Ladyship cannot suspect 
me of to tell a woman her beauty is gone ; it is kind to 
warn her to preserve it, or to take care to recover it when it 
is clouded by sickness. I don't love to put myself too much 
in your power, but how are you sure that I was not jealous 
lest anybody should look better than you at the Birthday? 
I knew you would not borrow any bloom, I knew a little 
time would restore it ; it is for the honour of my passion 
that you should never be seen without being admired, and 
it imported to my glory that Lady Mary Coke should rather 
be missed at the first Birthday of the King, than that 
a charm of hers should be missing. But I had a better 
reason than all these ; I was seriously afraid of your hurting 
yourself, and my having staggered your resolution proves to 
me, that if our divines make no more converts, it is because 
they do not feel what they preach *. I was eloquent because 
I spoke from my heart. 

I propose to be in town on Friday, and shall be happy to 
receive your commands for a visit from Strawberry if Straw- 

LETTKR 768. Not in C. ; reprinted to dissuade Lady Mary Coke from 

from Letters and Journals of Lady going to the King's Birthday, as she 

Mary Coke, vol. iii. pp. xiv-xv. had lately been ill." (Horace Walpole, 

1 ' May 30. Wrote a mock sermon Short Notts of my Life.) 

I76i] To the Countess of Ailesbury 65 

berry is not drowned. I have scarce been able to stir out of 
the house since Monday morning ; my workmen are all at 
a stand, and the deluge seems to be arrived before my ark 
is half ready. Adieu ! Madam. 

Your most faithful 

Humble servant, 



Strawberry Hill, June 13, 1761. 

I NEVER ate such good snuff, nor smelt such delightful 
bonbons, as your Ladyship has sent me. Every time you 
rob the Duke's dessert, does it cost you a pretty snuff-box ? 
Do the pastors at the Hague * enjoin such expensive retribu- 
tions? If a man steals a kiss there, I suppose he does 
penance in a sheet of Brussels lace. The comical part is, 
that you own the theft, and send it me, but say nothing of 
the vehicle of your repentance. In short, Madam, the box 
is the prettiest thing I ever saw, and I give you a thousand 
thanks for it. 

When you comfort yourself about the operas, you don't 
know what you have lost ; nay, nor I neither ; for I was 
here, concluding that a serenata for a Birthday would be as 
dull and as vulgar as those festivities generally are: but 
I hear of nothing but the enchantment of it. There was 
a second orchestra in the footman's gallery, disguised by 
clouds, and filled with the music of the King's chapel. The 
choristers behaved like angels, and the harmony between 
the two bands was in the most exact time. Elisi piqued 
himself, and beat both heaven and earth. The joys of the 
year do not end there. The under-actors open at Drury Lane 
to-night with a new comedy by Murphy, called All in the 

LKTTKK 754. 1 Lady Ailesbury re- Conway was with the army during 
mained at the Hague while Mr. the campaign of 1761. Berry. 


66 To the Countess of Ailesbury [i76i 

Wrong. At Kanelagh, all is fireworks and sky-rockets. The 
Birthday exceeded the splendour of Haroun Alraschid and 
the Arabian Nights, when people had nothing to do but to 
scour a lantern and send a genie for a hamper of diamonds 
and rubies. Do you remember one of those stories 2 , where 
a prince has eight statues of diamonds, which he overlooks, 
because he fancies he wants a ninth ; and to his great 
surprise the ninth proves to be pure flesh and blood, which 
he never thought of ? Somehow or other, Lady Sarah is the 
ninth statue ; and, you will allow, has better white and red 
than if she was made of pearls and rubies. Oh ! I forgot, 

I was telling you of the Birthday: my Lord P had 

drunk the King's health so often at dinner, that at the ball 

he took Mrs. for a beautiful woman, and, as she says, 

' made an improper use of his hands.' The proper use of 
hers, she thought, was to give him a box on the ear, though 
within the verge of the court. He returned it by a push, 
and she tumbled off the end of the bench ; which his 
Majesty has accepted as sufficient punishment, and she is 
not to lose her right hand s . 

I enclose the list your Ladyship desired : you will see that 
the plurality of Worlds are Moore's 4 , and of some I do not 
know the authors. There is a late edition with these names 
to them. 

My Duchess 5 was to set out this morning. I saw her 
for the last time the day before yesterday at Lady Kildare's : 
never was a journey less a party of pleasure. She was so 
melancholy, that all Miss Pelham's oddness and my spirits 
could scarce make her smile. Towards the end of the 

a The story of King Zeyn Alasnam. 1757. A collected edition of the 

3 The old punishment for giving papers appeared in that year, and 
a blow in the King's presence. Berry, another in 1761. The mention of 

4 Edward Moore, author of sixty- the plurality of Worlds is an allusion 
one out of the two hundred and ten to Fontenelle's Entretiens de la Plura- 
papera of the periodical called The lite des Mondes. 

World, which ceased to appear in 8 The Duchess of Grafton. 

I76i] To ike Countess of Ailesbury 67 

night, and that was three in the morning, I did divert 
her a little. I slipped Pam into her lap, and then taxed her 
with having it there. She was quite confounded ; but 
taking it up, saw he had a telescope in his hand, which 
I had drawn, and that the card, which was split, and just 
waxed together, contained these lines : 

Ye simple astronomers, lay by your glasses; 

The transit of Venus 6 has proved you all asses: 

Your telescopes signify nothing to scan it ; 

'Tis not meant in the clouds, 'tis not meant of a planet : 

The seer who foretold it mistook or deceives us, 

For Venus's transit is when Grafton leaves us. 

I don't send your Ladyship these verses as good, but to show 
you that all gallantry does not centre at the Hague. 

I wish I could tell you that Stanley and Bussy, by 
crossing over and figuring in, had forwarded the Peace. It 
is no more made than Belleisle is taken. However, I flatter 
myself that you will not stay abroad till you return for the 
Coronation, which is ordered for the beginning of October. 
I don't care to tell you how lovely the season is ; how my 
acacias are powdered with flowers, and my hay just in its 
picturesque moment. Do they ever make any other hay 
in Holland than bulrushes in ditches ? My new buildings 
rise so swiftly, that I shall not have a shilling left, so far 
from giving commissions on Amsterdam. When I have 
made my house so big that I don't know what to do with it, 
and am entirely undone, I propose, like King Pyrrhus 7 , who 
took such a roundabout way to a bowl of punch, to sit down 
and enjoy myself ; but with this difference, that it is better 

6 The transit of Venus took place should have conquered the world, 
on June 6, 1761. replied that he proposed to pass his 

7 A reference to an anecdote re- time in feasting and pleasure ; where- 
lated by Plutarch in his Life of upon Cineas asked Pyrrhus why he 
Pyrrhus, King of Epirus. Pyrrhus, did not take his ease at once, instead 
when asked by his friend Cineas of first undergoing the toils and 
what he intended to do when he perils of war ? 

F 2 

68 To George Montagu [ITGI 

to ruin one's self than all the world. I am sure you would 
think as I do, though Pyrrhus were King of Prussia. I long 
to have you bring back the only hero 8 that ever I could 
endure. Adieu, Madam ! I sent you just such another piece 
of tittle-tattle as this by General Waldegrave : you are very 
partial to me, or very fond of knowing everything that 
passes in your own country, if you can be amused so. If 
you can, 'tis surely my duty to divert you, though at the 
expense of my character ; for I own I am Ashamed when 
I look back and see four sides of paper scribbled over with 
nothings. Your Ladyship's most faithful servant, 



Strawberry Hill, June 18, 1761. 

I AM glad you will come on Monday, and hope you will 
arrive in a rainbow and pair, to signify that we are not to 
be totally drowned. It has rained incessantly, and floated 
all my new works ; I seem rather to be building a pond 
than a gallery. My farm too is all under water, and what 
is vexatious, if Sunday had not thrust itself between, I could 
have got in my hay on Monday. As the parsons will let 
nobody else make hay on Sundays, I think they ought to 
make it on that day themselves. 

By the papers I see Mrs. Trevor Hampden 1 is dead of the 
smallpox. Will he be much concerned ? 

If you stay with me a fortnight or three weeks, perhaps 
I may be able to carry you to a play of Mr. Bentley's you 
stare but I am in earnest nay, and de par le roy. In 
short, here is the history of it. You know the passion he 

8 Her husband, General Conway. (1706-1783), third son of first Baron 

LETTER 755. * Constantly, daugh- Trevor. He took the name of Hamp- 

ter of Peter Antony de Huybert, den in 1754 ; succeeded his brother 

Lord of Van-Kruyningen in Hoi- as fourth Baron Trevor, 1764 ; and 

land; m. (1743) Hon. Robert Trevor was created Viscount Hampden, 17 76. 

1761] To George Montagu 69 

always had for the Italian comedy. About two years ago 
he writ one, intending to get it offered to Kich but without 
his name. He would have died to be supposed an author, 
and writing for gain. I kept this a most inviolable secret. 
Judge then of my surprise, when about a fortnight or three 
weeks ago, I found my Lord Melcomb reading this very 
Bentleiad in a circle at my Lady Hervey's. Cumberland 2 
had carried it to him with a recommendatory copy of verses, 
containing more incense to the King, and my Lord Bute, 
than the Magi brought in their portmanteaus to Jerusalem. 
The idols were propitious, and to do them justice, there is 
a great deal of wit in the piece, which is called The Wishes, 
or Harlequin's Mouth Opened. A bank-note of 200Z. was sent 
from the Treasury to the author, and the play ordered to be 
performed by the summer company. Foote was summoned 
to Lord Melcomb's, where Parnassus, was composed of the 
peer himself, who, like Apollo, as I am going to tell you, 
was dozing, the two chief justices, and Lord Bute. Bubo 8 read 
the play himself, ' with handkerchief and orange by his side.' 
But the curious part is a prologue, which I never saw. It 
represents the god of verse fast asleep by the side of Helicon. 
The race of modern bards try to wake him, but the more 
they repeat their works, the louder he snores. At last 'Ruin 
seize thee, ruthless King,' is heard, and the god starts from his 
trance. This is a good thought, but will offend the bards 
so much, that I think Dr. Bentley's son will be abused at 
least as much as his father was. The prologue concludes 
with young Augustus, and how much he excels the ancient 
one by the choice of his friend. Foote refused to act this 
prologue, and said it was too strong. 'Indeed,' said 
Augustus's friend, 'I think it is.' They have softened it 

8 Richard Cumberland (1782-181 1), called ' Bubo ' by Pope in the Prologue 

dramatist, nephew of Richard Bent- to the Satires, from which (line 228) 

ley the younger. the quotation in the next line is 

3 Bubb Dodington, Lord Melcombe, taken. 

70 To George Montagu [i?6i 

a little, and I suppose it will be performed. You may 
depend upon the truth of all this ; but what is much more 
credible is, that the comely young author appears every night 
in the Mall in a milk-white coat with a blue cape, disclaims 
any benefit, and says he has done with the play now it is 
out of his own hands, and that Mrs. Hannah Clio, alias 
Bentley, writ the best scenes in it. He is going to write 
a tragedy, and she, I suppose, is going to court. 

You will smile when I tell you that t'other day a party 
went to Westminster Abbey, and among the rest saw the 
ragged regiment 4 . They inquired the names of the figures. 
' I don't know them,' said the man, ' but if Mr. Walpole was 
here he could tell you every one.' 

Adieu ! I expect Mr. John and you with impatience. 

Yours ever, H. W. 


Strawberry Hill, July 5, 1761. 

You are a pretty sort of a person to come to one's house 
and get sick, only to have an excuse for not returning to it. 
Your departure is so abrupt, that I don't know but I may 
expect to find that Mrs. Jane Truebridge, whom you com- 
mend so much, and call Mrs. Mary, will prove Mrs. Hannah. 
Mrs. Clive is still more disappointed ; she had proposed to 
play at quadrille with you from dinner to supper, and to 
sing old Purcell to you from supper to breakfast next 
morning. If you cannot trust yourself from Greatworth 
for a whole fortnight, how will you do in Ireland for six 
months ? Kemember all my preachments, and never be in 
spirits at supper. Seriously I am sorry you are out of order, 
but am alarmed for you at Dublin, and though all the bench 
of bishops should quaver Purcell's hymns, don't let them 
warble you into a pint of wine I wish you was going 
* The wax effigies formerly carried in funeral processions. 

1761] To the Earl of Straffbrd 71 

among Catholic prelates, who would deny you the cup. 
Think of me and resist temptation. Adieu ! 

Yours ever, 
H. W. 


MY DEAR LORD, Strawberry Hill, July 5, 1761. 

1 cannot live at Twickenham and not think of you: 
I have long wanted to write, and had nothing to tell you. 
My Lady Denbigh seems to have lost her sting ; she has 
neither blown up a house nor a quarrel since you departed. 
Her wall, contiguous to you, is built, but so precipitate and 
slanting, that it seems hurrying to take water. I hear she 
grows sick of her undertakings. We have been ruined by 
deluges ; all the country was under water. Lord Holder- 
nesse's new fosse 1 was beaten in for several yards : this 
tempest was a little beyond the dew of Hermon, that fell on 
the HUl of Sion. I have been in still more danger by 
water : my parroquet was on my shoulder as I was feeding 
my gold-fish, and flew into the middle of the pond : I was 
very near being the Nouvelle Eloi'se 2 , and tumbling in after 
him ; but with much ado I ferried him out with my hat. 

Lord Edgecumbe has had a fit of apoplexy ; your brother 
Charles 8 a bad return of his old complaint ; and Lord 
Melcombe has tumbled down the kitchen stairs, and waked 

London is a desert ; no soul in it but the King. Bussy 
has taken a temporary house. The world talks of peace 
would I could believe it! every newspaper frightens me: 
Mr. Conway would be very angry if he knew how I dread 
the very name of the Prince de Soubise. 

LETTER 757. 1 At Sion Trm, near * Charles Townshend, married to 

Brentford. Walpole. Lady Greenwich, eldest sister to 

2 Rousseau's Julie, ou la Nouvelle Lady Strafford. Walpole, 
Elotee, recently published. 

72 To Sir Horace Mann [i?6i 

We begin to perceive the tower of Kew * from Montpellier 
Kow B ; in a fortnight you will see it in Yorkshire. 

The apostle Whitfield is come to some shame : he went 
to Lady Huntingdon lately, and asked for forty pounds for 
some distressed saint or other. She said she had not so 
much money in the house, but would give it him the first 
time she had. He was very pressing, but in vain. At last 
he said, ' There's your watch and trinkets, you don't want 
such vanities ; I will have that.' She would have put him 
off : but he persisting, she said, ' Well, if you must have 
it you must.' About a fortnight afterwards, going to his 
house, and being carried into his wife's chamber, among the 
paraphernalia of the latter the Countess found her own 
offering. This has made a terrible schism : she tells the 
story herself I had not it from Saint Frances ', but I hope 
it is true. Adieu, my dear Lord ! 

Yours ever, 


P.S. My gallery sends its humble duty to your new front, 
and all my creatures beg their respects to my Lady. 


Strawberry Hill, July 9, 1761. 

WAS it worth while to write a letter on purpose to tell 
you that Belleisle was taken? I did not think the news 
deserved postage. I stayed, and hoped to send you peace. 
Yesterday I concluded I should. An extraordinary Privy 
Council of all the members in and near town was summoned 
by the King's own messengers, not by those of the Council, 
to meet on the most urgent and important business. To 

* The pagoda in the royal garden '' In Twickenham, 
at Kew. Walpole. 6 Lady Frances Shirley. Walpcle. 

1761] To Sir Horace Mann 73 

sanctify or to reject the pacification, was concluded. Not 
at all To declare a queen. Urgent business enough, I 
believe ; I do not see how it was important. The hand- 
kerchief has been tossed a vast way ; it is to a Charlotte *, 
Princess of Mecklenbourg. Lord Harcourt is to be at her 
father's court if he can find it on the 1st of August, and 
the Coronation of both their Majesties is fixed for the 22nd 
of September. What food for newsmongers, tattle, solicita- 
tions, mantua-makers, jewellers, &c., for above two months 
to come ! 

Though exceedingly rejoiced that we are to have more 
young princes and princesses, I cannot help wishing the 
Council had met for a peace. It seems to be promised, but 
I hate delays, and dread the episode of a battle. Bussy has 
taken a temporary house, and is to be presented here as 
Stanley has been at Paris. 

You will be pleased with a story from thence : Monsieur 
de Souvr6 2 , a man of wit, was at Madame Pompadour's, 
who is learning German. He said, 'II me semble que 
depuis que Madame la Marquise apprenne I'Allemande, elle 
ecorche le francois.' As the company laughed violently at 
this, the King came in, and would know what diverted 
them so much. They were forced to tell him. He was 
very angry, and said, 'Monsieur de Souvr6, est-il longtems 
que vous n'avez pas et4 a vos terres?' 'Oui, Sire,' replied 
he ; * mais je compte d'y partir ce soir.' The frank hardiesse 
of the answer saved him. 

Have you seen Voltaire's miserable imitation, or second 
part, or dregs, of his Candide ? Have you seen his delightful 
ridicule of the Nouvelk EMse, called Prediction ? 

I have often threatened you with a visit at Florence; 

LETTER 758. * Charlotte Sophia 1761, and was married to George III 
(1744-1818), daughter of Charles in the evening of Sept. 8. 
Louis, Prince of 'Mecklcnburg-Strelitz. 2 The Chevalier de Souvr6, after- 
She reached England on Sept. 7, wards Marquis de Louvois. 

74 To George Montagu [i76i 

I believe I shall now be forced to make you one, for I am 
ruining myself; my gallery, cabinet, and round tower, 
will cost immensely. However, if you can, find me a 
pedestal ; it will at least look well in my auction. The 
brocadella I shall postpone a little, not being too impatient 
for a commission of bankruptcy. 

I have not connection enough with the Northumberlands 
to recommend a governor for their son. I don't even know 
that he is going abroad. The poor lad 3 , who has a miser- 
able constitution, has been very near taking a longer 
journey. His brother* has as flimsy a texture; and they 
have just lost their only daughter 8 . 

Adieu ! We shall abound with news for three or four 
months, but it will all be of pageants. 


Strawberry Hill, Friday night, July 10, 1761. 
I DID not notify the King's marriage to you yesterday, 
because I knew you would learn as much by the Evening 
Post, as I could tell you. The solemn manner of summoning 
the Council was very extraordinary : people little imagined 
that the urgent and important business in the rescript was to 
acquaint them that his Majesty was going to lose his 
maidenhead. You may choose what complexion you please 
for the new Queen : every colour under the sun is given to 
her. All I can tell you of truth, is, that Lord Harcourt 
goes to fetch her, and comes back her Master of Horse. 

3 Earl Percy, eldest son of the created in 1766. His second son 
Duke and Duchess of Northumber- succeeded him as Baron Lovaine in 
land. Wdlpole. He succeeded his 1786, was created Earl of Beverley 
father in 1786 as second Duke, and in 1790, and died in 1880. 

died in 1817. 6 Lady Elizabeth Anne Frances 

4 Lord Algernon Percy. Lord Percy ; d. May 27, 1761. 
Northumberland was not made a LETTER 759. Wrongly dated by 
duke till after the period of the C. July 16. 

letter above. Walpole. He was so 

176i] To' George Montagu 75 

She is to be here in August, and the Coronation certainly 
on the 22nd of September. Think of the joy the women 
feel there is not a Scotch peer in the Fleet, that might not 
marry the greatest fortune in England between this and the 
22nd of September. However, the ceremony will lose its 
two brightest luminaries, my niece Waldegrave for beauty, 
and the Duchess of Grafton for figure. The first will be 
lying-in, the latter at Geneva but I think she will come, 
if she walks to it, as well as at it. I cannot recollect but 
Lady Kildare and Lady Pembroke of great beauties. Mrs. 
Bloodworth and Mrs. Kobert Brudenel, Bedchamber Women ; 
Miss Wrottesley l and Miss Meadows, Maids of Honour, go to 
receive the Princess at Helvoet ; what Lady I do not hear. 
Your cousin's Grace of Manchester, they say, is to be 
Chamberlain, and Mr. Stone, Treasurer the Duchess of 
Ancaster 2 and Lady Bolinbroke 3 of her Bedchamber: these 
I do not know are certain, but hitherto all seems well 
chosen. Miss Molly Howe, one of the pretty Bishops, and 
a daughter of Lady Harry Beauclerc, are talked of for Maids 
of Honour. The great apartment at St. James's is enlarging, 
and to be furnished with the pictures from Kensington: 
this does not portend a new palace. 

In the midst of all this novelty and hurry, my mind is very 
differently employed. They expect every minute the news 
of a battle between Soubise and the Hereditary Prince. 
Mr. Conway is, I believe, in the latter's army; judge if I 
can be thinking much of espousals and coronations ! It is 
terrible to be forced to sit still, expecting such an event in 

1 Mary, eldest daughter of Eev. St. John, second Viscount Boling- 
Sir Richard Wrottesley, seventh broke, from whom she was divorced 
Baronet ; d. 1769. in 1768 ; 2. (1768) Topham Beau- 

2 Mary, daughter of Thomas Pan- clerk, grandson of first Duke of 
ton ; m. (1750) Peregrine Bertie, St. Albans. She had considerable 
third Duke of Aiicaster. artistic talent, and executed for 

3 Lady Diana Spencer (1734-1808), Horace Walpole a series of designs 
eldest daughter of third Duke of in illustration of his tragedy The, 
Marlborough; in. 1. (1757) Frederick Mysterious Mother, 

76 To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway [1761 

one's own room one is not obliged to be a hero; conse- 
quently, I tremble for one that is really a hero ! 

Mr. H. 4 , your secretary, has been to see me to-day ; I 
am quite ashamed not to have prevented him. I will go 
to-morrow with all the speeches I can muster. 

I am sorry neither you nor your brother are quite well, 
but shall be content if my Pythagorean sermons have 
any weight with you. You go to Ireland to make the rest 
of your life happy don't go to fling the rest of it away ! 
Good night ! 

Yours most faithfully, 
.0* H.W. 

Mr. Chute is gone to his Chutehood. 


Arlington Street, July 14, 1761. 

MY dearest Harry, how could you write me such a cold 
letter as I have just received from you, and beginning Dear 
Sir I Can you be angry with me, for can I be in fault to 
you? Blamable in ten thousand other respects, may not 
I almost say I am perfect with regard to you ? Since I was 
fifteen have not I loved you unalterably? Since I was 
capable of knowing your merit, has not my admiration been 
veneration ? For what could so much affection and esteem 
change ? Have not your honour, your interest, your safety 
been ever my first objects ? Oh, Harry ! if you knew what 
I have felt and am feeling about you, would you charge me 
with neglect ? If I have seen a person since you went, to 
whom my first question has not been, ' What do you hear of 
the Peace ? ' you would have reason to blame me. You say 
I write very seldom : I will tell you what, I should almost 
be sorry to have you see the anxiety I have expressed about 
4 William Gerard HamUton. 

I76i] To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway 77 

you in letters to everybody else. No ; I must except Lady 
Ailesbury, and there is not another on earth who loves you 
so well and is so attentive to whatever relates to you. 

With regard to writing, this is exactly the case : I had 
nothing to tell you ; nothing has happened ; and where you 
are, I was cautious of writing. Having neither hopes nor 
fears, I always write the thoughts of the moment, and even 
laugh to divert the person I am writing to, without any ill- 
will on the subjects I mention. But in your situation that 
frankness might be prejudicial to you : and to write grave 
unmeaning letters, I trusted you was too secure of me either 
to like them or desire them. I knew no news, nor could I : 
I have lived quite alone at Strawberry ; am connected with 
no court, ministers, or party ; consequently heard nothing, 
and events there have been none. I have not even for this 
month heard my Lady Townshend's extempore gazette. All 
the morning I play with my workmen or animals, go 
regularly every evening to the meadows with Mrs. Clive, or 
sit with my Lady Suffolk 1 , and at night scribble my 
Painters what a journal to send you ! I write more 
trifling letters than any man living ; am ashamed of them, 
and yet they are expected of me. You, my Lady Ailesbury, 
your brother, Sir Horace Mann, George Montagu, Lord 
Strafford all expect I should write of what ? I live less 
and less in the world, care for it less and less, and yet am 
thus obliged to inquire what it is doing. Do make these 
allowances for me, and remember half your letters go to my 
Lady Ailesbury. I writ to her of the King's marriage, con- 
cluding she would send it to you : tiresome as it would be, 
I will copy my own letters, if you expect it ; for I will do 
anything rather than disoblige you. I will send you a diary 
of the Duke of York's balls and Kanelaghs, inform you of 

LETTER 760. J Henrietta Hobart, Countess of Suffolk, then living at 
Marble Hill. Walpole. 

78 To the lion. Henry Seymour Conway [i76i 

how many children my Lady Berkeley is with child, and 
how many races my nephew goes to. No ; I will not, you 
do not want such proofs of my friendship. 

The papers tell us you are retiring, and I was glad. You 
seem to expect an action can this give me spirits? Can 
I write to you joyfully, and fear? Or is it fit Prince 
Ferdinand should know you have a friend that is as great 
a coward about you as your wife ? The only reason for my 
silence, that can not be true, is, that I forget you. When 
I am prudent or cautious, it is no symptom of my being 
indifferent. Indifference does not happen in friendships, as 
it does in passions ; and if I was young enough or feeble 
enough to cease to love you, I would not for my own sake 
let it be known. Your virtues are my greatest pride ; 
I have done myself so much honour by them, that I will 
not let it be known you have been peevish with me un- 
reasonably. Pray God we may have peace, that I may 
scold you for it! 

The King's marriage was kept the profoundest secret till 
last Wednesday, when the Privy Council was extraordinarily 
summoned, and it was notified to them. Since that, the 
new Queen's mother is dead, and will delay it a few days ; 
but Lord Harcourt is to sail on the 27th, and the Coronation 
will certainly be on the 22nd of September. All that 
I know fixed, is, Lord Harcourt Master of the Horse, the 
Duke of Manchester Chamberlain, and Mr. Stone Treasurer. 
Lists there are in abundance ; I don't know the authentic : 
those most talked of are Lady Bute Groom of the Stole, the 
Duchesses of Hamilton and Ancaster, Lady Northumber- 
land, Bolingbroke, Weymouth 2 , Scarborough 3 , Abergavenny, 

2 Lady Elizabeth Cavendish-Ben- 3 Barbara, daughter of Sir Georgo 

tinck, eldest daughter of second Savile, sixth Baronet; m. (1752) 

Duke of Portland ; m. (1759) Thomas Richard Lumley-Saunderson, fourth 

Thynne, third Viscount Weymouth, Earl of Scarborough ; d. 1797. 
afterwards Marquis of Bath. 

I76i] To Grosvenor Bedford 79 

Effingham *, for Ladies ; you may choose any six of them 
you please ; the four first are most probable. Misses, Henry 
Beauclerc, M. Howe, Meadows, Wrottesley, Bishop, &c., &c. 
Choose your Maids too. Bedchamber Women, Mrs. Blood- 
worth, Robert Brudenel, Charlotte Dives, Lady Erskine ; in 
short, I repeat a mere newspaper. 

We expect the final answer of France this week. Bussy 5 
was in great pain on the fireworks for Quebec, lest he should 
be obliged to illuminate his house : you see I ransack my 
memory for something to tell you. 

Adieu ! I have more reason to be angry than you had ; 
but I am not so hasty : you are of a violent, impetuous, jealous 
temper I, cool, sedate, reasonable. I believe I must subscribe 
my name, or you will not know me by this description. 

Yours unalterably, 



DEAR SIB, Strawb. Sunday 1 . 

I will beg you to copy the following lines 2 for me, and 
bring or send them, whichever is most convenient to you, 
to my house in Arlington Street on Tuesday morning. 
Pray don't mention them to anybody. 

Yours, &c., 


I hope you did not suffer by all the trouble I gave you 

* Elizabeth, daughter of Peter LETTER 761. 1 Probably July 19, 

Beckford, of Jamaica ; m. 1. (1746) 1761, which fell on Sunday. 

Thomas Howard, second Earl of 2 ' July 16, 1761. Wrote The Gar- 

Emngham; 2. (1776) Field-Marshal land, a poem on the King, and sent 

Sir George Howard, K.B. ; d. 1791. it to Lady Bute, but not in my own 

5 The Abb6 de Bussy, sent here hand, nor with my name, nor did 

with overtures of peace. Mr. Stanley ever own it.' (Horace Walpole, Short 

was at the same time sent to Paris. Notes of my Life.) 

80 To the Countess of Ailesbury [1701 


In private life, where Virtues safely bloom, 
What flow'rs diffuse their favourite perfume? 

Devotion first the Garland's front commands, 
Like some fair Lily borne by Angel hands. 
Next, Filial Love submissive warmth displays, 
Like Heliotropes, that court their parent rays. 
Friendship, that yields its fragrance but to those 
That near approach it, like the tender Kose, 
As royal Amaranths, unchanging Truth ; 
And Violet-like, the bashful blush of youth. 
Chaste Purity by no loose heat misled, 
Like virgin Snowdrops in a winter bed. 
Prudence, the Sensitive, whose leaves remove 
When hands, too curious, would their texture prove. 
Bounty, full-flush'd at once with fruit and flower, 
As Citrons give and promise ev'ry hour. 
Soft Pity last, whose dews promiscuous fall, 
Like lavish Eglantines, refreshing all. 

How blest a cottage where such Virtues dwell ! 
To Heaven ascends the salutary smell : 
But should such virtues round imperial state 
Their cordial gales in balmy clouds dilate, 
Nations a long-lost Paradise would own, 
And Happiness reclaim her proper Throne. 
Hate, Discord, War, and each foul ill would cease, 
And laurel'd Conquest only lead to Peace. 

' Ah ! vain Idea ! ' cries the servile Bard, 
Who lies for hire, and flatters for reward ; 
'Such I have sung of such have never seen 
My Kings were visions and a dream my Queen. 

Point out the charming Phantom.' One there is 

Un-nam'd the world will own the Garland His: 
Truth so exactly wove the wreath for one, 
It must become his honest brow or none. 


Strawberry Hill, July 20, 1761. 

I BLUSH, dear Madam, on observing that half my letters 
to your Ladyship are prefaced with thanks for presents : 

1761] To the Countess of Ailesbury 81 

don't mistake ; I am not ashamed of thanking you, but of 
having so many occasions for it. Monsieur Hop has sent 
me the piece of china : I admire it as much as possible, and 
intend to like him as much as ever I can ; but hitherto I have 
not seen him, not having been in town since he arrived. 

Could I have believed that the Hague would so easily 
compensate for England ? nay, for Park Place ! Adieu, all 
our agreeable suppers ! Instead of Lady Cecilia's J French 
songs, we shall have Madame Welderen 2 quavering a con- 
fusion of d's and t's, b's and p's Bourquoi sqais du llaire 3 ? 
Worse than that, I expect to meet all my mad relations 
at your house, and Sir Samson Gideon instead of Charles 
Townshend. You will laugh like Mrs. Tipkin 4 when a Dutch 
Jew tells you that he bought at two and a half per cent, and 
sold at four. Come back, if you have any taste left : you 
had better be here talking robes, ermine, and tissue, jewels 
and tresses, as all the world does, than own you are so 
corrupted. Did you receive my notification of the new 
Queen? Her mother is dead, and she will not be here 
before the end of August. 

My mind is much more at peace about Mr. Conway than 
it was. Nobody thinks there will be a battle, as the French 
did not attack them when both armies shifted camps ; and 
since that, Soubise has entrenched himself up to the 
whiskers : whiskers I think he has, I have been so afraid 
of him ! Yet our hopes of meeting are still very distant : 
the Peace does not advance ; and if Europe has a stiver left in 
its pockets, the war will continue ; though happily all parties 

LETTER 762. l Lady Cecilia West, Baron Griffin, and wife of Count 

daughter of John, Earl of Delawar, Welderen,Envoy Extraordinary from 

afterwards married to General James the States General. 

Johnston. Walpole. 3 The first words of a favourite 

2 Anne (d. 1796), second daughter French air. Walpole. 

of William Whitwell, of Oundle, * A character in the Tender Hus- 

Northamptonshire, by Hon. Anne band, or the Accomplished Foolt. 

Griffin, second daughter of second Walpole. 


82 To the Countess of Ailesbury [1761 

have been so scratched, that they only sit and look anger at 
one another, like a dog and cat that don't care to begin again. 

We are in danger of losing our sociable box at the Opera. 
The new Queen is very musical, and if Mr. Deputy Hodges 
and the City don't exert their veto, will probably go to the 
Haymarket. . . . George Pitt, in imitation of the Adonises 
in Tanzal's 5 retinue, has asked to be her Majesty's grand 
harper. Dieu s$ait quelle raclerie il y aura 6 .' All the guitars 
are untuned ; and if Miss Conway 7 has a mind to be in 
fashion at her return, she must take some David or other 
to teach her the new twing twang, twing twing twang. As 
I am still desirous of being in fashion with your Ladyship, 
and am, over and above, very grateful, I keep no company 
but my Lady Denbigh and Lady Blandford 8 , and learn every 
evening, for two hours, to mash my English. Already 
I am tolerably fluent in saying she for he '. 

Good night, Madam ! I have no news to send you : one 
cannot announce a royal wedding and a coronation every 
post. Your most faithful and obliged servant, 


P.S. Pray, Madam, do the gnats bite your legs? Mine 
are swelled as big as one, which is saying a deal for me. 

July 22. 

I had writ this, and was not time enough for the mail, 
when I received your charming note, and this magnificent 

6 Tanzai et N6adarm6, a novel by 8 Maria Catherina, daughter of 

the younger Cre'billon. Peter de Jonge, of Utrecht ; in. 1. 

6 'Ce Francisqne venait de faire (1729) William Godolphin, Marquis 
une sarabande qui charmait ou deso- of Blandford ; 2. (1734), as his second 
lait tout le monde ; . . . toute la gui- wife, Sir William Wyndham, third 
tareriede la course mit&l'apprendre, Baronet. She was the sister of Lady 
et Dieu salt la r&clerie universelle Denbigh. She died in 1779. 

que c'e'tait.' (Grammont, H6moirea, ' A mistake which these ladies, 

ch. ix.) who were both Dutch women, con- 

7 The Honourable Anne Darner, stantly made. Berry, 

1761] To the Earl of Strafford 83 

victory 10 ! Oh ! my dear Madam, how I thank you, how 
I congratulate you, how I feel for you, how I have felt for 
you and for myself! But I bought it by two terrible 
hours to-day I heard of the battle two hours before I could 
learn a word of Mr. Conway I sent all round the world, 
and went half round it myself. I have cried and laughed, 
trembled and danced, as you bid me. If you had sent me 
as much old china as King Augustus gave two regiments 
for 11 , I should not be half so much obliged to you as for 
your note. How could you think of me, when you had 
so much reason to think of nothing but yourself? And 
then they say virtue is not rewarded in this world. I will 
preach at Paul's Cross, and quote you and Mr. Conway ; no 
two persons were ever so good and so happy. In short, 
I am serious in the height of all my joy. God is very good 
to you, my dear Madam ; I thank him for you ; I thank him 
for myself: it is very unalloyed pleasure we taste at this 
moment! Good night! My heart is so expanded, I could 
write to the last scrap of my paper ; but I won't. 

Yours most entirely, 



MY DEAK LORD, Strawberry Hill, July 22, 1761. 

I love to be able to contribute to your satisfaction, and 
I think few things would make you happier than to hear 

10 Of Zirckdenkirck. Walpole. Monday, 22nd September, 1777. 

Kirch-Denkern, in Westphalia, where, China-ware. " Saw the collection of 

on July 16, 1761, Prince Ferdinand Dresden and Indian China, curious 

of Brunswick defeated the French enough to Conoisseurs, of which I am 

under Broglie. Conway commanded not, it contained, however, the pro- 

the centre of the allied forces. gress of the Dresden or Meissen 

II The following extract from the Manufactory and 22 jars of Indian 
unpublished Journal of Captain John china which the late Kin g of Prussia 
Floyd, of the Fifteenth Light Dra- gave the King of Poland for eight 
goons (afterwards General Sir John hundred Dragoons mounted and 
Floyd, first Baronet), explains Horace equipped," ' 

Walpole's allusion : ' Dresden 

a 2 

84: To the Earl of Strafford [i76i 

that we have totally defeated the French combined armies, 
and that Mr. Conway is safe. The account came this 
morning: I had a short note from poor Lady Ailesbury, 
who was waked with the good news before she had heard 
there had been a battle. I don't pretend to send you 
circumstances, no more than I do of the wedding and 
Coronation, because you have relations and friends in town 
nearer and better informed. Indeed, only the blossom of 
victory is come yet. Fitzroy is expected, and another fuller 
courier after him. Lord Granby, to the mob's heart's 
content, has the chief honour of the day rather, of the 
two days 1 . The French behaved to the mob's content too, 
that is, shamefully : and all this glory cheaply bought on 
our side. Lieutenant-Colonel Keith 2 killed, and Colonel 
Marlay and Harry Townshend wounded. If it produces 
a peace, I shall be happy for mankind if not, shall content 
myself with the single but pure joy of Mr. Conway's being 

Well ! my Lord, when do you come ? You don't like the 
question, but kings will be married and must be crowned 
and if people will be earls, they must now and then give up 
castles and new fronts for processions and ermine. By the 
way, the number of peeresses that propose to excuse them- 
selves makes great noise ; especially as so many are breed- 
ing, or trying to breed, by commoners, that they cannot 
walk. I hear that my Lord Delawar, concluding all women 
would not dislike the ceremony, is negotiating his peerage 
in the City, and trying if any great fortune will give fifty 
thousand pounds for one day, as they often do for one night. 

I saw Miss this evening at my Lady Suffolk's, and 

fancy she does not think my Lord quite so ugly as she 

LETTER 763. 1 Broglie attacked retired after a few hours' cannonade, 
the English troops on July 15, bat 2 Keith was not killed. 

I76i] To George Montagu 85 

did two months ago. Adieu, my Lord ! This is a splendid 

Yours ever, 



Strawberry Hill, July 22, 1761. 

FOB my part, I believe Mademoiselle Scuderi drew the 
plan of this year it is all royal marriages, coronations, and 
victories ; they come tumbling so over one another from 
distant parts of the globe, that it looks just like the handi- 
work of a lady romance writer, whom it costs nothing but 
a little false geography to make the Great Mogul in love 
with a Princess of Mecklemburg, and defeat two marshals 
of France as he rides post on an elephant to his nuptials. 
I don't know where I am ! I had scarce found Meeklemburg- 
Strelitz with a magnifying-glass before I am whisked to 
Pondicherri * well, I take it, and raze it I begin to grow 
acquainted with Colonel Coote 2 , and to figure him packing 
up chests of diamonds, and sending them to his wife against 
the King's wedding thunder go the Tower guns, and behold, 
Broglio and Soubise are totally defeated if the mob have 
not a much stronger head and quicker conceptions than 
I have, they will conclude my Lord Granby is become 
nabob. How the deuce in two days can one digest all 
this? Why, is not Pondicherri in Westphalia? I don't 
know how the Eomans did, but I cannot support two 
victories every week. Well, but you will want to know 
the particulars. Broglio and Soubise being united, attacked 
our army on the 15th, but were repulsed the next day, 

LETTEB 764. 1 Pondicherry sur- a Lieutenant-Colonel Eyre Coote 
rendered to. the Kngliah, under (1726-1783) ; K.B., 1771 ; Commander- 
Admiral Stevens and Colonel Coote, in-Chief in India, 1777; Lieutenant- 
on January 15, 1761, General, 1777. 

86 To George Montagu [i?6i 

the Prince Mahomet Alii Cawn 3 no, no, I mean Prince 
Ferdinand, returned the attack, and the French threw down 
their arms and fled, run over my Lord Harcourt, who was 
going to fetch the new Queen in short, I don't know how 
it was, but Mr. Con way is safe, and I am as happy as 
Mr. Pitt himself. We have only lost a Lieutenant- 
Colonel Keith a Colonel Marlay and Harry Townshend 
are wounded. 

I could beat myself for not having a flag ready to display 
on my round tower, and guns mounted on all my battle- 
ments. Instead of that, I have been foolishly trying on 
my pictures upon my gallery However, the oratory of our 
Lady of Strawberries shall be dedicated next year on the 
anniversary of Mr. Conway's safety think with his intre- 
pidity, and delicacy of honour wounded, what I had to 
apprehend ! You shall absolutely be here on the sixteenth 
of next July. Mr. Hamilton tells me your King 4 does 
not set out for his new dominions till the day after the 
Coronation if you will come to it, I can give you a very 
good place for the procession where 5 , is a profound secret, 
because, if known, I should be teased to death, and none 
but my first friends shall be admitted. I dined with your 
secretary 6 yesterday ; there were Garrick and a young 
Mr. Burk 7 , who wrote a book in the style of Lord Bolin- 
broke, that was much admired. He is a sensible man, but 
has not worn off his authorism yet and thinks there is 
nothing so charming as writers, and to be one he will 
know better one of these days. I like Hamilton's little 

3 Mahomed Ali, Nawab of the Grosvenor Bedford. 
Carnatic. 6 William Gerard Hamilton. 

4 The Earl of Halifax, Viceroy of 7 Edmund Burke (1729-1797), at 
Ireland. this time private secretary to Gerard 

6 At Horace Walpole's official Hamilton, Chief Secretary for Ire- 
residence (as Usher of the Exchequer) land. The book ' in the style of Lord 
in New Palace Yard, Westminster. Bolinbroke ' was the Vindication of 
It was occupied by his deputy, Natural Society, published in 1756. 

I76i] To Sir Horace Mann 87 

Marly we walked in the great attee, and drank tea in the 
arbour of treillage ; they talked of Shakespear and Booth 8 , 
of Swift and my Lord Bath, and I was thinking of Madame 
Sevigne. Good night I have a dozen other letters to write ; 
I must tell my friends how happy I am not as an English- 
man, but as a cousin. 

Yours ever, 



Strawberry Hill, July 23, 1761. 

ONE cannot take the trouble of sending every victory by 
itself; I stay till I have enough to make a packet, and 
then write to you. On Monday last we learned the con- 
quest of Pondicherry, and away went a courier to Mr. 
Stanley to raise our terms. Before the man could get half- 
way, comes an account of the entire defeat of Broglio and 
Soubise. I don't know what Mr. Stanley will be to ask 
now. We have been pretty well accustomed to victories of 
late, and yet this last is as much as we know how to bear 
decently ; it is heightened by the extreme distress our army 
had suffered, and by the little hopes we had of even keeping 
our ground against such superior force. It seals all our 
other conquests ; we have nothing to restore for Germany. 
The King may be crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle, like Charle- 
magne, if he pleases, and receive the diadems of half the 
world. Of all our glories, none ever gave me such joy as 
this last. Mr. Conway, you know, is with Prince Ferdinand, 
and is safe indeed everybody is ; we lost but one officer of 
rank, a Lieutenant-Colonel Keith ; and two are wounded, 
a Lieutenant-Colonel Marlay and Captain Harry Townshend 1 . 

8 *Barton Booth, tragedian (1681- LKTMB 765. * Third son of 
1733). Thomas Townshend, Teller of the 


To Sir Horace Mann 


No particulars are come yet ; if I hear any before this goes 
away, you shall. 

You will see the history of Pondicherry in the Gazette. 
Pray like Monsieur Lally's 2 spirited insolence in the crisis 
of his misfortune. His intercepted letter 8 shows it was not 
mere impertinence, but that he had tried and attempted every- 
thing upon earth to save his charge. We have got another 
little windfall in the West Indies, the Isle of Dominique 4 ; 
but one does not stoop to pick up such diminutive countries, 
unless they are absolutely of no use, like Belleisle, and then 
it is heroic obstinacy to insist on having them. 

How all this must sound to the Princess of Mecklenburg ! 

Exchequer, who was second son of 
Charles, Viscount Townshend, Sec- 
retary of State. Walpole. 

* Thomas Arthur (1703-1766), 
Baron de Tollendal, Comte de Lally, 
appointed in 1756 Commander-in- 
Chief of the French forces in India. 
After a chequered career, he sur- 
rendered Pondicherry to the English 
(Jan. 15, 1761), and was brought to 
England a prisoner of war. In Oct. 
1761 he returned to France on parole 
to reply to accusations brought 
against his administration. After 
a protracted trial, conducted by the 
Parliament of Paris with closed 
doors, he was declared guilty of be- 
traying the king's interests in India, 
and was executed three days later, 
under peculiarly odious circum- 
stances. His son, Lally Tollendal, 
ably seconded by Voltaire, devoted 
half his life to the rehabilitation of 
his father's memory. 

Lally's ' spirited insolence ' led 
him to decline to offer any terms of 
surrender. 'He sent out a paper 
full of invectives against the Eng- 
lish, for the breach of treaties relative 
to India ; he alleged that those 
breaches disqualified him from pro- 
posing any terms ; and, in conse- 
quence, he rather suffered our troops 
to take possession of the place, than 
formally surrendered it.' (Ann- Reg. 
1761, p. 56.) 

8 'Translation of an intercepted 
letter from General Lally to Mr. 
Raymond, French resident at Pulli- 
cat, dated Pondicherry, the 2nd of 
January, 1761 : 


' The English squadron is no more, 
Sir ; out of the twelve ships they 
had in our road, seven are lost, crews 
and all ; the four others dismasted ; 
and it appears there is no more than 
one frigate that hath escaped, there- 
fore don't lose an instant to send us 
chelingoes upon chelingoes loaded 
with rice : the Dutch have nothing 
to fear now ; besides (according to 
the law of nations) they are only to 
send us no provisions themselves, 
and we are no more blocked up by 
sea. The saving of Pondicherry 
hath been in your power once 
already ; if you miss the present 
opportunity, it will be entirely your 
fault : do not forget also some small 
chelingoes ; offer great rewards ; I 
expect seventeen thousand Morattoes 
within these four days. In short, 
risque all, attempt all, force all, and 
send us some rice, should it be but 
half a garse at a time. 

' Signed, LALLT.' 
(Ann. Reg. 1761, p. 56.) 

* Dominica was surrendered by 
the French to Lord Hollo and Com- 
modore Sir James Douglas on 
June 6, 1761. 

I76l] To Sir Horace Mann 89 

To be sure, she thinks herself coming to marry Alexander 
the Great. There is a Lady Statira Lenox 5 that had like to 
have stood a little in her way, or, rather, I believe, helped 
her a little on her way. The Mother-Duchess is dead, and 
retards the nuptials, but the Princess is expected, however, 
by the end of August. 

Is Sir Richard Lyttelton with you, and Mr. Pitt? the 
latter's father 6 was just married again ; but to make his son 
some amends for giving away a jointure of 600?. a year, is 
just dead very happily for his family. 

The new Queen's family 7 consists of Lord Harcourt, 
Master of the Horse ; Duke of Manchester, Chamberlain ; 
Mr. Stone, Treasurer ; the Duchess of Ancaster, Mistress of 
the Robes, and First Lady of the Bedchamber; the others 
are, the Duchess of Hamilton, Lady Effingham, Lady North- 
umberland, Lady Weymouth, and Lady Bolingbroke. Bed- 
chamber Women and Maids of Honour, I could tell you 
some too ; but what can you care about the names of girls 
whose parents were not married when you was in England ? 
This is not the only circumstance in which you would not 
know your own country again. You left it a private little 
island, living upon its means. You would find it the 
capital of the world ; and, to talk with the arrogance of 
a Roman, St. James's Street crowded with nabobs and 
American chiefs, and Mr. Pitt attended in his Sabine farm 
by Eastern monarchs and Borealian electors, waiting, till 
the gout is gone out of his foot, for an audience. The City 

5 Lady Sarah Lenox, sister of Chester ; Andrew Stone ; Mary Pan- 

the Duke of Richmond, with whom ton, Duchess of Ancaster ; Eliz. 

the King was thought to be in love. Gunning, Duchess of Hamilton ; 

Walpole. Statira and Roxana are Eliz. Beckford, Countess of Effing- 

the rival queens in Lee's play Alex- ham ; Eliz. Seymour, Countess of 

ander the Great. Northumberland ; Eliz. Bentinck, 

8 Thomas Pitt, elder brother of Viscountess Weymouth ; Diana 

the famous William Pitt. Walpole. Spencer, Viscountess Bolingbroke ; 

7 Simon, first Earl of Harcourt ; and Alicia Carpenter, Countess of 

Robert Montagu, Duke of Man- Egremont, omitted above. Walpole. 

90 To the Hon. Henry Seymour Gonway [i?6i 

of London is so elated, that I think it very lucky some 
alderman did not insist on 

Matching his daughter with the King 8 . 

Adieu ! I shall be in town to-morrow ; and, perhaps, 
able to wrap up and send you half a dozen French standards 
in my postscript. 

Arlington Street, Friday, 24th. 

Alack ! I do not find our total victory so total as it was. 
It is true we have taken three thousand prisoners ; but we 
have lost two thousand, and the French army is still so 
superior as to be able to afford it. The Broglians thought 
themselves betrayed by the Soubisians, whose centre did 
not attack. Some say it was impossible that is not your 
business or mine ; there are certainly great jarrings in their 
army but the worst is (I mean to me) there is likely to be 
another battle. I wish they would be beaten once for all, 
and have done! 


Strawberry Hill, July 23, 1761. 

WELL, mon biau cousin! you may be as cross as you 
please now : when you beat two marshals of France and cut 
their armies to pieces \ I don't mind your pouting ; but in 
good truth, it was a little vexatious to have you quarrelling 
with me, when I was in greater pain about you than I can 
express. I will say no more ; make a peace, under the 
walls of Paris if you please, and I will forgive you all but 
no more battles : consider, as Dr. Hay said, it is cowardly 
to beat the French now. 

8 ' A senator of Eome, while Eomo LBTTHE 766. * The victory ob- 

surviv'd, tained by Prince Ferdinand of 

Would not have match'd his Brunswick over the Mar6chal de 

daughter with a king.' Broglio and the Prince de Soubise 

Addison, Goto, v. 4. at Kirk Denckirk. Walpole, 

I76i] To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway 91 

Don't look upon yourselves as the only conquerors in the 
world. Pondicherry is ours, as well as the field of Kirk 
Denckirk. The Park guns never have time to cool ; we 
ruin ourselves in gunpowder and sky-rockets. If you have 
a mind to do the gallantest thing in the world after the 
greatest, you must escort the Princess of Mecklenburg 2 
through France. You see what a bully I am ; the moment 
the French run away, I am sending you on expeditions. 
I forgot to tell you that the King has got the isle of 
Dominique and the chicken-pox, two trifles that don't count 
in the midst of all these festivities. No more does your 
letter of the 8th, which I received yesterday : it is the one 
that is to come after the 1 6th, that I shall receive graciously. 

Friday, 24th. 

Not satisfied with the rays of glory that reached Twicken- 
ham, I came to town to bask in your success ; but am most 
disagreeably disappointed to find you must beat the French 
once more, who seem to love to treat the English mob with 
subjects for bonfires. I had got over such an alarm, that 
I foolishly ran into the other extreme, and concluded there 
was not a French battalion left entire upon the face of 
Germany. Do write to me ; don't be out of humour, but 
tell me every motion you make: I assure you I have 
deserved you should. Would you were out of the question, 
if it were only that I might feel a little humanity ! There 
is not a blacksmith or link-boy in London that exults more 
than I do, upon any good news, since you went abroad. 
What have I to do to hate people I never saw, and to 
rejoice in their calamities ? Heaven send us peace, and you 
home ! Adieu ! 

Yours ever, 


2 Her present Majesty. Walpole, 

92 To George Montagu [i?6i 


Arlington Street, July 28, 1761. 

No, I shall never cease being a dupe, till I have been 
undeceived round by everything that calls itself a virtue. 
I came to town yesterday, through clouds of dust, to see 
The Wishes l , and went actually feeling for Mr. Bentley, and 
full of the emotions he must be suffering. What do [you] 
think, in a house crowded, was the first thing I saw? 
Mr. and Madam Bentley, perked up in the front boxes, and 
acting audience at his own play no, all the impudence of 
false patriotism never came up to it! Did one ever hear 
of an author that had courage to see his own first night in 
public ? I don't believe Fielding or Foote himself ever did 
and this was the modest, bashful Mr. Bentley, that died at 
the thought of being known for an author even by his own 
acquaintance ! In the stage-box was Lady Bute, Lord 
Halifax, and Lord Melcomb I must say the two last enter- 
tained the house as much as the play your King 8 was 
prompter, and called out to the actors every minute to 
speak louder the other went backwards and forwards 
behind the scenes, fetched the actors into the box. and was 
busier than Harlequin. The curious prologue was not 
spoken, the whole very ill acted. It turned out just what 
I remembered it, the good parts extremely good, the rest 
very flat and vulgar the genteel dialogue, I believe, might 
be written by Mrs. Hannah 3 . The audience were extremely 
fair. The first act they bore with patience, though it 
promised very ill the second is admirable, and was much 
applauded so was the third the fourth woful the 
beginning of the fifth it seemed expiring, but was revived 

LETTER 767. J Produced at Drnry Lane. 

2 The Earl of Halifax, Viceroy of Ireland 

3 Mrs. Bentley. See p. 70. 

I76i] To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway 93 

by a delightful burlesque of the ancient chorus which was 
followed by two dismal scenes, at which people yawned 
but were awakened on a sudden by Harlequin's being 
drawn up to a gibbet, nobody knew why or wherefore 
this raised a prodigious and continued hiss, Harlequin all 
the while suspended in the air at last they were suffered 
to finish the play, but nobody attended to the conclusion 
Modesty and his lady all the while sat with the utmost 
indifference I suppose Lord Melcomb had fallen asleep 
before he came to this scene, and had never read it. The 
epilogue was about the King and new Queen, and ended 
with a personal satire on Garrick not very kind on his 
own stage to add to the judgement of this conduct, 
Cumberland two days ago published a pamphlet to abuse 
him. It was given out for to-night with more claps than 
hisses, but I think will not do unless they reduce it to 
three acts. 

I. am sorry you will not come to the Coronation the 
place I offered you I am not sure I can get for anybody 
else I cannot explain it to you, because I am engaged to 
secrecy if I can get it for your brother John I will, but 
don't tell him of it, because it is not sure. Adieu ! 

Yours ever, 

H. W. 


Strawberry Hill. 

THIS is the 5th of August, and I just receive your letter 
of the 1 7th of last month by Fitzroy l . I heard he had lost 
his pocket-book with all his dispatches, but had found it 
again. He was a long time finding the letter for me. 

LETTER 768. 1 George Fitzroy, afterwards created Lord Southampton. 

94 To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway [i?6r 

You do nothing but reproach me ; I declare I will bear it 
no longer, though you should beat forty more marshals 
of France. I have already writ you two letters that would 
fully justify me if you receive them ; if you do not, it is 
not I that am in fault for not writing, but the post offices 
for reading my letters, content if they would forward them 
when they have done with them. They seem to think, 
like you, that I know more news than anybody. What is 
to be known in the dead of summer, when all the world is 
dispersed ? Would you know who won the sweepstakes at 
Huntingdon? what parties are at Woburn? what officers 
upon guard in Betty's fruit-shop ? whether the peeresses 
are to wear long or short tresses at the Coronation ? how 
many jewels Lady Harrington borrows of actresses ? All 
this is your light summer wear for conversation ; and if my 
memory were as much stuffed with it as my ears, I might 
have sent you volumes last week. My nieces, Lady Walde- 
grave and Mrs. Keppel, were here five days, and discussed 
the claim or disappointment of every miss in the kingdom 
for Maid of Honour. Unfortunately this new generation 
is not at all my affair. I cannot attend to what concerns 
them not that their trifles are less important than those 
of one's own time, but my mould has taken all its im- 
pressions, and can receive no more. I must grow old upon 
the stock I have. I, that was so impatient at all their chat, 
the moment they were gone, flew to my Lady Suffolk, and 
heard her talk with great satisfaction of the late Queen's 
coronation-petticoat. The preceding age always appears 
respectable to us (I mean as one advances in years), one's 
own age interesting, the coming age neither one nor t'other. 

You may judge by this account that I have writ all my 
letters, or ought to have written them ; and yet, for occasion 
to blame me, you draw a very pretty picture of my situation : 
all which tends to prove that I ought to write to you every 

I76i] To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway 95 

day, whether I have anything to say or not. I am writing, 
I am building both works that will outlast the memory of 
battles and heroes! Truly, I believe, the one will as much 
as t'other. My buildings are paper, like my writings, and 
both will be blown away in ten years after I am dead ; if 
they had not the substantial use of amusing me while I live, 
they would be worth little indeed. I will give you one 
instance that will sum up the vanity of great men, learned 
men, and buildings altogether. I heard lately, that Dr. 
Pearce 8 , a very learned personage, had consented to let 
the tomb of Aylmer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, a very 
great personage, be removed for Wolfe's monument s ; that 
at first he had objected, but was wrought upon by being 
told that hight Aylmer was a Knight Templar, a very wicked 
set of people, as his Lordship had heard, though he knew 
nothing of them, as they are not mentioned by Longinus. 
I own I thought this a made story, and wrote to his Lord- 
ship, expressing my concern that one of the finest and most 
ancient monuments in the Abbey should be removed, and 
begging, if it was removed, that he would bestow it on me, 
who would erect and preserve it here. After a fortnight's 
deliberation, the bishop sent me an answer, civil indeed, 
and commending my zeal for antiquity! but avowing the 
story under his own hand. He said that at first they had 
taken Pembroke's tomb for a Knight Templar's. Observe, 
that not only the man who shows the tombs names it every 
day, but that there is a draught of it at large in Dart's 
Westminst er ; that upon discovering whose it was, he had 
been very unwilling to consent to the removal, and at last 
had obliged Wilton to engage to set it up within ten feet 
of where it stands at present. His Lordship concluded with 
congratulating me on publishing learned authors at my 

2 Zachary Pearce, Dean of Westminster and Bishop of Rochester ; editor 
of Longinus. 8 This was not done. 

96 To the Hon. Henry Seymour Gonway [i?6i 

press. I don't wonder that a man who thinks Lucan a 
learned author should mistake a tomb in his own cathedral. 
If I had a mind to be angry, I could complain with reason ; 
as, having paid forty pounds for ground for my mother's 
tomb, that the Chapter of Westminster sell their church 
over and over again ; the ancient monuments tumble upon 
one's head through their neglect, as one of them did, and 
killed a man at Lady Elizabeth Percy's 4 funeral ; and they 
erect new waxen dolls of Queen Elizabeth, &c., to draw 
visits and money from the mob. I hope all this history is 
applicable to some part or other of my letter ; but letters you 
will have, and so I send you one, very like your own stories 
that you tell your daughter : There was a King, and he had 
three daughters, and they all went to see the tombs ; and 
the youngest, who was in love with Aylmer de Valence, &c. 

Thank you for your account of the battle ; thank Prince 
Ferdinand for giving you a very honourable post, which, in 
spite of his teeth and yours, proved a very safe one ; and 
above all, thank Prince Soubise, whom I love better than 
all the German princes in the universe. Peace, I think, 
we must have at last, if you beat the French, or at least 
hinder them from beating you, and afterwards starve them. 
Bussy's last last courier is expected ; but as he may have 
a last last last courier, I trust no more to this than to all 
the others. He was complaining t'other day to Mr. Pitt of 
our haughtiness, and said it would drive the French to some 
desperate effort ; ' Thirty thousand men,' continued he, 
'would embarrass you a little, I believe!' 'Yes, truly/ 
replied Pitt, ' for I am so embarrassed with those we have 
already, I don't know what to do with them.' 

Adieu ! Don't fancy that the more you scold, the more 
I will write : it has answered three times, but the next cross 

4 Daughter of the Earl of North- Abbey on June 6, 1761, in her 
umberland. She was buried in the eighteenth year. 

1761] To Sir Horace Mann 97 

word you give me shall put an end to our correspondence. 
Sir Horace Mann's father used to say, ' Talk, Horace, you 
have been abroad : ' You cry, ' Write, Horace, you are at 
home.' No, Sir, you can beat an hundred and twenty 
thousand French, but you cannot get the better of me. 
I will not write such foolish letters as this every day, when 
I have nothing to say. 

Yours as you behave, 



Arlington Street, Aug. 17, 1761. 

You must now quit Mr. Dalton; you are saved from 
dunning him, and I from doing an awkward thing. The 
last time I was in town, I found a big picture, which 
I saw clearly was by Castiglione : the maid told me it came 
from Mr. Dalton. As you had not explained the nature of 
your transaction, I concluded it was a debt, and that money 
was what he was to send me for you. This was so fixed in 
my head, that supposing he wanted to pay you with a 
picture, I was at first going to send it back to him. How- 
ever, I thought it best to wait a little, and see if he did not 
come or send me some message ; and having just writ to 
you, I determined to stay till I wrote to you again. Your 
letter has explained the affair, and I certainly shall not 
deliver yours to him. Do but observe ; when I sent to him 
by your order, he was at Mecklenburg not thinking of 
detaining your picture, but drawing queens pray respect 
your brother minister ! the picture is undoubtedly the true 
one and safe but now, my dear child, here ends my com- 
mission don't imagine I will rob you of your picture you 
are very kind, and I equally obliged to you, but you shall 
not make me a bailiff to seize your goods, and then have 


98 To Sir Horace Mann [1761 

the sole benefit of the seizure. Tell me what you would 
have done with it. The altar pleases me extremely, and 
I hope will arrive safe. Draw upon your brother James 
for all expenses relating to it and say no more. He and 
I have so many money transactions, that there is no trouble 
that way, and then I shall never scruple teasing you with 
commissions, when they cost you nothing but kind services. 

I am come to town to-day to prepare my wedding 
garments. The new Queen may be here by this day 
se'nnight, but scarce will before the 28th, and if the winds 
are not in hymeneal humour, it may be the Lord knows 
how long. There will be as great magnificence as people 
can put upon their backs nothing more ; no shows, no 
ceremonies. Six Drawing-rooms and one ball that is all ; 
and then the honeymoon in private till the Coronation. 
They told me the painting of the Charlotte yatch 1 would 
certainly turn the Queen's stomach. I said if her head is 
not turned, she may compound for anything else. Think 
of the crown of England and a handsome young King 
dropping out of the clouds into Strelitz ! The crowds, the 
multitudes, the millions, that are to stare at her; the 
swarms to kiss her hand, the pomp of the Coronation. She 
need be but seventeen to bear it. 

In the meantime, adieu peace ! France has refused to 
submit to our terms. They own themselves undone, but 
depend on the continuation of the war for revenging them 
not by arms, but by exhausting us. I can tell you our 
terms pretty exactly. All Canada, but letting them fish on 
Newfoundland ; Goree and Senegal, but with a promise of 
helping them somehow or other in their black trade ; the 

LETTER 769. 1 Gent. Mag. 1761, ornament on board being finely gilt, 

Friday, July 81. ' The Charlotte even the blocks and carriages for 

yacht is the most superbly and the guns are not excepted ; and 

elegantly decorated as can be con- there is the finest bed on board that 

ceived, the pillars and every other ever was seen.' 

I76i] To George Montagu 99 

neutral islands to be divided ; Hesse and Hanover restored, 
and Minorca: Guadaloupe and Belleisle to return to them. 
The East Indies postponed to the Congress ; Dunkirk to be 
demolished, a la Utrecht; at least, a Z'Aix-la-Chapelle a . 
The last article is particularly offered to glory. If they 
have no fleet, Dunkirk will not hurt us ; when they have, 
twenty other places will do the business, especially if they 
have Nieuport and Ostend, on which, notwithstanding all 
reports, I hear we have been silent. Our terms are lofty ; 
yet, could they expect that we would undo them and our- 
selves for nothing? We shall be like the late Duke of 
Marlborough, have a vast landed estate, and warit a guinea. 
The great prince of the coalpits, Sir James Lowther, 
marries the eldest infanta of the adjoining coalpits, Lord 
Bute's daughter s . You will allow this Earl is a fortunate 
man ; the late King, old Wortley, and the Duke of Argyle 4 , 
all dying in a year, and his daughter married to such an 
immense fortune ! He certainly behaves with great modera- 
tion, and nobody has had reason to complain of him. 

1 return you your letter to Stosch ; he writ to me a fort- 
night ago that he was embarking for Italy ; I sent yesterday 
to his lodgings; the answer, he was sailed for Spain 
I suppose the ship touches there but you will see him 
soon. Adieu ! 


Strawberry Hill, Aug. 20, 1761. 

A FEW lines before you go. Your resolutions are good, 
and give me great pleasure; bring them back unbroken. 
I have no mind to lose you we have been acquainted these 

2 Viz. in the manner stipulated in Baronet, afterwards Earl of Lons- 
those treaties. dale ; d. 1824. 

3 Lady Mary Stuart, eldest daugh- * By whose death Lord Bute ob- 
ter of third Earl of Bute ; m. (Sept. 7, taincd the chief power in Scotland. 
1761) Sir James Lowther, fifth Walpole. 

H 2 

100 To George Montagu [i76i 

thirty years, and to give the devil his due, in all that time 
I never knew a bad, a false, a mean or ill-natured thing in 
the devil but don't tell him I say so especially as I 
cannot say the same of myself. I am now doing a dirty 
thing, nattering you to preface a commission. Dicky Bate- 
man 1 has picked up a whole cloister full of old chairs in 
Herefordshire he bought them one by one, here and there 
in farm-houses, for three-and-sixpence and a crown apiece. 
They are of wood, the seats triangular, the backs, arms, and 
legs loaded with turnery. A thousand to one but there are 
plenty up and down Cheshire too if Mr. or Mrs. Wetenhall, 
as they ridet or drive out, would now and then put up such 
a chair, it would oblige me greatly. Take notice, no two 
need be of the same pattern. 

Keep it as the secret of your life, but if your brother 
John addresses himself to me a day or two before the 
Coronation, I can place him well to see the procession 
when it is over, I will give you a particular reason why 
this must be such a mystery. I was extremely diverted 
t'other day with my mother's and my old milliner. She 
said she had a petition to me ' What is it, Mrs. Burton ? ' 
' It is in behalf of two poor orphans.' I began to feel for 
my purse. 'What can I do for them, Mrs. Burton?' 
' Only, if your honour would be so compassionate as to get 
them tickets for the Coronation.' I could not keep my 
countenance and these distressed orphans are two and 
three-and -twenty ! Did you ever hear a more melancholy 

The Queen is expected on Monday, I go to town on 
Sunday would these shows and your Irish journey were 
over, and neither of us a day the poorer! 

I am expecting Mr. Chute to hold a chapter on the 

LETTER 770. l Richard (d. 1773), sou of Sir James Bateman, Knight, and 
brother of first Viscount Bateman. 

1761] To the Earl of Strafford 101 

cabinet a barge-load of niches, window-frames, and ribs, is 
arrived. The cloister is paving, the privy-garden making, 
painted glass adjusting to the windows on the back stairs 
with so many irons in the fire, you may imagine I have 
not much time to write, I wish you a safe and pleasant 

Yours faithfully, 

H. W. 


MY DEAB LORD, Arlington Street, Tuesday morning. 

Nothing was ever equal to the bustle and uncertainty of 
the town for these three days. The Queen was seen off the 
coast of Sussex on Saturday last, and is not arrived yet 
nay, last night at ten o'clock it was neither certain when 
she landed, nor when she would be in town. I forgive 
history for knowing nothing when so public an event as 
the arrival of a new Queen is a mystery even at the very 
moment in St. James's Street. The messenger that brought 
the letter yesterday morning said she arrived at half an 
hour after four at Harwich. This was immediately trans- 
lated into landing, and notified in those words to the 
ministers. Six hours afterwards it proved no such thing, 
and that she was only in the Harwich Eoad : and they 
recollected that half an hour after four happens twice in 
twenty-four hours, and the letter did not specify which of 
the tunces it was. Well ! the bridemaids whipped on their 
virginity ; the new road and the parks were thronged ; the 
guns were choking with impatience to go off; and Sir 
James Lowther, who was to pledge his Majesty, was 
actually married to Lady Mary Stuart. Five, six, seven, 
eight o'clock came, and no Queen she lay at Witham *, at 
Lord Abercorn's, who was most tranquilly in town : and it 

LETTER 771. * In Essex, eight miles from ChslmsforcL 

102 To the Earl of Stra/ord [i76l 

is not certain even whether she will be composed enough to 
be in town to-night. She has been sick but half an hour : 
sung and played on the harpsichord all the voyage, and 
been cheerful the whole time. The Coronation will now 
certainly not be put off so I shall have the pleasure of 
seeing you on the 1 5th. The weather is close and sultry ; 
and if the wedding is to-night, we shall all die. 

They have made an admirable speech for the Tripoline 
ambassador that he said he heard the King had sent his 
first eunuch to fetch the Princess. I should think he 
meaned Lord Anson. 

You will find the town over head and ears in disputes 
about rank, precedence, processions, entrees, &c. One point, 
that of the Irish peers, has been excellently liquidated: 
Lord Halifax has stuck up a paper in the coffee-room at 
Arthur's, importing, 'That his Majesty, not having leisure 
to determine a point of such great consequence, permits for 
this time such Irish peers as shall be at the marriage to 
walk in the procession.' Everybody concludes those per- 
sonages will understand this order, as it is drawn up in 
their own language ; otherwise it is not very clear how they 
are to walk to the marriage, if they are at it before they 
come to it. 

Strawberry returns its duty and thanks for all your Lord- 
ship's goodness to it, and though it has not got its wedding- 
clothes yet, will be happy to see you. Lady Betty Mackenzie 
is the individual woman she was she seems to have been 
gone three years, like the Sultan in the Persian tales, 
who popped his head into a tub of water, pulled it up 
again, and fancied he had been a dozen years in bondage 
in the interim. She is not altered in a tittle. Adieu, my 
dear Lord ! 

Your most faithful servant, 


I76i] To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway 103 

Twenty minutes past three in the afternoon, 
not in the middle of the night. 

Madame Charlotte is this instant arrived. The noise of 
coaches, chaises, horsemen, mob, that have been to see her 
pass through the parks, is so prodigious that I cannot 
distinguish the guns. I am going to be dressed, and before 
seven shall launch into the crowd. Pray for me ! 


Arlington Street, Sept. 9, 1761. 

THE date of my promise is now arrived, and I fulfil it 
fulfil it with great satisfaction, for the Queen is come; 
I have seen her, have been presented to her and may go 
back to Strawberry. For this fortnight I have lived upon 
the road between Twickenham and London : I came, grew 
impatient, returned ; came again, still to no purpose. The 
yachts made the coast of Suffolk last Saturday, on Sunday 
entered the road of Harwich, and on Monday morning the 
King's chief eunuch, as the Tripoline ambassador calls Lord 
Anson, landed the Princess. She lay that night at Lord 
Abercorn's at Witham, the palace of silence ; and yesterday 
at a quarter after three arrived at St. James's. In half an 
hour one heard of nothing but proclamations of her beauty : 
everybody was content, everybody pleased. At seven one 
went to court. The night was sultry. About ten the pro- 
cession began to move towards the chapel, and at eleven 
they all came up into the drawing-room. She looks very 
sensible, cheerful, and is remarkably genteel. Her tiara of 
diamonds was very pretty, her stomacher sumptuous ; her 
violet velvet mantle and ermine so heavy, that the spectators 
knew as much of her upper half as the King himself. You 
will have no doubts of her sense by what I shall tell you. 
On the road they wanted her to curl her toupet: she said 

104 To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway [i?6i 

she thought it looked as well as that of any of the ladies 
sent to fetch her; if the King bid her, she would wear 
a periwig, otherwise she would remain as she was. When 
she caught the first glimpse of the palace, she grew 
frightened and turned pale ; the Duchess of Hamilton 
smiled the Princess said, 'My dear Duchess, you may 
laugh, you have been married twice, but it is no joke to me.' 
Her lips trembled as the coach stopped, but she jumped out 
with spirit, and has done nothing but with good-humour 
and cheerfulness. She talks a great deal is easy, civil, and 
not disconcerted. At first, when the bridemaids and the 
court were introduced to her, she said, ' Mon Dieu, il y en a 
tant, il y en a tant ! ' She was pleased when she was to kiss 
the peeresses ; but Lady Augusta was forced to take her 
hand and give it to those that were to kiss it, which was 
prettily humble and good-natured. While they waited for 
supper, she sat down, sung, and played. Her French is 
tolerable, she exchanged much both of that and German 
with the King, the Duke, and the Duke of York. They did 
not get to bed till two. To-day was a Drawing-room : every- 
body was presented to her ; but she spoke to nobody, as she 
could not know a soul. The crowd was much less than at 
a Birthday, the magnificence very little more. The King 
looked veiy handsome, and talked to her continually with 
great good-humour. It does not promise as if they two 
would be the two most unhappy persons in England, from 
this event. The bridemaids, especially Lady Caroline Kussel, 
Lady Sarah Lenox, and Lady Elizabeth Keppel, were beauti- 
ful figures. With neither features nor air, Lady Sarah was 
by far the chief angel. The Duchess of Hamilton was 
almost in possession of her former beauty to-day ; and your 
other Duchess 1 , your daughter, was much better dressed 
than ever I saw her. Except a pretty Lady Suther- 
LETTEB 772. l The Duchess of Richmond. Walpole, 

I76i] To Sir Horace Mann 105 

land 8 , and a most perfect beauty, an Irish Miss Smith 8 , I 
don't think the Queen saw much else to discourage her : my 
niece, Lady Kildare, Mrs. Fitzroy, were none of them there. 
There is a ball to-night, and two more Drawing-rooms ; but 
I have done with them. The Duchess of Queensbury and 
Lady Westmoreland 4 were in the procession, and did credit 
to the ancient nobility. 

You don't presume to suppose, I hope, that we are 
thinking of you, and wars, and misfortunes, and distresses, 
in these festival times. Mr. Pitt himself would be mobbed 
if he talked of anything but clothes, and diamonds, and 
bridemaids. Oh yes, we have wars, civil wars; there is 
a campaign opened in the Bedchamber. Everybody is 
excluded but the ministers; even the Lords of the Bed- 
chamber, cabinet counsellors, and foreign ministers: but it 
has given such offence that I don't know whether Lord 
Huntingdon 6 must not be the scapegoat. Adieu ! I am 
going to transcribe most of this letter to your Countess. 

Yours ever, 



Arlington Street, Sept. 10, 1761. 

WHEN we least expected the Queen, she came, after being 
ten days at sea, but without sickness for above half an hour. 
She was gay the whole voyage, sung to her harpsichord, and 
left the door of her cabin open. They made the coast of 

s Mary, eldest daughter and co- Smyth, of Tinney Park, Wicklow ; 

heir of William Maxwell, of Preston, d. 1781. 

Kirkcudbright ; m. (1761) William * Mary, daughter and heiress of 

Sutherland, eighteenth Earl of Lord Henry Cavendish, second son 

Sutherland; d. 1766. of first Duke of Devonshire ; m. John 

8 Afterwards married to Mr. Fane, seventh Earl of Westmor- 

Matthew, now Lord Landaff. Wai- land ; d. 1778. 

pole. Ellis, daughter of James D As Groom of the Stole. 

106 To Sir Horace Mann [i?6i 

Suffolk last Saturday, and on Monday morning she landed 
at Harwich ; so prosperously has his Majesty's chief eunuch, 
as they have made the Tripoline ambassador call Lord 
Anson, executed his commission. She lay that night at 
your old friend Lord Abercorn's, at Witham ; and, if she 
judged by her host, must have thought she was coming to 
reign in the realm of taciturnity. She arrived at St. James's 
a quarter after three on Tuesday the 8th. When she first 
saw the palace she turned pale : the Duchess of Hamilton 
smiled. 'My dear Duchess,' said the Princess, l you may 
laugh ; you have been married twice ; but it is no joke to 
me.' Is this a bad proof of her sense? On the journey 
they wanted her to curl her toupet. ' No, indeed,' said she, 
'I think it looks as well as those of the ladies that have 
been sent for me : if the King would have me wear a peri- 
wig, I will ; otherwise I shall let myself alone.' The Duke 
of York gave her his hand at the garden-gate : her lips 
trembled, but she jumped out with spirit. In the garden 
the King met her ; she would have fallen at his feet ; he 
prevented and embraced her, and led her into the apart- 
ments, where she was received by the Princess of Wales 
and Lady Augusta : these three Princesses only dined with 
the King. At ten the procession went to chapel, preceded 
by unmarried daughters of peers, peers, and peeresses in 
plenty. The new Princess was led by the Duke of York 
and Prince William * ; the Archbishop married them ; the 
King talked to her the whole time with great good-humour, 
and the Duke of Cumberland gave her away. She is not 
tall, nor a beauty ; pale, and very thin ; but looks sensible, 
and is genteel. Her hair is darkish and fine ; her forehead 
low, her nose very well, except the nostrils spreading too 
wide ; her mouth has the same fault, but her teeth are good. 
She talks a good deal, and French tolerably ; possesses her- 
LITTIB 773. * Afterwards Duke of Gloucester. Walpole. 

I76i] To Sir Horace Mann 107 

self, is frank, but with great respect to the King. After the 
ceremony, the whole company came into the drawing-room 
for about ten minutes, but nobody was presented that night. 
The Queen was in white and silver ; an endless mantle of 
violet-coloured velvet, lined with ermine, and attempted to 
be fastened on her shoulder by a bunch of large pearls, 
dragged itself and almost the rest of her clothes halfway 
down her waist. On her head was a beautiful little tiara of 
diamonds ; a diamond necklace, and a stomacher of dia- 
monds, worth threescore thousand pounds, which she is to 
wear at the Coronation too. Her train was borne by the 
ten bridemaids, Lady Sarah Lenox, Lady Caroline Kussell, 
Lady Caroline Montagu 2 , Lady Harriot Bentinck 3 , Lady 
Anne Hamilton *, Lady Essex Kerr 5 (daughters of Dukes of 
Richmond, Bedford, Manchester, Portland, Hamilton, and 
Koxburgh) ; and four daughters of the Earls of Albemarle, 
Brook, Harcourt, and Hchester, Lady Elizabeth Keppel, 
Louisa Greville 8 , Elizabeth Harcourt 7 , and Susan Fox 
Strangways: their heads crowned with diamonds, and in 
robes of white and silver. Lady Caroline Kussell 8 is ex- 
tremely handsome ; Lady Elizabeth Keppel 9 very pretty ; 
but with neither features nor air, nothing ever looked so 
charming as Lady Sarah Lenox 10 ; she has all the glow of 
beauty peculiar to her family. As supper was not ready, 

2 Eldest daughter of third Duke d. unmarried, 1819. 

of Manchester; m. (1776) Captain 6 Eldest daughter of first Earl 

Charles Herbert, son of Major- of Warwick; m. (1770) William 

General Hon. William Herbert, and Churchill, of Henbury, Dorsetshire, 

brother of first Earl of Carnarvon. 7 Eldest daughter of first Earl 

8 Lady Henrietta Cavendish-Ben- Harcourt ; m. (1763) Sir William 

tinck, second daughter of second Lee, fourth Baronet, of Hartwell, 

Duke of Portland ; m. (1763) George Buckinghamshire. 

Harry Grey, fifth Earl of Stamford ; 8 Afterwards Duchess of Marl- 

<L 1827. borough. WcHpole. 

* Fifth daughter of fifth Duke of 9 Afterwards Marchioness of Tavis- 

Hamilton ; m. (1761) Arthur Chi- tock. WcUpole. 

Chester, fifth Earl (afterwards first 10 Lady Sarah Lenox was mar- 
Marquis) of Donegal. ried to Sir Charles Bunbury, and, 

5 Eldest daughter of Robert Kerr being divorced from him, to Captain 

(d. 1755), second Duke of Roxburgh ; Napier. Walpole. 

108 To Sir Horace Mann [i76i 

the Queen sat down, sung, and played on the harpsichord 
to the royal family, who all supped with her in private. 
They talked of the different German dialects; the King 
asked if the Hanoverian was not pure ' Oh no, sir,' said 
the Queen ; ' it is the worst of all.' She will not be 

The Duke of Cumberland told the King that himself and 
Lady Augusta were sleepy. The Queen was very averse to 
going to bed, and at last articled that nobody should retire 
with her but the Princess of Wales and her own two German 
women, and that nobody should be admitted afterwards but 
the King they did not get to bed till between two and 
three. The Princess Dowager wanted to sit a little at table, 
and pressed the Duke of Cumberland to stay ; he pleaded 
being tired 'and besides, Madam,' said he, 'what should 
I stay for? if she cries out, I cannot help her.' 

The next morning the King had a levee. He said to 
Lord Hardwicke, ' It is a very fine day : ' that old gossip 
replied, ' Yes, Sir, and it was a veiy fine night.' Lord Bute 
had told the King that Lord Orford had betted his having 
a child before Sir James Lowther, who had been married 
the night before to Lord Bute's eldest daughter ; the King 
told Lord Orford he should be glad to go his halves. The 
bet was made with Mr. Kigby 11 . Somebody asked the 
latter how he could be so bad a courtier as to bet against 
the King? He replied, 'Not at all a bad courtier; I betted 
Lord Bute's daughter against him.' 

After the King's levee there was a Drawing-room ; the 
Queen stood under the throne : the women were presented 
to her by the Duchess of Hamilton, and then the men by 
the Duke of Manchester ; but as she knew nobody, she was 
not to speak. At night there was a ball, Drawing-rooms 
yesterday and to-day, and then a cessation of ceremony till 

11 Richard Bighy, afterwards Paymaster of the Forces. Walpole. 

I76i] To Grosvenor Bedford 109 

the Coronation, except next Monday, when she is to receive 
the address of the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, sitting on the 
throne attended by the bridemaids. There was a ridiculous 
circumstance happened yesterday ; Lord Westmoreland, not 
very young nor clear-sighted, mistook Lady Sarah Lenox 
for the Queen, kneeled to her, and would have kissed her 
hand if she had not prevented him. People think that a 
Chancellor of Oxford was naturally attracted by the blood 
of Stuart. It is as comical to see Kitty Dashwood 12 , the 
famous old beauty of the Oxfordshire Jacobites, living in the 
palace as duenna to the Queen. She and Mrs. Boughton 1S , 
Lord Lyttelton's ancient Delia, are revived again in a young 
court that never heard of them. There, I think you could 
not have had a more circumstantial account of a royal 
wedding from the Heralds' Office. Adieu ! 

Yours to serve you, 

Mecklenburgh King-at-Arms. 


MY DEAR SIR, Sept. 23, 1761. 

Ten thousand thanks to you for all your goodness and 
all your trouble; I can never say enough to you for the 
obliging kindness you have shown me, I fear you will 
suffer by it ; tell me how you do to-day and if you have 
got a good night's rest. Compose yourself till you are 
perfectly recovered. Pray make my thanks too to Miss 

14 Mrs. Catherine Dashwood, on was sister of Fulke Greville, author 

whom Mr. Hammond wrote many of Maxims and Characters. 

poems. Walpole. ** An allusion to Francis Sand- 

18 Mary (d. 1786), eldest daughter ford (1630-1694), Lancaster Herald, 

of Hon. Algernon Greville, second and author (amongst other works) 

son of fifth Baron Brooke ; m. of The History of the Coronation of 

Shuckburgh, third son of Sir Wil- James II. 
liam Boughton, fourth Baronet. She 

110 To George Montagu [i76i 

Bedford and your sons, who have had nothing but plague 
with me. Adieu ! Your much obliged 

And sincere friend, 


Don't wonder I was so impatient to get away ; I was 
fatigued to death ; but got home perfectly well and am 
quite so 1 . 


Arlington Street, Sept. 24, 1761. 

I AM glad you arrived safe in Dublin, and hitherto like it 
so well ; but your trial is not begun yet ; when your King 
comes, the ploughshares will be put into the fire. Bless 
your stars that your King is not to be married or crowned : 
all the vines of Bourdeaux and all the fumes of Irish 
brains cannot make a town so drunk as a royal wedding 
and coronation. I am going to let London cool, and will 
not venture myself into it again this fortnight. Oh ! the 
buzz, the prattle, the crowds, the noise, the hurry! Nay, 
people are so little come to their senses, that though the 
Coronation was but the day before yesterday, the Duke 
of Devonshire had forty messages yesterday, desiring tickets 
for a ball that they fancied was to be at court last night 
people had sat up a night and a day and yet wanted to 
see a dance. If I was to entitle ages, I would call this the 
century of crowds. For the Coronation, if a puppet-show 
could be worth a million, that is. The multitudes, balconies, 
guards, and processions, made Palace Yard the liveliest 
spectacle in the world ; the Hall was the most glorious. 

LETTER 774. l Note by Mr. Bed- Hertford, Lady Anne Conway, Mr. 

ford. ' Mr. Walpole's friends invited Chute, Mrs. Clive, Mr. Raftor, Lady 

by Mr. Grosvr. Bedford to bis Townshend and Master, Miss Hotham 

house in Palace Yard to see the Coro- and her maid.' 
nation in 1761 : Lady Hervey, Lady 

I76i] To George Montagu 111 

The blaze of lights, the richness and variety of habits, the 
ceremonial, the benches of peers and peeresses, frequent and 
full, was as awful as a pageant can be and yet for the 
King's sake and my own, I never wish to see another ; 
nor am impatient to have my Lord Effingham's promise 
fulfilled the King complained that so few precedents were 
kept for their proceedings ; Lord Effingham owned the 
Earl Marshal's office had been strangely neglected ; but he 
had taken such care for the future, that the next Coronation 
would be regulated in the most exact manner imaginable. 
The number of peers and peeresses present was not very 
great some of the latter, with no excuse in the world, 
appeared in Lord Lincoln's gallery, and even walked about 
the Hall indecently in the intervals of the procession. My 
Lady Harrington, covered with all the diamonds she could 
borrow, hire, or seize, and with the air of Koxana, was the 
finest figure at a distance ; she complained to George Selwyn 
that she was to walk with Lady Portsmouth 1 , who would 
have a wig and a stick 'Pho,' said he, 'you will only look 
as if you was taken up by the constable' she told this 
everywhere, thinking the reflection was on my Lady Ports- 
mouth. Lady Pembroke, alone at the head of the coun- 
tesses, was the picture of majestic modesty ; the Duchess of 
Bichmond, as pretty as nature and dress, with no pains of 
her own, could make her ; Lady Spencer 2 , Lady Sutherland, 
and Lady Northampton, very pretty figures Lady Kildare, 
still beauty itself, if not a little too large. The ancient 
peeresses were by no means the worst party Lady West- 
morland, still handsome, and with more dignity than all ; the 
Duchess of Queensberry looked well, though her locks milk- 

LETTER 775. l Hon. Elizabeth 2 Margaret Georgiana (d. 1814), 

Griffin, daughter of second Baron eldest daughter of Stephen Poyntz ; 

Griffin ; m. (1741) John Wallop, m. (1755) John Spencer, created 

ViscountLymington,whowascreated Viscount Spencer in 1761, and Earl 

Earl of Portsmouth in 1743 ; d. 1762. Spencer in 1765. 

112 To George Montagu [i?6i 

white ; Lady Albemarle very genteel ; nay, the middle-aged 
had some good representatives in Lady Holderness, Lady 
Eochford, and Lady Strafford, the perfectest little figure of 
all. My Lady Suffolk ordered her robes, and I dressed part 
of her head, as I made some of my Lord Hertford's dress ; 
for you know, no profession comes amiss to me, from a 
tribune of the people to a habit-maker. Don't imagine that 
there were not figures as excellent on the other side : old 
Exeter, who told the King he was the handsomest young 
man she ever saw, old Effingham 3 , and a Lady Say and 
Seal 4 , with her hair powdered and her tresses black, were 
an excellent contrast to the handsome. Lord Bolinbroke 
put on rouge upon his wife and the Duchess of Bedford in 
the Painted Chamber ; the Duchess of Queensberry told me 
of the latter, that she looked like an orange-peach, half red 
and half yellow. The coronets of the peers and their robes 
disguised them strangely ; it required all the beauty of the 
Dukes of Kichmond and Marlborough to make them noticed. 
One there was, though of another species, the noblest figure 
I ever saw, the High-Constable of Scotland, Lord Errol 5 as 
one saw him in a space capable of containing him, one 
admired him. At the wedding, dressed in tissue, he looked 
like one of the Giants in Guildhall, new gilt. It added to 
the energy of his person, that one considered him acting so 
considerable a part in that very Hall, where so few years 
ago one saw his father, Lord Kilmarnock, condemned to 
the block. The Champion acted his part admirably, and 
dashed down his gauntlet with proud defiance. His 
associates, Lord Effingham, Lord Talbot, and the Duke 

3 Anne(d. 1774), daughterof Eobert Thomas Tyrel, second Baronet; m. 

Bristow ; m. (1728) Hon. Francis (1763), as her third husband, Bichard 

Howard, who succeeded his brother Piennes, sixth Viscount Saye and 

as eighth Baron Howard of Effing- Sele; d. 1789. 

ham in 1726, and was created Earl 6 James Hay (1726-1778), fifteenth 

of Effingham in 1731. Earl of Enroll. 

* ChriBtobeUa, daughter of Sir 

To George Montagu 113 

of Bedford 8 , were woful, yet the last the least ridiculous 
of the three. Lord Talbot piqued himself on backing his 
horse down the Hall, and not turning its rump towards the 
King, but he had taken such pains to dress it to that duty, 
that it entered backwards j and at his retreat the spectators 
clapped, a terrible indecorum, but suitable to such Bar- 
tholomew Fair doings. He put me in mind of some King's 
fool, that would not give his right hand to the King of 
Spain, because he wiped his backside with it. He had 
twenty demelts, and came out of none creditably. He had 
taken away the table of the Knights of the Bath, and was 
forced to admit two in their old place, and dine the others 
in the Court of Requests. Sir William Stanhope said, ' We 
are ill-treated, for some of us are gentlemen.' Beckford 
told the Earl, it was hard to refuse a table to the City of 
London, whom it would cost ten thousand pounds to 
banquet the King, and that his Lordship would repent it, 
if they had not a table in the Hall they had. To the 
Barons of the Cinque Ports, who made the same complaint, 
he said, ' If you come to me as Lord Steward, I tell you it 
is impossible ; if as Lord Talbot, I am a match for any of 
you ' ; and then he said to Lord Bute, ' If I was a minister, 
thus I would talk to France, to Spain, to the Dutch none 
of your half-measures.' This has brought me to a melan- 
choly topic Bussy goes to-morrow, a Spanish war is hang- 
ing 7 in the air, destruction is taking a new lease of mankind 
of the remnant of mankind I have no prospect of seeing 

8 As Deputy Earl Marshal, Lord nantly refused by Pitt. Shortly after- 
High Steward, and Lord High Con- wards Pitt became aware of the exist- 
stable of England respectively. ence of the ' FamilyCompact ' between 

7 The Spanish court, at the instiga- France and Spain (signed Aug. 15, 
tion of Choiseul, the French Minister 1761). He was thus assured of Spain's 
for War, demanded that certain hostile intentions, and wished to de- 
Spanish grievances against the Eng- clare war immediately, but was op- 
lish should be considered in the posed by all his colleagues except 
negotiations between England and Temple ; he consequently resigned 
France. This demand was indig- in Oct. 1761. 


114 To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway [1761 

Mr. Conway ! Adieu ! I will not disturb you with my 
forebodings. You I shall see again in spite of war, and, 
I trust, in spite of Ireland. Yours ever, 

H. W. 

I was much disappointed at not seeing your brother John : 
I kept a place for him to the last minute, but have heard 
nothing of him. 


Arlington Street, Sept. 25, 1761. 

THIS is the most unhappy day I have known of years : 
Bussy goes away ! Mankind is again given up to the 
sword ! Peace and you are far from England ! 

Strawberry Hill. 

I was interrupted this morning, just as I had begun my 
letter, by Lord Waldegrave ; and then the Duke of Devon- 
shire sent for me to Burlington House to meet the Duchess 
of Bedford, and see the old pictures from Hardwicke. If 
my letter reaches you three days later, at least you are 
saved from a lamentation. Bussy has put off his journey 
to Monday (to be sure, you know this is Friday) : he says 
this is a strange country, he can get no waggoner to carry 
his goods on a Sunday. I am glad a Spanish war waits 
for a conveyance, and that a waggoner's veto is as good 
as a tribune's of Rome, and can stop Mr. Pitt on his career 
to Mexico. He was going post to conquer it and Beckford, 
I suppose, would have had a contract for remitting all the 
gold, of which Mr. Pitt never thinks, unless to serve a City 
friend. It is serious that we have discussions with Spain, 
who says France is humbled enough, but must not be 
ruined : Spanish gold is actually coining in frontier towns 

I76i] To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway 115 

of France ; and the privilege which Biscay and two other 
provinces have of fishing on the coast of Newfoundland, has 
been demanded for all Spain. It was refused peremptorily; 
and Mr. Secretary Cortez 1 insisted yesterday se'nnight on 
recalling Lord Bristol 2 . The rest of the council, who are 
content with the world they have to govern, without con- 
quering others, prevailed to defer this impetuosity. How- 
ever, if France or Spain are the least untractable, a war 
is inevitable: nay, if they don't submit by the first day 
of the session, I have no doubt but Mr. Pitt will declare 
it himself on the Address. I have no opinion of Spain 
intending it: they give France money to protract a war, 
from which they reap such advantages in their peaceful 
capacity ; and I should think would not give their money 
if they were on the point of having occasion for it them- 
selves. In spite of you, and all the old barons our ancestors, 
I pray that we may have done with glory, and would 
willingly burn every Roman and Greek historian who have 
done nothing but transmit precedents for cutting throats. 

The Coronation is over : 'tis even a more gorgeous sight 
than I imagined. I saw the procession and the Hall ; but 
the return was in the dark. In the morning they had 
forgot the Sword of State, the chairs for King and Queen, 
and their canopies. They used the Lord Mayor's for the 
first, and made the last in the Hall: so they did not set 
forth till noon ; and then, by a childish compliment to the 
King, reserved the illumination of the Hall till his entry ; 
by which means they arrived like a funeral, nothing being 
discernible but the plumes of the Knights of the Bath, 
which seemed the hearse. Lady Kildare, the Duchess of 
Richmond, and Lady Pembroke were the capital beauties. 
Lady Harrington, the finest figure at a distance ; old West- 

LKTTKB776. t Mr. Pitt, then Score- 2 The English Embassador at the 
tary of State. Walpole. court of Madrid. Walpole, 

I 2 

116 To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway [1761 

moreland, the most majestic. Lady Hertford could not 
walk, and indeed I think is in a way to give us great 
anxiety. She is going to Kagley to ride. Lord Beauchamp 
was one of the King's train-bearers. Of all the incidents 
of the day, the most diverting was what happened to the 
Queen. She had a retiring-chamber, with all conveniences, 
prepared behind the altar. She went thither in the most 
convenient what found she but the Duke of Newcastle ! 
Lady Hardwicke died three days before the ceremony, which 
kept away the whole house of Yorke. Some of the peeresses 
were dressed overnight, slept in armchairs, and were waked 
if they tumbled their heads. Your sister Harris's maid, 
Lady Peterborough 3 , was a comely figure. My Lady 
Cowper refused, but was forced to walk with Lady Maccles- 
field. Lady Falmouth was not there; on which George 
Selwyn said, ' that those peeresses who were most used to 
walk, did not.' I carried my Lady Townshend, Lady Hert- 
ford, Lady Anne Connolly, my Lady Hervey, and Mrs. 
Olive, to my deputy's house at the gate of Westminster Hall. 
My Lady Townshend said she should be very glad to see 
a Coronation, as she never had seen one. ' Why,' said I, 
'Madam, you walked at the last?' 'Yes, child,' said she, 
' but I saw nothing of it : I only looked to see who looked 
at me.' The Duchess of Queensbury walked ! her affecta- 
tion that day was to do nothing preposterous. The Queen 
has been at the Opera, and says she will go once a week. 
This is a fresh disaster to our box, where we have lived 
so harmoniously for three years. We can get no alternative 
but that over Miss Chudleigh's ; and Lord Strafford and 
Lady Mary Coke will not subscribe, unless we can. The 
Duke of Devonshire and I are negotiating with all our art 
to keep our party together. The crowds at the Opera and 

8 Bobiniana, daughter of Colonel Browne; m. (1756) Charles Mordaunt, 
fourth Earl of Peterborough ; d. 1794. 

176i] To the Countess of Ailesbury 117 

play when the King and Queen go, are a little greater than 
what I remember. The late Royalties went to the Hay- 
market, when it was the fashion to frequent the other Opera 
in Lincoln's Inn Fields. Lord Chesterfield one night came 
into the latter, and was asked, if he had been at the other 
house? 'Yes,' said he, 'but there was nobody but the 
King and Queen ; and as I thought they might be talking 
business, I came away.' 

Thank you for your journals: the best route you can 
send me would be of your journey homewards. Adieu ! 

Yours most sincerely, 


P.S. If you ever hear from, or write to, such a person 
as Lady Ailesbury, pray tell her she is worse to me in point 
of correspondence than ever you said I was to you, and that 
she sends me everything but letters ! 


Strawberry Hill, Sept. 27, 1761. 

You are a mean, mercenary woman. If you did not want 
histories of weddings and coronations, and had not jobs 
to be executed about muslins, and a bit of china, and 
counterband goods, one should never hear of you. When 
you don't want a body, you can frisk about with greffiers 
and burgomasters, and be as merry in a dyke as my lady 
frog herself. The moment y our t curiosity is agog, or your 
cambric seized, you recollect a good cousin in England, and, 
as folks said two hundred years ago, begin to write upon 
the knees of your heart. Well ! I am a sweet-tempered 
creature, I forgive you. I have already writ to a little 
friend in the Custom House, and will try what can be 
done; though, by Mr. Amyand's report to the Duchess of 

118 To the Countess of Ailesbury [irei 

Richmond, I fear your case is desperate. For the genea- 
logies, I have turned over all my books to no purpose ; 
I can meet with no Lady Howard that married a Carey, 
nor a Lady Seymour that married a Caufield. Lettice 
Caufield, who married Francis Staunton, was daughter of 
Dr. James (not George) Caufield, younger brother of the 
first Lord Charlemont. This is all that I can ascertain. 
For the other pedigree ; I can inform your friend that there 
was a Sir Nicholas Throckmorton, who married an Anne 
Carew, daughter of Sir Nicholas Carew, Knight of the 
Garter, not Carey. But this Sir Nicholas Carew married 
Joan Courtney not a Howard: and besides, the Careys 
and Throckmortons you wot of were just the reverse : your 
Carey was the cock, and Throckmorton the hen mine are 
vice versa : otherwise, let me tell your friend, Carews and 
Courtneys are worth Howards any day of the week, and 
of ancienter blood ; so, if descent is all he wants, I advise 
him to take up with the pedigree as I have refitted it. 
However, I will cast a figure once more, and try if I 
can conjure up the dames Howard and Seymour that he 

My heraldry was much more offended at the Coronation 
with the ladies that did walk, than with those that walked 
out of their place; yet I was not so perilously angry as 
my Lady Cowper, who refused to set a foot with my Lady 
Macelesfield ; and when she was at last obliged to associate 
with her, set out on a round trot, as if she designed to 
prove the antiquity of hr family by marching as lustily 
as a Maid of Honour of Queen Gwiniver. It was in truth 
a brave sight. The sea of heads in Palace Yard, the guards, 
horse and foot, the scaffolds, balconies, and procession, 
exceeded imagination. The Hall, when once illuminated, 
was noble ; but they suffered the whole parade to return 
into it in the dark, that his Majesty might be surprised 

1761] To the Countess of Ailesbury 119 

with the quickness with which the sconces catched fire. 
The Champion acted well ; the other paladins had neither 
the grace nor alertness of Rinaldo. Lord Effingham and 
the Duke of Bedford were but untoward knights errant ; 
and Lord Talbot had not much more dignity than the 
figure of General Monk in the Abbey. The habit of the 
peers is unbecoming to the last degree ; but the peeresses 
made amends for all defects. Your daughter Kichmond, 
Lady Kildare, and Lady Pembroke were as handsome as 
the Graces. Lady Kochford, Lady Holdernesse, and Lady 
Lyttelton looked exceedingly well in that their day j and 
for those of the day before, the Duchess of Queensbury, 
Lady Westmoreland, and Lady Albemarle were surprising. 
Lady Harrington was noble at a distance, and so covered 
with diamonds, that you would have thought she had bid 
somebody or other, like Falstaff, rob me the Exchequer 1 . 
Lady Northampton was very magnificent too, and looked 
prettier than I have seen her of late. Lady Spencer and 
Lady Bolingbroke were not the worst figures there. The 
Duchess of Ancaster marched alone after the Queen with 
much majesty ; and there were two new Scotch peeresses 
that pleased everybody, Lady Sutherland and Lady Dun- 
more a . Per contra, were Lady P , who had put a wig 

on, and old E , who had scratched hers off ; Lady S , 

the Dowager E , and a Lady Say and Sele, with her 

tresses coal-black, and her hair coal-white. Well! it was 
all delightful, but not half so charming as its being over. 
The gabble one heard about it for six weeks before, and 
the fatigue of the day, could not well be compensated by 
a mere puppet-show ; for puppet-show it was, though it cost 
a million. The Queen is so gay that we shall not want 

LETTER 777. 1 See p. 89, note 1. loway ; m. (1759) John Murray, fourth 
2 Lady Charlotte Stewart (d. 1818), Earl of Dunmore. 
sixth daughter of sixth Earl of Gal- 

120 To the Countess of Ailesbury [i?6i 

sights ; she has been at the Opera, the Beggar's Opera and 
the Rehearsal, and two nights ago carried the King to 
Eanelagh. In short, I am so miserable with losing my 
Duchess 3 , and you and Mr. Conway, that I believe, if you 
should be another six weeks without writing to me, I should 
come to the Hague and scold you in person for, alas ! my 
dear lady, I have no hopes of seeing you here. Stanley 
is recalled, is expected every hour. Bussy goes to-morrow ; 
and Mr. Pitt is so impatient to conquer Mexico, that I don't 
believe he will stay till my Lord Bristol can be ordered 
to leave Madrid. I tremble lest Mr. Conway should not 
get leave to come nay, are we sure he would like to ask 
it ? He was so impatient to get to the army, that I should 
not be surprised if he stayed there till every suttler and 
woman that follows the camp was come away. You ask 
me if we are not in admiration of Prince Ferdinand. In 
truth, we have thought very little of him. He may outwit 
Broglio ten times, and not be half so much talked of as 
Lord Talbot's backing his horse down Westminster Hall. 
The generality are not struck with anything under a com- 
plete victory. If you have a mind to be well with the mob 
of England, you must be knocked on the head like Wolfe, 
or bring home as many diamonds as Clive. We live in 
a country where so many follies or novelties start forth 
every day, that we have not time to try a general's capacity 
by the rules of Polybius. 

I have hardly left room for my obligations to your 
Ladyship, for my commissions at Amsterdam ; to Mrs. Sally*, 
for her teapots, which are likely to stay so long at the 
Hague, that I fear they will have begot a whole set of 
china ; and to Miss Conway and Lady George 8 , for thinking 

3 The Duchess of Grafton, who was abroad. Walpcle. 

* Lady Ailesbury's woman. WaLpole. 

8 Lady George Lennox, whose husband was with the army. 

I76i] To Sir Horace Mann 121 

of me. Pray assure them of my re-thinking. Adieu, dear 
Madam ! Don't you think we had better write oftener and 

Yours most faithfully, 



Strawberry Hill, Sept 28, 1761. 

WHAT is the finest sight in the world ? A Coronation. 
What do people talk most about? A Coronation. What 
is delightful to have passed ? A Coronation. Indeed, one 
had need be a handsome young peeress not to be fatigued 
to death with it. After being exceeded with hearing of 
nothing else for six weeks, and having every cranny of my 
ideas stuffed with velvet and ermine, and tresses, and 
jewels, I thought I was very cunning in going to lie in 
Palace Yard, that I might not sit up all night in order to 
seize a place. The consequence of this wise scheme was, 
that I did not get a wink of sleep all night ; hammering 
of scaffolds, shouting of people, relieving guards, and jangling 
of bells, was the concert I heard from twelve to six, when 
I rose ; and it was noon before the procession was ready 
to set forth, and night before it returned from the Abbey. 
I then saw the Hall, the dinner, and the Champion, a 
gloriously illuminated chamber, a wretched banquet, and 
a foolish puppet-show. A trial of a peer, though by no 
means so sumptuous, is a preferable sight, for the latter 
is interesting. At a Coronation one sees the peerage as 
exalted as they like to be, and at a trial as much humbled 
as a plebeian wishes them. I tell you nothing of who 
looked well ; you know them no more than if I told you 
of the next Coronation. Yes, two ancient dames that you 
remember were still ornaments of the show, the Duchess 

122 To Sir Horace Mann [1761 

of Queensbury * and Lady Westmoreland J . There was one 
very entertaining circumstance ; in the Abbey behind the 
altar the Queen had a retiring chamber. She had occasion 
to go thither in the privatest spot, where she certainly 
did not want company, she found the Duke of Newcastle. 
Some of the peeresses were so fond of their robes, that they 
graciously exhibited themselves for a whole day before to 
all the company their servants could invite to see them. 
A maid from Richmond begged leave to stay in town 
because the Duchess of Montrose s was only to be seen from 
two to four. The Heralds were so ignorant of their busi- 
ness, that, though pensioned for nothing but to register 
lords and ladies, and what belongs to them, they advertised 
in the newspaper for the Christian names and places of 
abode of the peeresses. The King complained of such 
omissions and of the want of precedents ; Lord Effingham *, 
the Earl Marshal, told him, it was true there had been 
great neglect in that office, but he had now taken such care 
of registering directions, that next Coronation would be con- 
ducted with the greatest order imaginable. The King was 
so diverted with this flattering speech that he made the Earl 
repeat it several times. 

On this occasion one saw to how high-watermark extra- 
vagance is risen in England. At the Coronation of George II 
my mother gave forty guineas for a dining-room, scaffold, 
and bedchamber. An exactly parallel apartment, only with 
rather a worse view, was this time set at three hundred and 
fifty guineas a tolerable rise in thirty-three years! The 
platform from St. Margaret's Eoundhouse to the church- 
door, which formerly let for forty pounds, went this time 

LETTER 778. * Catherine Hyde, trose. Walpole. 

Dnchess of Queensberry. Walpole. * Thomas Howard, second Earl of 

2 Mary Cavendish, Countess of Effingham, Deputy Earl Marshal. 
Westmoreland. Walpole. Walpole. 

3 Lucy Manners, Duchess of Mon- 

I76i] To Sir Horace Mann 123 

for two thousand four hundred pounds. Still more was 
given for the inside of the Abbey. The prebends would 
like a Coronation every year. The King paid nine thousand 
pounds for the hire of jewels ; indeed, last time, it cost 
my father fourteen hundred to be jewel my Lady Orford 5 . 
A single shop now sold six hundred pounds' sterling worth 
of nails but nails are risen so is everything, and every- 
thing adulterated. If we conquer Spain, as we have done 
France, I expect to be poisoned. Alas ! we are going to 
conquer Spain. They have taken France by the hand, and 
bully for her. Mr. Pitt, who desires nothing better than to 
bid upon anybody's haughtiness, has recalled Mr. Stanley, 
and would willingly have recalled my Lord Bristol too. 
If the Turks don't know what to do with their arma- 
ment, Mr. Pitt will be obliged to them if they will be 
a little impertinent too. If all this did but starve us 
I should not much mind it : I should look as well as other 
people in haughty rags, and while one's dunghill is the first 
dunghill in Europe, one is content. But the lives ! the 
lives it will cost ! to wade through blood to dignity ! I 
had rather be a worm than a vulture. Besides, I am no 
gamester ; I do not love doubling the bet, but would realize 

The Duchess of Grafton is drawing nearer to you ; you 
will see her by the end of the winter ; they leave Geneva 
the 1 Oth of next month, and go to Turin. I believe I liked 
the Coronation the less for wanting the principal figure. 
Good night! 

6 Margaret Eolle, wife of Robert, Walpole, and afterwards Earl of 
Lord Walpole, eldest son of Sir Bobert Orford. Walpole. 

124 To Sir Horace Mann [1761 


Arlington Street, Oct. 6, 1761. 

I WROTE to you but last week. You will conclude I have 
a victory to tell you, by following that letter with another 
BO soon. Oh no! you may bid adieu to victories. It is 
not that Spain or we have declared war, but Mr. Pitt has 
resigned. The Cabinet Council were for temporizing. This 
is not his style. 

Without entering into discussions of which side is in 
the right, you will easily see how fatal this event must 
be, even from its creating two sides. What saved us, 
and then what lifted us so high, but union ? What could 
France, what could your old friend the Empress Queen, 
desire so ardently as divisions amongst us ? They will have 
their wish to satiety. I foresee nothing but confusion. 
Nor shall we have a war the less : if Spain bullied while 
Mr. Pitt was minister, I don't believe she will tremble 
more at his successors. Who they will be I cannot imagine. 
It required all his daring to retrieve our affairs. Who 
will dare for him, nay, and against him ? Next to pitying 
our country and ourselves, I feel for the young King. It 
is hard to have so bright a dawn so soon overcast ! I fear 
he is going to taste as bitter a cup as ever his grandfather 
swallowed! This happened but yesterday. It is not an 
event to lie dormant long without consequences. 

In answer to your letter of September 12, which I have 
received since I wrote, I must thank you again about the 
Castiglione, and reprove you too : you speak of it as if 
I thought it not worth accepting my difficulty was because 
it is too fine to accept. I don't like your giving me any- 
thing but your affection. At the same time you shall 
not think I don't value whatever you persist in giving me. 

I76i] To George Montagu 125 

With regard to a picture of Lord Koyston *, you will excuse 
me from troubling myself about it. I have no connection 
with that family. 

The bills of lading came safe, and I have given them 
to your brother, and thank you for the prints. Adieu ! 
my dear child ; this is an unpleasant letter, and I don't 
care how soon I finish it. Squabbles of ministers are 
entertaining in time of peace ; they are a little too serious 
now. Adieu ! 


Arlington Street, Oct. 8, 1761. 

I CANNOT swear I wrote to you again to offer your brother 
the place for the Coronation; but I was confident I did, 
nay, I think so still my proofe are, the place remained 
empty, and I sent to old Richard to inquire if Mr. John 
was not arrived. He had no great loss, as the procession 
returned in the dark. 

Tour King will have heard that Mr, Pitt resigned last 
Monday. Greater pains have been taken to recover him 
than were used to drive him out. He is inflexible, but 
mighty peaceable. Lord Egremont is to have the Seals 
to-morrow. It is a most unhappy event France and Spain 
will soon let us know we ought to think so. For your part, 
you will be invaded ; a blacker Kod than you will be sent 
to Ireland. Would you believe that the town is a desert ? 
The wedding filled it, the Coronation crammed it ; Mr. Pitt's 
resignation has not brought six people to London. As they 
could not hire a window and crowd one another to death 
to see him give up the Seals, it seems a matter of perfect 
indifference. If he will accuse a single man of checking 
our career of glory, all the world will come to see him 

LKTTEB 779. ' Eldest son of the Earl of Hardwicke. 

126 To Sir Horace Mann [1761 

hanged but what signifies the ruin of a nation, if no 
particular man ruins it? 

The Duchess of Marlborough ' died the night before last. 

Thank you for your descriptions ; pray continue them. 
Mrs. Delany 8 I know a little. Lord Charlemont's 8 villa is 
in Chambers's book. 

I have nothing new to tell you ; but the grain of mustard - 
seed sown on Monday will soon produce as large a tree as 
you can find in any prophecy. Adieu ! 

Yours ever, 

H. W. 

P.S. Lady Mary Wortley is arrived. If you could meet 
with ever a large print 4 very cheap, you would make 
your court to her by it. 


Arlington Street, Oct. 8, 1761. 

1 WHITE to you so often, you will think I have succeeded 
Mr. Pitt as Secretary of State. The truth is, I want to 
overtake my last letter. I fear I was peevish in it my 
answer about the picture for which you have a commission 
was too squab. I own I was out of humour, I was 

So odd, my country's ruin made me grave. 

And imagining the people 1 you wot of might have con- 
tributed a little to throw us into confusion, it made me 

LETTER 780. * The widow of the ' Marino,' near Dublin, was designed 

third Duke. by Chambers. The latter's book was 

2 Mary (1700-1788), daughter of presumably his Treatise ondvilArchi- 
Bernard Granville ; m. 1. (1718) Alex- lecture. 

ander Pendarves ; 2. (1743) Patrick * So apparently in MS. ; the word 

Delany, Dean of Down. She was at is almost obliterated, 

this time living near Dublin. LETTER 781. a The Earl of Hard- 

8 James CauHeld (1728-1799), wicke and the Duke of Newcastle 

fourth Viscount (afterwards first had united with Lord Bute against 

Earl of) Charlemont. His villa, Mr. Pitt. Walpole. 

I76i] To Sir Horace Mann 127 

eager even to you, with whom I certainly had no cause of 
displeasure. Forgive me ; it was an air of departing 
haughtiness. We have been used of late to triumph ; it 
felt unpleasant to relinquish glory ; and I am exactly that 
sort of philosopher to be angry if I am not prepared to keep 
my temper. 

Spain tells us to-day that she means us no harm. She 
has only made a defensive and offensive league a with France 
to keep the peace. When she hears Mr. Pitt is out, I 
suppose she will make a neutrality, that she may invade 
Ireland. If she does, pray hold your militia ready to 
attack Naples. 

Great attempts, great offers have been made to recover 
Mr. Pitt. He waives them, goes to court, bows, and goes 
to Bath. In the City it was proposed at first to go into 
mourning on his resignation ; as yet they have come to no 
resolution. It will perhaps depend on some trifle to set 
fire to the train should it not be lighted up now, that will 
insure nothing. It cannot be indifferent whether he is in 
place or out. Your new master is to be Lord Egremont *, 
who was to have gone to Augsburgh * : he is to have the 
Seals to-morrow. As Mr. Pitt declares against being hostile, 
I conclude nobody will resign with him. 

I began, intending to tell you about the commission for 
the picture, and forgot it not that I have anything to tell 
you. I went this morning to your brother, and he knows 
not a syllable more than the orders he delivered to you 
from your brother Ned. I only mention this, to prove to 
you that when my patriotism subsides, my friendship revives 
as strong as ever. 

Lady Mary Wortley is arrived. I have not seen her yet, 

5 The Family Compact. * The negotiations for peace were 

3 Sir Charles Windham, first Earl to have been carried on there, 
of Egremont. Walpole. 

128 To Sir Horace Mann [1761 

though they have not made her perform quarantine for her 
own dirt. 

This short letter, and t'other short letter, make a long 
one. Adieu ! 

Stop, I have told you a monstrous lie ; Lady Mary is not 
arrived; it was a Dutch blunder of Lady Denbigh 6 , who 
confounded Lady Mary Wrottesley 8 and Lady Mary Wortley. 

Lord Talbot, on Mr. Pitt's resignation, advised the Duke 
of Newcastle not to die for joy on the Monday, nor for fear 
on Tuesday. 


Strawberry Hill, Oct. 10, 1761. 

AM not I an old fool ? at my years to be a dupe to virtue 
and patriotism ; I, who have seen all the virtue of England 
sold six times over ! . . . Here have I fallen in love with 
my father's enemies, and because they served my country, 
believed they were the most virtuous men upon earth. I 
adored Mr. Pitt, as if I was just come from school and 
reading Livy's lies of Brutus and Camillus, and Fabius ; 
and romance knows whom. Alack ! alack ! Mr. Pitt loves 
an estate as well as my Lord Bath ! The Conqueror of 
Canada, of Afric, of India, would, if he had been in the 
latter, have brought my Lady Esther as many diamonds 
as General Clive took. Spain assures us she is still very 
pacific, and what if France would have been so too, if 
Mr. Pitt would have suffered her ! one day or other we 
shall know. In the meantime, as the mob have not pulled 
the King out of St. James's, nor Mr. Pitt into it again, the 
latter has contented himself with a barony for Lady Esther 1 , 

5 Isabella de Jonghe, of Utrecht, ley, seventh Baronet, afterwards 
wife of William Fielding, Earl of (1765) Dean of Worcester. 
Denbigh. Walpole. LETTER 782. * Lady Esther, wife 

6 Lady Mary Leveson-Gower (d. of Mr. Pitt, and sister of Lord Temple. 
1771), second daughter of first Earl Walpole. 

Qower ; m. Rev. Sir Richard Wrottes- 

I76i] To George Montagu 129 

and three thousand pounds a year for three lives. Lord 
Temple has resigned ; I don't understand that. Mr. George 
Grenville is to be representing minister in the House of 
Commons, and not Speaker; Lord Egremont is Secretary 
of State; and Lord Hardwicke, I suppose, Privy Seal 2 . 
You will like your new master the Secretary, who is 
extremely well bred. 

Don't be frightened at this torrent of letters ; I will send 
you no more this age ; and when I do, I shall only talk to 
you of assemblies, plays, operas, balls, &c., which are subjects 
of dignity compared to politics. 

Is Sir Kichard Lyttelton 5 with you still, or in your 
neighbourhood? You need not read my opinion to him 
of this transaction. Confess, however, that I send you 
quick intelligence, three letters in a week. 


Strawberry Hill, Oct. 10, 1761. 

PRAY, Sir, how does virtue sell in Ireland now ? I think 
for a province they have now and then given large prices. 
Have you a mind to know what the biggest virtue in the 
world is worth ? If Cicero had been a Drawcansir instead 
of a coward, and had carried the glory of Kome to as lofty 
a height as he did their eloquence, for how much do you 
think he would have sold all that reputation ? Oh ! sold 
it ! you will cry, vanity was his predominant passion ; he 
would have trampled on sesterces like dirt, and provided 
the tribes did but erect statues enough for him, he was 
content with a bit of Sabine mutton, and would have pre- 
ferred his little Tusculan villa, or the flattery of Caius and 
AUenius Atticus at Baiae, to the wealth of Crassus, or to 

2 The Duke of Bedford succeeded ' Cousin of Lady Esther, and at- 
Lord Temple as Privy SeaL tached to Mr. Pitt. Walpole. 


130 To the Countess of Ailesbury [I?GI 

the luxurious banquets of Lucullus Take care, there is not 
a Tory gentleman, if there is one left, who would not have 
laid the same wager twenty years ago on the disinterested- 
ness of my Lord Bath Come, you tremble ; you are so 
incorrupt yourself, you would give the world Mr. Pitt was 
so too You adore him for what he has done for us ; you 
bless him for placing England at the head of Europe, and 
you don't hate him for infusing as much spirit into us, as 
if a Montagu, Earl of Salisbury 1 , was still at the head of 
our armies nothing could be more just. We owe the 
recovery of our affairs to him, the splendour of our country, 
the conquest of Canada, Louisbourg, Guardaloupe, Africa, 
and the East nothing is too much for such services 
accordingly, I hope you will not think the barony of 
Chatham and three thousand pounds a year for three 
lives too much for my Lady Esther. She has this pittance. 
Good night ! 

Yours ever, 


P.S. I told you falsely in my last that Lady Mary 
Wortley was arrived I cannot help it if my Lady Denbigh 
cannot read English in all these years, but mistakes 
Wrottesley for Wortley. 


Strawberry Hill, Oct. 10, 1761. 

I DON'T know what business I had, Madam, to be an 
economist: it was out of character. I wished for a thou- 
sand more drawings in that sale at Amsterdam, but con- 
cluded they would be very dear ; and not having seen 

LETTER 788. l John Montacute bury, beheaded by the mob for con- 
(circ. 1350-1400), third Earl of Salis- spiring against Henry IV. 

I76i] To the Countess of Ailesbury 131 

them, I thought it too rash to trouble your Ladyship with 
a large commission. 

I wish I could give you as good an account of your 
commission; but it is absolutely impracticable. I em- 
ployed one of the most sensible and experienced men in 
the Custom House ; and all the result was, he could only 
recommend me to Mr. Amyand as the newest, and con- 
sequently the most polite of the commissioners but the 
Duchess of Kichmond had tried him before to no purpose. 
There is no way of recovering any of your goods, but pur- 
chasing them again at the sale. 

What am I doing, to be talking to you of drawings and 
chintzes, when the world is all turned topsy-turvy ? Peace, 
as the poets would say, is not only returned to heaven, 
but has carried her sister Virtue along with her ! Oh no ! 
Peace will keep no such company Virtue is an errant 
strumpet, and loves diamonds as well as my Lady Harring- 
ton, and is as fond of a coronet as my Lord Melcombe. 
Worse ! worse ! She will set men to cutting throats, and 
pick their pockets at the same time. I am in such a 
passion, I cannot tell you what I am angry about why, 
about Virtue and Mr. Pitt ; two errant cheats, gipsies ! 
I believe he was a comrade of Elizabeth Canning 1 , when 
he lived at Enfield Wash. In short, the council were for 
making peace; 

But he, as loving his own pride and purposes, 
Evades them with a bombast circumstance, 
Horribly stuff d with epithets of war, 
And in conclusion nonsuits my mediators 2 . 

He insisted on a war with Spain, was resisted, and last 
Monday resigned. The City breathed vengeance on his 

LETTER 784. * See note on letter lived for some years at the South- 
to Bentley of May 18, 1754. Eliza- bailey lodge in Enfield Chase, 
beth Canning asserted that she had 3 Otlietto, i. 1. 
been detained at Enfield Wash ; Pitt 

K 2 

132 To the Countess of Ailesbury 

opposers, the Council quaked, and the Lord knows what 
would have happened ; but yesterday, which was only 
Friday, as this giant was stalking to seize the Tower of 
London, he stumbled over a silver penny, picked it up, 
carried it home to Lady Hester, and they are now as quiet, 
good sort of people, as my Lord and Lady Bath who lived 
in the vinegar-bottle 8 . In fact, Madam, this immaculate 
man has accepted the barony of Chatham for his wife, with 
a pension of three thousand pounds a year for three lives ; 
and though he has not quitted the House of Commons, 
I think my Lord Anson would now be as formidable there. 
The pension he has left us, is a war for three thousand lives ! 
perhaps, for twenty times three thousand lives IBut 

Does this become a soldier? this become 
Whom armies follow'd, and a people loved ? 

What ! to sneak out of the scrape, prevent peace, and avoid 
the war ! blast one's character, and all for the comfort of 
a paltry annuity, a long-necked peeress, and a couple of 
Grenvilles ! The City looks mighty foolish, I believe, and 
possibly even Beckford may blush. Lord Temple resigned 
yesterday: I suppose his virtue pants for a dukedom. 
Lord Egremont has the Seals; Lord Hardwicke, I fancy, 
the Privy Seal ; and George Grenville, no longer Speaker, 
is to be the cabinet minister in the House of Commons. 
Oh ! Madam, I am glad you are inconstant to Mr. Conway, 
though it is only with a barbette 4 ! If you piqued yourself 
on your virtue, I should expect you would sell it to the 
master of a trechscoot. 

I told you a lie about the King's going to Eanelagh no 
matter ; there is no such thing as truth. Garrick exhibits 
the Coronation, and, opening the end of the stage, discovers 

8 An allusion to the west-country * A barbet, a little dog with long 
tale of Mr. and Mrs. Vinegar ' who curly hair, 
lived in a vinegar-bottle.' 

I76i] To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway 133 

a real bonfire and real mob : the houses in Drury Lane let 
their, windows at threepence a head. Kich is going to pro- 
duce a finer Coronation, nay, than the real one ; for there 
is to be a dinner for the Knights of the Bath and the 
Barons of the Cinque Ports, which Lord Talbot refused them. 
I put your Caufields and Stauntons into the hands of one 
of the first heralds upon earth, and who has the entire 
pedigree of the Careys; but he cannot find a drop of 
Howard or Seymour blood in the least artery about them. 
Good night, Madam ! 

Yours most faithfully, 



Arlington Street, Oct. 12, 1761. 

IT is very lucky that you did not succeed in the expe- 
dition to Kochfort. Perhaps you might have been made 
a peer ; and as Chatham is a naval title, it might have fallen 
to your share. But it was reserved to crown greater glory : 
and lest it should not be substantial pay enough, three 
thousand pounds a year for three lives go along with it. 
Not to Mr. Pitt you can't suppose it. Why truly, not 
the title, but the annuity does, and Lady Hester is the 
baroness ; that, if he should please, he may earn an earldom 
himself. Don't believe me, if you have not a mind. I know 
I did not believe those who told me. But ask the Gazette 
that swears it ask the King, who has kissed Lady Hester 
ask the City of London, who are ready to tear Mr. Pitt 
to pieces ask forty people I can name, who are overjoyed 
at it and then ask me again, who am mortified, and who 
have been the dupe of his disinterestedness. Oh, my dear 
Harry ! I beg you on my knees, keep your virtue : do let 
me think there is still one man upon earth who despises 

134 To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway [i?6i 

money. I wrote you an account last week of his resigna- 
tion. Could you have believed that in four days he would 
have tumbled from the conquest of Spain to receiving 
a quarter's pension from Mr. West 1 ? To-day he has adver- 
tised his seven coach-horses to be sold three thousand 
a year for three lives, and fifty thousand pounds of his own, 
will not keep a coach and six. I protest I believe he is 
mad, and Lord Temple thinks so too ; for he resigned the 
same morning that Pitt accepted the pension. George 
Grenville is minister in the House of Commons. I don't 
know who will be Speaker. They talk of Prowse, Hussey 2 , 
Bacon 3 , and even of old Sir John Eushout. Delaval has 
said an admirable thing: he blames Pitt not as you and 
I do ; but calls him fool ; and says, if he had gone into 
the City, told them he had a poor wife and children 
unprovided for, and had opened a subscription, he would 
have got five hundred thousand pounds, instead of three 
thousand pounds a year. In the meantime the good man 
has saddled us with a war which we can neither carry on 
nor carry off. 'Tis pitiful ! 'tis wondrous pitiful ! Is the 
communication stopped, that we never hear from you? 
I own 'tis an Irish question. I am out of humour: my 
visions are dispelled, and you are still abroad. As I cannot 
put Mr. Pitt to death, at least I have buried him : here is 
his epitaph : 

Admire his eloquence it mounted higher 

Than Attic purity or Eoman fire : 

Adore his services our lions view 

Hanging, where Roman eagles never flew: 

Copy his soul supreme o'er Lucre's sphere ; 

But oh ! beware three thousand pounds a year ! 

LETTER 785. l Secretary to the s Edward Bacon (d. 1786), of Earl- 
Treasury. Walpole. ham Hall, Norfolk ; M.P. for Nor- 

2 Richard Hussey, M.P. for St. wich ; Lord of Trade, 1759-66. 
Mawes ; d. 1770. 

176l] To George Montagu 135 

Oct. 13. 

Jemmy Grenville resigned* yesterday. Lord Temple is 
all hostility; and goes to the Drawing-room to tell every- 
body how angry he is with the court but what is Sir 
Joseph Wittol, when Nol Bluff 6 is pacific? They talk of 
erecting a tavern in the City, called The Salutation : the 
sign to represent Lord Bath and Mr. Pitt embracing. These 
are shameful times. Adieu ! 

Yours ever, 



Strawberry Hill, Oct. 24, 1761. 

I HAVE got two letters from you, and am sensibly pleased 
with your satisfaction. I love your cousin for his behaviour 
to you ; he will never place his friendship better. His 
parts and dignity, I did not doubt, would bear him out. 
I fear nothing but your spirits, and the frank openness of 
your heart ; keep them within bounds, and you will return 
in health, and with the serenity I wish you long to enjoy. 

You have heard our politics they do not mend. Sick 
of glory, without being tired of war, and surfeited with 
unanimity before it had finished its work, we are running 
into all kind of confusion. The City have bethought them- 
selves, and have voted that they will still admire Mr. Pitt 
consequently, he, without the check of seeming virtue, 
may do what he pleases. An address of thanks to him 
has been carried by 109 against 15, and the City are 
to instruct their members that is, because we are dis- 
appointed of a Spanish war, we must have one at home 
Merciful ! how old I am grown ! Here am I, not liking 

4 He was Cofferer of the House- 5 Characters in Congreve's Old 
hold. Bachelor. 

136 To George Montagu [i?6i 

a civil war ! Do you know me ? I am no longer that 
Gracchus, who, when Mr. Bentley told him something or 
other, I don't know what, would make a sect, answered 
quick, 'Will it make a party?' in short, I think I am 
always to be in contradiction ; now I am loving my 
country ! 

Worksop is burnt down I don't know the circum- 
stances ; the Duke and Duchess * are at Bath : it has not 
been finished a month ; the last furniture was brought 
in for the Duke of York. I have some comfort that I had 
seen it, and except the bare chambers, in which the Queen 
of Scots was lodged, nothing remained of ancient time. 

I am much obliged to Mr. Hamilton's civilities ; but 
I don't take too much to myself ; yet it is no drawback to 
think that he sees and compliments your friendship for me. 
I shall use his permission of sending you anything that 
I think will bear the sea ; but how must I send it ? by 
what conveyance to the sea, and where deliver it? 
Pamphlets swarm already; none very good, and chiefly 
grave ; you would not have them. Mr. Glover has pub- 
lished his long-hoarded Medea, as an introduction to the 
House of Commons 2 it had been more proper to usher 
him from school to the university. There are a few good 
lines, not much conduct, and a quantity of English iambics, 
and trochaics, that scarce speak English, and yet have 
no rhyme to keep one another in countenance. If his 
chariot is stopped at Temple Bar, I suppose he will take it 
for the Straits of Thermopylae, and be delivered of his first 
speech before its time. 

The catalogue of the Duke of Devonshire's collection 
is only in the six volumes of the Description of London. 
I did print about a dozen, and gave them all away so 

LETTER 786. * Of Norfolk. mouth at the recent general elec- 

8 He had been elected for Wey- tion. 

I76i] To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway 137 

totally, that on searching, I find I had not reserved one 
for myself. When we are at leisure, I will reprint a few 
more, and you shall have one for your Speaker. I don't 
know who is to be ours: Prowse, they say, has refused ; 
Sir J. Oust 8 was the last I heard named but I am here 
and know nothing; sorry that I shall hear anything on 
Tuesday se'nnight. 

Pray pick me up any prints of lord-lieutenants, Irish 
bishops, ladies nay, or Patriots: but I will not trouble 
you for a snuff-box or toothpick-case, made of a bit of the 
Giant's Causey. 

My Anecdotes of Painting will scarcely appear before 
Christmas. My gallery and cabinet are at a full stop till 
spring but I shall be sorry to leave it all in ten days ; 
October, that scarce ever deceived one before, has ex- 
hibited a deluge ; but it has recovered, and promised to 
behave well as long as it lives, like a dying sinner. Good 
night ! Yours ever, 


P.S. My niece lost the Coronation for only a daughter 4 . 
It makes me smile, when I reflect that you are come 
into the world again, and that I have above half left it. 


Strawberry Hill, Oct 26, 1761. 

How strange it seems! You are talking to me of the 
King's wedding, while we are thinking of a civil war. 
Why, the King's wedding was a century ago, almost two 
months ; even the Coronation that happened half an age 
ago, is quite forgot. The post to Germany cannot keep 

3 Sir John Curt (1718-1770), third House of Commons, 1761-70. 
Baronet, of Bel ton, Lincolnshire; 4 Lady Charlotte Maria Walde- 

M.F. for Grantham ; Speaker of the grave, afterwards Countess of Euston. 

138 To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway [i76i 

pace with our revolutions. Who knows but you may 
still be thinking that Mr. Pitt is the most disinterested man 
in the world? Truly, as far as the votes of a Common 
Council can make him so, he is. Like Cromwell, he has 
always promoted the Self-Denying Ordinance, and has 
contrived to be excused from it himself. The City could 
no longer choose who should be their man of virtue ; there 
was not one left : by all rules they ought next to have 
pitched upon one who was the oldest offender : instead 
of that, they have re-elected the most recent ; and, as if 
virtue was a borough, Mr. Pitt is re-chosen for it, on 
vacating his seat. Well, but all this is very serious : 
I shall offer you a prophetic picture, and shall be very glad 
if I am not a true soothsayer. The City have voted an 
address of thanks to Mr. Pitt, and given instructions to 
their members ; the chief articles of which are, to promote 
an inquiry into the disposal of the money that has been 
granted, and to consent to no peace, unless we are to retain 
all, or very near all, our conquests. Thus the City of 
London usurp the right of making peace and war. But 
is the government to be dictated to by one town? By 
no means. But suppose they are not what is the con- 
sequence ? How will the money be raised ? If it cannot 
be raised without them, Mr. Pitt must again be minister : 
that you think would easily be accommodated. Stay, stay ; 
he and Lord Temple have declared against the whole 
Cabinet Council. Why, that they have done before now, 
and yet have acted with them again. It is very true ; 
but a little word has escaped Mr. Pitt, which never entered 
into his former declarations ; nay, nor into Cromwell's, 
nor Hugh Capet's, nor Julius Caesar's, nor any reformer's 
of ancient time. He has happened to say, he will guide l . 

LETTER 787. l Horace Walpole letter to Beckford of Oct. 15, 1761, 
here misrepresented Pitt, who in his wrote : ' I resigned the Seals on 

I76i] To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway 139 

Now, though the Cabinet Council are mighty willing to 
be guided, when they cannot help it, yet they wish to have 
appearances saved : they cannot be fond of being told they 
are to be guided ; still less, that other people should be 
told so. Here, then, is Mr. Pitt and the Common Council 
on one hand, the great lords on the other. I protest, I do 
not see but it will come to this. Will it allay the con- 
fusion, if Mr. Fox is retained on the side of the court? 
Here are no Whigs and Tories, harmless people, that are 
content with worrying one another for a hundred and 
fifty years together. The new parties are, I will, and 
You shall not] and their principles do not admit delay. 
However, this age is of suppler mould than some of its 
predecessors; and this may come round again, by a coup 
de bagttette, when one least expects it. If it should not, 
the honestest part one can take is to look on, and try if one 
can do any good if matters go too far. 

I am charmed with the Castle of Hercules 2 ; it is the 
boldest pile I have seen since I travelled in fairyland. 
You ought to have delivered a princess imprisoned by 
enchanters in his club : she, in gratitude, should have 
fallen in love with you : your constancy should have 
been immaculate. The devil knows how it would have 
ended I don't and so I break off my romance. 

You need not beat the French any more this year : 
it cannot be ascribed to Mr. Pitt ; and the mob won't 
thank you. If we are to have a warm campaign in 
Parliament, I hope you will be sent for. Adieu! We 
take the field to-morrow se'nnight. 

Yours ever, 


Monday, the 5th of this month, in 2 Alluding to a description of a 

order not to remain responsible for building in Hesse-Cassel, given by 

measures which I was no longer Mr. Conway in one of his letters, 

allowed to guide.' WalpdU. 

140 To Sir Horace Mann [1701 

P.S. You will be sorry to hear that Worksop is burned. 
My Lady Waldegrave has got a daughter, and your brother 
an ague. 


Arlington Street, Nov. 7, 1761. 

You will rejoice to hear that your friend Mr. Amyand 
is going to marry the dowager Lady Northampton l ; she 
has two thousand pounds a year, and twenty thousand in 
money. Old Dunch * is dead, and Mrs. Felton Hervey 3 
was given over last night, but is still alive. 

Sir John Gust is Speaker, and bating his nose, the chair 
seems well filled. There are so many new faces in this 
Parliament, that I am not at all acquainted with it. 

The enclosed print 4 will divert you, especially the 
baroness in the right-hand corner so ugly, and so satisfied ! 
The Athenian head was intended for Stewart 5 , but was 
so like, that Hogarth was forced to cut off the nose. 
Adieu ! 

Yours ever, 

H. W. 


Arlington Street, Nov. 14, 1761. 

IF my share in our correspondence was all considered, 
I could willingly break it off; it is wearisome to pursue 
the thread of folly for so many years, and with the same 
personages on the scene. Patriotism, prostitution, power, 

LETTER 788. 1 Frances (d. 1801), Hon. Felton Hervey, ninth son of 

daughter of Rev. Thomas Payne ; m. first Earl of Bristol ; d. Nov. 8, 1761. 

1. (1748) Hon. George Compton, after- 4 The Five Orders of Periwigs, by 

wards sixth Earl of Northampton. Hogarth, published on Oct. 15, 1761. 

8 Elizabeth, widow of Edmund 6 James Stuart (1718-1 788),painter 

Dunch ; d. Nov. 4, 1761. and architect, known as ' Athenian 

8 Dorothy, daughter of Solomon Stuart' 
Ashley; m. 1. Charles Pitfield; 2. 

I76i] To Sir Horace Mann 141 

patriotism again one ought to be new to it all, to see it 
in an amusing light but I recollect that you wish to hear 
it, and I submit to run through a recapitulation of what 
moves little more than my contempt ! 

The Common Council (calling themselves the City of 
London) have given Mr. Pitt a dispensation for taking a 
pension, on his writing them a letter, in which he acquainted 
them, that as he could not be monarch for their sakes, 
he would content himself, like them, with a private station, 
and with giving all the disturbance he could. You have 
seen his letters in the papers my paraphrase is not stronger 
than his own commentary on his behaviour. They thanked 
him, and instructed their members to tread in his steps. 
Hitherto this flame has had much ado to spread. Exeter, 
and Stirling, and at last York, are the only towns that have 
copied the example. 

In the midst of this came over the negotiation for peace 
published in France a melancholy volume to any feeling 
heart ! You may see what a beneficial, what a splendid 
peace we might have had ; you will not so easily find the 
reason why we rejected it. You will see nothing but facility 
on their side, nothing but haughtiness on ours ; yet the eyes 
that the pension and peerage could not open are not purged 
by this memorial. There are men who wish for more than 
the world we have conquered ! 

Well ! the Parliament opened ; and the first production 
of the rebaptized Patriots, was a constitutional proposal from 
Lord Temple for a First Minister. Patriots used to attack 
such officers, though they intended to be in their place ; 
this is the first time they ever demanded such a post for 
the good of their country. This was on the Address, and 
was answered by the Duke of Bedford. 

A week afterwards the King, Queen, and royal family 
dined with the Lord Mayor ; but a young King, and a new 

142 To Sir Horace Mann [1761 

Queen, were by no means the principal objects of attention. 
A chariot and pair, containing Mr. Pitt and Lord Temple, 
formed the chief part of the triumph. The reception, 
acclamation, and distinction paid to Mr. Pitt through the 
streets, and the observance of him in Guildhall, were equal 
to anything you can imagine. You will call his appearance 
there arrogant, I do not think it was very well bred. 
Since that for pensions stop the mouths only of courtiers, 
not of the virtuous he has harangued in the House with 
exceeding applause ; it was fine, guarded, artful very in- 
flammatory. Don't think I am paying court by censuring 
a late minister. He is too near being minister again for 
mine to be interested conduct. It never was my turn, 
nor do the examples I see make me more in love with 
the practice. Nor think me changed lightly about Mr. Pitt 
nobody admired him more you saw it. When he pre- 
ferred haughtiness to humanity, glory to peaceful glory, 
when his disinterestedness could not resist a pension, nor 
a pension make him grateful he changed, not I. When 
he courts a mob, I certainly change ; and whoever does 
court the mob, whether an orator or a mountebank, whether 
Mr. Pitt or Dr. Rock, are equally contemptible in my eyes. 
Could I now decide by a wish, he should have remained 
in place, or have been ruined by his pension. When he 
would not do all the good in his power, I would leave him 
no power to do harm, would that were always the case ! 
Alas ! I am a speculatist and he is a statesman ; but I 
have that advantage, or disadvantage, over others of my 
profession, I have seen too much to flatter myself with 
visions ! 

George Pitt, whom you must well remember, is coming 
to you to Turin 1 , with his lovely wife 2 , all loveliness 

LETTER 789. 1 As English Envoy. Atkins, wife of George Pitt, after- 
2 Penelope, sister of Sir Richard wards Lord Rivera She ia cele- 

I76i] To Sir Horace Mann 143 

within and without. If you see my Duchess 3 soon, tell 
her I trust my letter of thanks for the decoupure 4 she 
sent me of herself did not miscarry. We hear your neigh- 
bour Sir Kichard 5 thinks of resigning the Jewel Office. 
Adieu ! 

Nov. 16th. 

I have just received yours of the 31st of last month, 
but can tell you no more than I have already said. We 
don't know the particulars of the treaty between Spain 
and France : Lord Bristol 6 is certainly coming home ; Lord 
Temple says, has demanded to come, and insinuates, from 
political reasons ; the court calls it asking to come for his 
health ; he certainly has wished to come before these broils. 
You may expect new events every day in politics. I don't 
see how we can make peace, or another war; even in 
Germany it is not over for this campaign. Lord Granby 
and Mr. Conway have been successful in some fresh 
skirmishes, when I thought the latter gone to Pyrmont 
for his amusement, and the rest of our generals coming 
home. As he went abroad last, he does not return this 
winter. When the officers do come I expect a new scene ; 
we hear of nothing but hardships and abuses ; the German 
war was already become unpopular, and had Mr. Pitt sunk 
entirely, would not have supported itself. It will require 
all the compromising spirit of the age to bring things back 
into a settled channel. I am not shining in prophecy, so 
I shall foretell nothing ; while we have a shilling left, it 
will quiet somebody or other. Good night. 

P.S. I have forgot to answer one of your questions, that 

brated in Mr. Walpole's poem on was famous in that art. Walpole. 

The Beauties. Walpole. 5 Sir E. Lyttelton. Walpole. 

* The Duchess of Grafton. TTaZ- ' George William Hervey, Earl of 
pole. Bristol, Ambassador at Madrid. Wdl- 

* Her figure cut out in card by pole. 
Monsieur Hubert, of Geneva, who 

144 To George Montagu [1761 

I can answer : you ask if the City had not rather part with 
Mr. Pitt than have a Spanish war? How tramontane you 
are ! I believe the chief reason of their forgiving his 
pension, was his holding out Spanish plunder to them. 
Though they say they have ceased to be Jacobites, they 
have not relinquished the principles of privateering, broker- 
age, insurance, contracts, and twenty other tenets, not to 
be found in the Crusca 7 . Perhaps, you do not know that 
merchants thrive by taxes, which ruin everybody else. 
Your own country is delightful, but you are not acquainted 
with half its virtues. 


Arlington Street, Nov. 28, 1761. 

I AM much obliged for the notice of Sir Compton's 1 
illness ; if you could send me word of peace too, I should 
be completely satisfied on Mr. Conway's account. He has 
been in the late action, and escaped, at a time that I flattered 
myself the campaign was at an end. However, I trust it 
is now. You will have been concerned for young Courtney. 
The war, we hear, is to be transferred to these islands ; 
most probably to yours the Black Rod I hope, like a 
herald, is a sacred personage. 

There has been no authentic account of the Coronation 
published ; if there should be, I will send it. When I am 
at Strawberry, I believe I can make you out a list of those 
that walked ; but I have no memorandums in town. If 
Mr. Bentley's play is printed in Ireland, I depend on your 
sending me two copies. 

There has been a very private ball at court, consisting 

7 Alluding to the celebrated Die- ville, Baronet (d. 1768). He was 

tionary of ihsAcademici della Crusca. Clerk of the Hanaper in Ireland, of 

Walpole. which place General Con way had the 

LETTER 790. J Sir Compton Dom- reversion. 

I76i] To the Countess of Ailesbury 145 

of not above twelve or thirteen couple ; some of the Lords of 
the Bedchamber, most of the Ladies, the Maids of Honour, 
and six strangers, Lady Caroline Kussel, Lady Jane Stewart 2 , 
Lord Suffolk 8 , Lord Northampton, Lord Mandeville, and 
Lord Grey *. Nobody sat by, but the Princess, the Duchess 
of Bedford, and Lady Bute. They began before seven, 
danced till one, and parted without a supper. 

Lady Sarah Lenox has refused Lord Errol. The Duke 
of Bedford is Privy Seal ; Lord Thomond Cofferer ; Lord 
George Cavendish Comptroller; George Pitt goes minister 
to Turin ; and Mrs. Speed must go thither 5 , as she is 
marrying the Baron de Perrier, Count Virry's son. Adieu ! 
Commend me to your brother. 

Yours ever, 
H. W. 


DEAR MADAM, Arlington Street, Nov. 28, 1761. 

You are so bad and so good, that I don't know how 
to treat you. You give me every mark of kindness but 
letting me hear from you. You send me charming drawings 
the moment I trouble you with a commission, and you give 
Lady Cecilia * commissions for trifles of my writing, in the 
most obliging manner. I have taken the latter off her 
hands. The Fugitive Pieces and the Catalogue of Royal and 
Noble Authors shall be conveyed to you directly. Lady 
Cecilia and I agree how we lament the charming suppers 

8 Lady Jane Stuart, second dangh- 1771 ; K.G., 1778. 

ter of third Earl of Bnte ; m. (1768) George Harry Grey (1787-1819), 

George Macartney, of Lissanoure, Lord Grey ; eldest son of fourth Earl 

Antrim, afterwards K.B. and Earl of Stamford, whom he succeeded in 

Macartney; d. 1828. 1768. 

3 Henry Howard (1739-1779), 6 Count Viry was Minister to the 
twelfth Earl of Suffolk ; Lord Privy King of Sardinia. 
Seal, Jan. -June, 1771; Secretary of LETTER 791. ' Lady Cecilia John- 
State for the Northern Province, ston. Walpole. 


146 To the Countess of Ailesbury [i76i 

there, every time we pass the corner of Warwick Street * ! 
We have a little comfort for your sake and our own, in 
believing that the campaign is at an end, at least for this 
year but they tell us, it is to recommence here or in 
Ireland. You have nothing to do with that. Our politics, 
I think, will soon be as warm as our war. Charles Town- 
shend is to be lieutenant-general to Mr. Pitt. The Duke of 
Bedford is Privy Seal ; Lord Thomond Cofferer ; Lord 
George Cavendish Comptroller. 

Diversions, you know, Madam, are never at high-water 
mark before Christmas : yet operas flourish pretty well : 
those on Tuesdays are removed to Mondays, because the 
Queen likes the burlettas, and the King cannot go on 
Tuesdays, his post-days. On those nights we have the 
middle front box, railed in, where Lady Mary 8 and I sit 
in triste state like a Lord Mayor and Lady Mayoress. The 
night before last there was a private ball at court, which 
began at half an hour after six, lasted till one, and finished 
without a supper. The King danced the whole time with 
the Queen, Lady Augusta with her four younger brothers. 
The other performers were : the two Duchesses of Ancaster 
and Hamilton, who danced little; Lady Effingham and 
Lady Egremont, who danced much ; the six Maids of 
Honour ; Lady Susan Stewart, as attending Lady Augusta ; 
and Lady Caroline Eussel, and Lady Jane Stuart, the only 
women not of the family. Lady Northumberland is at 
Bath ; Lady Weymouth lies in ; Lady Bolingbroke was there 
in waiting, but in black gloves, so did not dance. The 
men, besides the royals, were Lords March and Eglintoun, 
of the Bedchamber ; Lord Cantelupe, Vice-Chamberlain ; 
Lord Huntingdon ; and four strangers, Lord Mandeville, 
Lord Northampton, Lord Suffolk, and Lord Grey. No 

8 General Conway'a London house was 4 Little Warwick Street. 
8 Lady Mary Coke. Walpole, 

I76i] To the Countess of Ailesbury 147 

sitters-by, but the Princess, the Duchess of Bedford, and 
Lady Bute. 

If it had not been for this ball, I don't know how I should 
have furnished a decent letter. Pamphlets on Mr. Pitt 
are the whole conversation, and none of them worth sending 
'cross the water: at least I, who am said to write some 
of them, think so ; by which you may perceive I am not 
much flattered with the imputation. There must be new 
personages, at least, before I write on any side. Mr. Pitt 
and the Duke of Newcastle! I should as soon think of 
informing the world that Miss Chudleigh is no vestal. 
You will like better to see some words which Mr. Gray has 
writ, at Miss Speed's request, to an old air of Geminiani : 
the thought is from the French. 

Thyrsis, when we parted, swore 
Ere the spring he would return. 

Ah ! what means yon violet flow'r, 
And the bud that decks the thorn ! 

'Twas the lark that upward sprung, 

'Twas the nightingale that sung. 


Idle notes ! untimely green ! 

Why this unavailing haste! 
Western gales and skies serene 

Speak not always winter past. 
Cease my doubts, my fears to move; 
Spare the honour of my love. 

Adieu, Madam ! 

Your most faithful servant, 


L 2 

148 To Sir David Dalrymple [1761 


Nov. 80, 1761. 

I AM much obliged to you, Sir, for the specimen of letters 1 
you have been so good as to send me. The composition 
is touching, and the printing very beautiful. I am still 
more pleased with the design of the work ; nothing gives 
so just an idea of an age as genuine letters ; nay, history 
waits for its last seal from them. I have an immense 
collection 2 in my hands, chiefly of the very time on which 
you are engaged ; but they are not my own. 

If I had received your commands in summer when I was 
at Strawberry Hill, and at leisure, I might have picked 
you out something to your purpose ; at present I have not 
time, from Parliament and business, to examine them : yet 
to show you, Sir, that I have great desire to oblige you 
and contribute to your work, I send you the following 
singular paper, which I have obtained from Dr. Charles 
Lyttelton, Dean of Exeter, whose name I will beg you to 
mention in testimony of his kindness, and as evidence for 
the authenticity of the letter, which he copied from the 
original in the hands of Bishop Tanner 3 , in the year 1733. 
It is from Anne of Denmark, to the Marquis of Buck- 


My kind dogge, if I have any power or credit with you, 
let me have a trial of it at this time, in dealing sincerely 
and earnestly with the King, that Sir Walter Kaleigh's life 
may not be called in question. If you do it, so that the 
success answer my expectation, assure yourself that I will 
take it extraordinarily kindly at your hands, and rest one 

LETTER 792. J Memorials and Let- 2 The Conway Papers. 

ters relating to the History of Britain 3 Thomas Tanner, Bishop of St. 

in the reign of James 7, published from Asaph ,1731-1 736. 
the originals (in 1762). 

I76i] To George Montagu 149 

that wisheth you well, and desires you to continue still as 
you have been, a true servant to your master. 

I have begun Mr. Hume's History*, and got almost through 
the first volume. It is amusing to one who knows a little 
of his own country, but I fear would not teach much to 
a beginner ; details are so much avoided by him, and the 
whole rather skimmed than elucidated. I cannot say I 
think it very carefully performed. Dr. Robertson's work 
I should expect would be more accurate. 

P.S. There has lately appeared, in four little volumes, 
a Chinese tale, called Hau Kiou Choaun*, not very enter- 
taining from the incidents, but I think extremely so from 
the novelty of the manner and the genuine representation 
of their customs. 


Arlington Street, Dec. 8, 1761. 

I RETURN you the list of prints, and shall be glad you will 
bring me all to which I have affixed this mark x . The rest 
I have ; yet the expense of the whole list would not ruin 
me. Lord Farnham, who, I believe, departed this morning, 
brings you the list of the Duke of Devonshire's pictures. 

I had been told that Mr. Bourk's history was of England, 
not of Ireland I am glad it is the latter, for I am now in 
Mr. Hume's England, and would fain read no more I not 
only know what has been written, but what would be 
written. Our story is so exhausted, that to make it new, 
they really make it new. Mr. Hume has exalted Edward 
the Second, and depressed Edward the Third. The next 

* Two volumes of his History of MS. by Thomas Percy (1729-1811), 

England ' containing the period from afterwards Bishop of Dromore, and 

Julius Caesar to Henry VII '(D.N.B.). editor of the Beliquet of Ancient 

5 Translated from a Portuguese English Poetry. 

150 To George Montagu [1761 

historian, I suppose, will make James the First a hero, and 
geld Charles the Second. 

Fingal is come out I have not yet got through it not but 
it is very fine yet I cannot at once compass an epic poem 
now. It tires me to death to read how many ways a warrior 
is like the moon, or the sun, or a rock, or a lion, or the 
ocean. Fingal is a brave collection of similes, and will 
serve all the boys at Eton and Westminster for these 
twenty years. I will trust you with a secret, but you must 
not disclose it, I should be ruined with my Scotch friends 
in short, I cannot believe it genuine I cannot believe 
a regular poem of six books has been preserved, uncorrupted, 
by oral tradition, from times before Christianity was intro- 
duced into the island. What! preserved unadulterated by 
savages dispersed among mountains, and so often driven 
from their dens, so wasted by wars civil and foreign ! Has 
one man ever got all by heart? I doubt it. Were parts 
preserved by some, other parts by others? Mighty lucky, 
that the tradition was never interrupted, nor any part lost 
not a verse, not a measure, not the sense ! luckier and 
luckier I have been extremely qualified myself lately for 
this Scotch memory ; we have had nothing but a coagulation 
of rains, fogs, and frosts, and though they have clouded all 
understanding, I suppose, if I had tried, I should have 
found that they thickened, and gave great consistence to my 

You want news I must make it, if I send it. To change 
the dullness of the scene I went to the play, where I had 
not been this winter. They are so crowded, that though 
I went before six, I got no better place than a fifth row, 
where I heard very ill, and was pent for five hours without 
a soul near me that I knew. It was Gynibdine, and appeared 
to me as long as if everybody in it went really to Italy in 
every act, and came back again. With a few pretty passages 

I76i] To Sir Horace Mann 151 

and a scene or two, it is so absurd and tiresome, that I am 
persuaded Garrick * . . . 


Strawberry Hill, Dec. 12, 1761. 

You may conclude, my dear Sir, that when my letters do 
not arrive so frequently as you expect, there have been no 
great events. I never fail you at a new epoch ; nay, nor let 
you lose any considerable links of the political chain. My 
details, indeed, must be more barren than they were twenty 
years ago, when I came fresh from talking with you of the 
dramatis personae, and when your own acquaintance with 
them was recent. When I mention them now, I talk to 
you of Sevarambians *, of unknown nations ; or must enter 
into more explanations than could be packed up in a letter. 
The new opposition have not proceeded very briskly, con- 
sidering the alertness of their leader : yet they have marked 
out a camp at the St. Alban's Tavern, and in a council of 
war determined that the chief effort of the campaign should 
be exerted in behalf of a perpetital militia : a measure most 
unwelcome to many of the great lords, and not peculiarly 
agreeable to all concerned in that service ; yet difficult to be 
denied now, lest the officers should disband, in a moment 
when we have so few regulars at home, and are threatened 
with an invasion, if such a thing can be put in practice. 
This plan has waited for the arrival from Germany of 
General George Townshend 2 , the restorer of militia, who is 
not yet landed ; but Lord Strange s is to present the bill 

LETTER 793. * The rest of the a Eldest son of Charles, Viscount 

letter is missing in the Kimbolton Townshend, whom he succeeded in 

MS. the title. Walpole. 

LETTER 794. 1 There was a political 3 James Stanley, Lord Strange, only 

French romance, called L'Hutoire des son of the Earl of Derby. Walpole. 
Sevarambet. Walpole. 

152 To Sir Horace Mann [i76i 

two days hence. In the meantime, there have passed 
scenes, which make this attempt more necessary to Mr. Pitt, 
and which yet may relax the ardour of his half-ally, Charles 
Townshend 4 , the Secretary at War, who is discontented 
with the precedence given to George Grenville, and has 
attended the assemblies at the St. Alban's. Last Wednes- 
day the question of the war in Germany was agitated. The 
court support it, for they don't know how to desert it, nor 
care to be taxed with abatement of vigour ; yet the temper 
of the House of Commons, and the tone even of the advo- 
cates for that war, were evidently repugnant to the measure ; 
yet, as it was accorded unanimously, Mr. Pitt had rather 
matter of triumph. On Friday, his superiority declined 
strangely, his friends proposed calling for the memorials 
that have intervened between us and Spain on their late 
demands. He supported this proposition with great ability, 
but even his friends the Tories, who had been falling back 
to him, abandoned him on this motion, which was rejected 
with great spirit by the administration ; and on putting 
the question, his numbers were so trifling, that he could 
not venture a division. If the militia produces no con- 
fusion, he must wait for some calamitous moment. The 
Spanish war is still ambiguous. We do not think they 
intend it openly ; but as any repugnance to it on our side 
will encourage their flippancies, it is scarce probable but it 
will arrive, even without the direct intention of either 
court. This is the situation of the present minute: your 
own sagacity will tell you how soon it may be altered. 

What an assembly of English dames at Naples! The 
Duchess of Grafton is at Turin ; but, I should think, would 
soon be at Florence, on her way to Kome. Don't forget to 
ask her if she received my answer and thanks for her 
present ; I should be vexed if they had not reached her. 
4 Brother of the foregoing George Townshend. Walpole. 

1761] To Sir David Dalrymple 153 

The politics occasioned by Mr. Pitt are our only news. 
The court, the town, the theatres, produce no novelty. 
Mr. Conway will get a little into Gazettes, though not in 
a light worthy his name, as it will not be for action : Lord 
Granby is returning, and leaves the command to him. 
Lady Ailesbury passes the winter with him in quarters 
I believe at Osnaburg. 

I have told your brother to let me know when a ship 
sails. I shall send you the fashionable pamphlets, and 
prints of the King and Queen. His is like, but not so 
handsome; the Queen's, rather improved in the features, 
but with less agreeableness in the countenance than she 
deserves : yet both are sufficient resemblances. Adieu ! 

P.S. Pray, in the first person's pocket that is returning, 
send me a little box of pastils, such as they burn in churches ; 
the very best you can get. I have a few left, black and in 
a pyramidal form, that are delicious. It is long, too, since 
you sent home any parcel of my letters. 

Tuesday, 15th. I was surprised this morning with an 
article in the papers containing the death of your eldest 
brother I immediately sent to your brother James, but it 
proves your uncle Edward at Chelsea, whom I believe you 
knew so little, that I need not even condole with you. 


Dec. 21, 1761. 

YOUB specimen pleases me, and I give you many thanks 
for promising me the continuation. You will, I hope, find 
less trouble with printers than I have done. Just when my 
book was, I thought, ready to appear, my printer ran away, 
and has left it very imperfect. This is the fourth I have 
tried, and I own it discourages me. Our low people are so 

154 To George Montagu [i76i 

corrupt and such knaves, that being cheated and dis- 
appointed are all the fruits of attempting to amuse oneself 
or others. Literature must struggle with many difficulties. 
They who print for profit print only for profit ; we, who 
print to entertain or instruct others, are the bubbles of our 
designs. Defrauded, abused, pirated don't you think, Sir, 
one need have resolution ? Mine is very nearly exhausted. 


Arlington Street, past midnight, Dec. 23, 1761. 
I AM this minute come home, and find such a delightful 
letter from you, that I cannot help answering it, and telling 
you so before I sleep. You need not affirm, that your 
ancient wit and pleasantry are revived ; your letter is but 
five and twenty, and I will forgive any vanity, that is so 
honest, and so well founded. Ireland I see produces 
wonders of more sorts than one if my Lord Anson was 
to go lord-lieutenant, I suppose he would return a ravisher. 
How different am I from this state of revivification ! Even 
such talents as I had are far from blooming again, and while 
my friends, or cotemporaries, or predecessors, are rising to 
preside over the fame of this age, I seem a mere antedi- 
luvian, must live upon what little stock of reputation I had 
acquired, and indeed grow so indifferent, that I can only 
wonder how those, whom I thought as old as myself, can 
interest themselves so much about a world, whose faces 
I hardly know. You recover your spirits and wit, Rigby is 
grown a speaker, Mr. Bentley a poet, while I am nursing 
one or two gouty friends, and sometimes lamenting that 
I am likely to survive the few I have left. Nothing tempts 
me to launch out again; every day teaches me how much 
I was mistaken in my own parts, and I am in no danger 
LETTER 796. Wrongly dated by C. Dec. 3. 

I76i] To George Montagu 155 

now but of thinking I am grown too wise ; for every period 
of life has its mistake. 

Mr. Bentley's relation to Lord Rochester by the St. Johns 
is not new to me, and you had more reason to doubt of 
their affinity by the former marrying his whore, than to 
ascribe their consanguinity to it. I shall be glad to see the 
epistle: are not The Wishes to be acted? remember me, if 
they are printed ; and I shall thank you for this new list of 

I have mentioned names enough in this letter to lead 
me naturally to new ill usage I have received. Just when 
I thought my book finished, my printer ran away, and had 
left eighteen sheets in the middle of the book untouched, 
having amused me with sending proofs. He had got into 
debt, and two girls with child being two, he could not 
marry both Hannahs. You see my luck ; I had been kind 
to this fellow in short, if the faults of my life had been 
punished as severely as my merits have been, I should be 
the most unhappy of beings ! but let us talk of something 

I have picked up at Mrs. Dunch's auction the sweetest 
Petitot l in the world the very picture of James the Second, 
that he gave Mrs. Godfrey and I paid but six guineas and 
a half for it I will not tell you how vast a commission 
I had given ; but I will own, that about the hour of sale, 
I drove about the door to find what likely bidders there 
were the first coach I saw was the Chudleighs'; could 
I help concluding that a Maid of Honour kept by a Duke 
would purchase the portrait of a Duke that kept a Maid of 
Honour? but I was mistaken. The Oxendens 2 reserved the 
best pictures ; the fine china, and even the diamonds, sold 

1 Jean Petitot (1607-1691), painter 2 Mrs. Dunch's daughter married 

in enamel. Horace Walpole acquired Sir George Oxenden. 
a considerable number of his works. 

156 To George Montagu [i76i 

for nothing for nobody has a shilling we shall be beggars 
if we don't conquer Peru within this half-year. 

If you are acquainted with my Lady Barrimore 3 , pray 
tell her that in less than two hours t'other night the Duke 
of Cumberland lost 450 pounds at loo ; Miss Pelhani won 
three hundred, and I the rest. However, in general, loo is 
extremely gone to decay ; I am to play at Princess Emily's 
to-morrow for the first time this winter, and it is with 
difficulty she has made a party. 

My Lady Pomfret 4 is dead on the road to Bath and 
unless the deluge stops, and the fogs disperse, I think we 
shall all die. A few days ago, on the cannon firing for the 
King going to the House somebody asked what it was for ? 
Monsieur de Choiseul B replied, ' Apparemment, c'est qu'on 
voit le soleil.' 

Shall I fill up the rest of my paper with some extempore 
lines, that I wrote t'other night on Lady Mary Coke having 
St. Antony's fire in her cheek ? You will find nothing in 
them to contradict what I have said in the former part of 
my letter they rather confirm it. 

No rouge you wear, nor can a dart 

From Love's bright quiver wound your heart. 

And thought you, Cupid and his mother 

Would unrevenged their anger smother? 

No, no from heaven they sent the fire 

That boasts St. Antony its sire ; 

They pour'd it on one peccant part, 

Inflamed your cheek, if not your heart. 

In vain for see the crimson rise, 

And dart fresh lustre through your eyes ; 

3 Hon. Margaret Davys, daughter B fitienne Francois de Choiseul 
of first Viscount Mountcashell ; m. Stainville (1719-1785), Duo de Choi- 
(1738) James Barry, fifth Earl of seul, Minister for War. He became 
Barrymore. She was an inveterate Minister for Foreign Affairs in 1766, 
card-player. but was disgraced and exiled in 1770 

4 Henrietta Louisa, Countess of in consequence of the intrigues of 
Pomfret, often mentioned in the Madame du Barri. 

former part of these letters. Walpole. 

176i] To Sir Horace Mann 157 

While ruddier drops and baffled pain 
Enhance the white they meant to stain. 
Ah! nymph, on that unfading face 
With fruitless pencil Time shall trace 
His lines malignant, since disease 
But gives you mightier power to please. 

Willes 6 is dead, and Pratt is to be Chief Justice ; Mr. 
Yorke Attorney-General Solicitor, I don't know who. Good 
night ! the watchman cries, past one ! Yours ever, 

H. W. 

P.S. When you bring over the prints, pray roll them on 
a round stick, for the least crease is never to be effaced. 


Arlington Street, Dec. 28, 1761. 

OTJB correspondence is a register of events and aeras, a 
chronicle of wars and revolutions in ministries: stay! 
Mr. Pitt is not restored, but the foundation is laid. The 
last courier is arrived from Spain ; we demanded a sight of 
their treaty with France, or threatened war. They have 
refused the one, and defied us to the other. Lord Bristol 
is on the road home: Fuentes departs immediately. We 
did not dare to turn out war, as well as Mr. Pitt ; and so, 
I conclude, we shall have both. Three weeks ago he was 
sunk to nothing ; the first calamity will make the nation 
clamour for him. This will sound very well in his future 
Plutarch ; but, if he had stooped to peace, and had con- 
firmed his conquests, would not his character have been at 
least as amiable? A single life spared were worth Peru 
and Mexico, which to be sure he will subdue, the moment 
we are undone and he becomes necessary. 

6 Sir John Willee, Knight, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas. 

158 To Sir Horace Mann [i?6i 

I know nothing more ; but a Spanish war * will make my 
letter as heavy as if it contained eight pages. Young 
Mr. Pitt * is arrived ; we have exchanged visits, but have 
not met yet, as I have been the last four days at Straw- 
berry. The Parliament is adjourned to the nineteenth of 
January. My gallery advances, and I push on the works 
there, for pictures, and baubles, and buildings look to me 
as if I realized something. I had rather have a bronze 
than a thousand pounds in the stocks; for, if Ireland or 
Jamaica are invaded, I shall still have my bronze : I 
would not answer so much for the funds, nor will I buy 
into the new loan of glory. If the Eomans or the Greeks 
were beat, they were beat ; they repaired their walls, 
and did as well as they could ; but they did not lose 
every sesterce, every talent they had, by the defeat affect- 
ing their Change Alley. Crassus, the richest man on 
t'other side Temple Bar, lost his army and his life, and 
yet East India bonds did not fall an obolus under par. 
I like that system better than ours. If people would be 
heroes, they only suffered themselves by a miscarriage; 
they had a triumph, or a funeral oration, just as it hap- 
pened ; and private folk were entertained with the one 
or the other, and nobody was a farthing the richer or 
poorer ; but it makes a strange confusion now that brokers 
are so much concerned in the events of war. How Scipio 
would have stared if he had been told that he must not 
demolish Carthage, as it would ruin several aldermen who 
had money in the Punic actions I Apropos, do you know 
what a Bull, and a Sear, and a Lame Duck, are ? Nay, nor 
I neither ; I only am certain that they are neither animals 
nor fowl, but are extremely interested in the new sub- 
scription. I don't believe I apply it right ; but I feel as if 

LETTER 797. 1 War with Spain was declared on Jan. 4, 1762. 
2 Mr. Thomas Pitt. Walpole. 

1761] To Sir Horace Mann 159 

I should be a lame duck if the Spaniards take the vessel 
that has my altar on board. 

Monday, at night. 

I have been abroad, and have heard some particulars 
that are well worth adjoining to my letter. Fuentes last 
night delivered copies to the foreign ministers of his 
master's declaration. It is, properly, the declaration of the 
King of Spain against Mr. Pitt (a circumstance that will 
not lessen the dignity of the latter). It intimates that, if 
we had asked to see the treaty in a civil manner, we might 
have obtained it; and it pretends still to have no hostile 
intentions. Fuentes comments on this latter passage at 
large. You may judge of their pacific sentiments, by hearing 
that they have threatened the court of Portugal to march 
an army into that kingdom if they do not declare offen- 
sively against us. War was the only calamity left for the 
Portuguese to experience. When they have dethroned 
the royal family at Lisbon, I suppose, according to the 
tenderness of royal brotherhood, Don Carlos will afford his 
sister 3 , her husband, and their race, an asylum in his own 
court. How much better he behaved when he was under 
your tuition at Naples ! The same courier brought Fuentes 
the Toison d'Or, and carried another to the Due de Choi- 
seul ; in return, the Cordon Bleu was given to Grimaldi 4 
at Paris. Well, we must make our fortune now we have 
a monopoly of all the war in Europe ! 

My Lady Pomfret is dead, of a complication of dis- 
tempers, on the road to Bath. Lady Mary Wortley is not 
yet arrived. Good night ! 

3 Maria Anne, wife of Joseph, King with whom Choiscul negotiated the 
of Portugal. ' Family Compact. ' 

4 The Spanish Ambassador at Paris, 

160 To George Montagu [i?6i 


Arlington Street, Dec. 30, 1761. 

I HAVE received two more letters from you since I wrote 
last week, and I like to find by them that you are so well 
and so happy. As nothing has happened of change in my 
situation but a few more months passed, I have nothing to 
tell you new of myself. Time does not sharpen my passions 
or pursuits, and the experience I have had by no means 
prompts me to make new connections. 'Tis a busy world, 
and well adapted to those who love to bustle in it I loved 
it once, loved its very tempests now I barely open my 
window, to view what course the storm takes. The town, 
who, like the devil, when one has once sold oneself to him, 
never permits one to have done playing the fool, believe 
I have a great hand in their amusements ; but to write 
pamphlets, I mean as a volunteer, one must love or hate, 
and I have the satisfaction of doing neither. I would not 
be at the trouble of composing a distich to achieve a revolu- 
tion. 'Tis equal to me what names are on the scene. In 
the general view, the prospect is very dark ; the Spanish 
war, added to the load, almost oversets our most sanguine 
heroism ; and now we have an opportunity of conquering 
all the world, by being at war with all the world, we seem 
to doubt a little of our abilities. On a survey of our situation, 
I comfort myself with saying, Well, what is it to me ? 
A selfishness that is far from anxious, when it is the first 
thought in one's constitution not so agreeable when it is 
the last, and adopted by necessity alone. 

You drive your expectations much too fast, in thinking 
my Anecdotes of Painting are ready to appear, and in de- 
manding three volumes. You will see but two, and it will 
be February first. True, I have written three, but I ques- 

I76i] To George Montagu 161 

tion whether the third will be published at all ; certainly 
not soon ; it is not a work of merit enough to cloy the 
town with a great deal at once. My printer ran away, and 
left a third part of the two first volumes unfinished I sup- 
pose he is writing a tragedy himself, or an epistle to my 
Lord Melcomb, or a panegyric on my Lord Bute. 

Jemmy Pelham 1 is dead, and has left to his servants 
what little his servants had left him. Lord Legonier was 
killed by the newspapers, and wanted to prosecute them : 
his lawyer told him it was impossible a tradesman indeed 
might prosecute, as such a report might affect his credit. 
' Well, then,' said the old man, ' I may prosecute too, for 
I can prove I have been hurt by this report : I was going 
to marry a great fortune, who thought I was but seventy- 
four ; the newspapers have said I am eighty, and she will 
not have me.' 

Lord Charlemont's Queen Elizabeth I know perfectly ; he 
outbid me for it. Is his villa finished ? I am well 
pleased with the design in Chambers. I have been my out- 
of-town with Lord Waldgrave, Selwyn, and Williams; it 
was melancholy the missing poor Edgecumbe, who was 
constantly of the Christmas and Easter parties. Did you 
see the charming picture Eeynolds painted for me of him, 
Selwyn, and Williams ? It is by far one of the best things 
he has executed. He has just finished a pretty whole- 
length of Lady Elizabeth Keppel, in the bridemaid's habit, 
sacrificing to Hymen. 

If the Spaniards land in Ireland, shall you make the 
campaign? No, no, come back to England; you and I 
will not be Patriots, till the Gauls are in the City, and we 
must take our great chairs and our fasces, and be knocked 

LETTEE 798. * James Pelham, of Sussex, by his third wife ; sometime 
Cr cm-hurst, Sussex, son of Sir Thomas secretary to the Duke of Grafbon as 
Pelham, second Baronet, of Laughton, Lord Chamberlain. 


162 To Sir Horace Mann [1762 

on the head with decorum in St. James's Market. Good 
night ! Yours ever, 

H. W. 

P.S. I am told that they bind in vellum better at Dublin 
than anywhere ; pray bring me any one book of their binding 
as well as it can be done, and I will not mind the price. If 
Mr. Bourk's history appears before your return, let it be 


Arlington Street, Jan. 4, 1762. 

1 WROTE to you but last week, just before I heard from 
you, so you must look on this only as a postscript. The 
Spanish war that I announced to you is a full and melan- 
choly answer to your idea, if Sir James Grey l had gone to 
Spain our sailors must go thither first, either as invaders 
or prisoners ! The war was proclaimed this morning : the 
proclamation itself shows how little foundation for it. This 
war was conceived rashly, adopted timidly, carried into 
practice foolishly, and, I fear, will be executed weakly. But 
why prophesy, when one hopes to be mistaken ? 

Besides your letter, I have received one cargo, the 
burlettas and the residue of Medicean heads; I am much 
obliged to you for both. The latter are ill executed, but 
curious : by the Bianca Capello, one sees that the Electress a 
is dead. The Uccellatorii 3 , it was, I think, that you told 
me was so pretty. It shall be performed, if they will 
take it. 

LETTER 799. l He had been Minis- of her hnsband had resided at Flo- 

ter at Naples when Charles, King of rence, where she died very aged. 

Spain, was King there, with whom Prom family pride, she would suffer 

he had been a favourite. Walpole. no print of Bianca Capello, who hav- 

2 The Electress Palatine Dowager, ing been mistress of Duke Francis I, 
Anna Louisa, was the last of the became his wife. Walpole. 

House of Medici, and from the death s A comic opera. Walpole. 

1762] To Sir Horace Mann 163 

Mr. Bobinson *, whom I begin to know a little, tells me 
that a great discovery has been lately made in Tuscany, of 
quantities of Etrurian vases. If they are dispersed and sold, 
and sold cheap (for till I have taken an Acapulca 8 ship, 
I shall be very penurious), I should be glad of a few, if the 
forms are beautiful ; for what they call the erudition, I am 
totally indifferent. A travelling college tutor may be struck 
with an uncouth fable, and fancy he unravels some point of 
mythology, that is not worth unravelling ; I hate guessing 
at ugliness, and I know in general, that mysteries are built 
on the unskilfulness of the artists ; the moment nations 
grew polished, they were always intelligible. Mr. Robinson 
tells me too, that the Duke of Marlborough has purchased 
most of Zanetti's 8 gems at Venice. I remember one (you 
will say there is no end of my memory) which he has not 
bought. It was a couch ant tiger, in alto relievo, and had 
been Prince Eugene's. I wish you would inquire about it, 
and know what he would have for it. Mr. Murray 7 was 
a good deal an acquaintance of mine in England, and 
I should think would oblige me about it, but I must know 
the price first. 

My Lady Pomfret has desired to be buried at Oxford 8 . 
It is of a piece with her life. I dare say she had treasured 
up some idea of the Countess Matilda 9 , that gave St. Peter 
his patrimony. How your ghost and mine will laugh at 
hers, when posterity begins to consecrate her learning ! 

* Thomas, afterwards the second the Acaptdco ship in 1743. 

Lord Grantham. Walpole. He sue- 8 Antonio Maria Zanetti (1680- 

ceeded his father in 1770 ; was Lord 1778). 

of Trade, 1766 ; Vice-Chamberlain of 7 Resident at Venice ; he was of 

the Household, 1770-71 ; Ambassador the Isle of Man. Walpole. 

at Madrid, 1771-79 ; President of the 8 Lady Pomfret had given her hus- 

Board of Trade, 1780-82 ; Secretary band's collection of statues to the 

of State for Foreign Affairs, 1782-83 ; University of Oxford. Walpole. 

d. 1786. Matilda (1046-1115), Countess of 

6 Acapulco, on the western coast Tuscany, who in 1077 made a gift 

of Mexico, the port whence a galleon of all her possessions to Pope Gregory 

sailed yearly for Manilla, returning VlL 
laden with treasure. Anson captured 

M 2 

164 To George Montagu [1762 

The Parliament does not meet till the nineteenth ; by 
that time people will have formed some opinion at present 
there is much gloom. I don't know whither it will be 
directed. I have abundance of conjectures, but events so 
seldom correspond to foresight, that I believe it is as well 
to act like other soothsayers, and not broach one's visions 
till they have been fulfilled. Good night. 

P.S. I should be glad Mr. Murray would not name me. 
Zanetti cheated my father outrageously ; he will think we 
forgive, and have no objection to being cheated 10 . 


Arlington Street, Jan. 26, 1762. 

WE have had as many mails due from Ireland as you had 
from us. I have at last received a line from you ; it tells 
me you are well, which I am always glad to hear ; I cannot 
say you tell me much more. My health is so little subject 
to alteration, and so preserved by temperance, that it is not 
worth repetition ; thank God you may conclude it good, if 
I do not say the contrary. 

Here is nothing new but preparations for conquest, and 
approaches to bankruptcy ; and the worst is, the former will 
advance the latter at least as much as impede it. You say 
the Irish will live and die with your cousin : I am glad they 
are so well disposed. I have lived long enough to doubt 
whether all who like to live with one would be so ready to 
die with one I know it is not pleasant to have the time 
arrived when one looks about to see whether they would or 
not but you are in a country of more sanguine complexion, 
and where I believe the clergy do not deny the laity the cup. 

10 Zanetti, a Venetian, had been wards by Sir Kobert Walpole. Wal- 
employed by the Regent of France pule. 
to buy pictures for him ; and after- 

1762] To George Montagu 165 

The Queen's brother arrived yesterday: your brother, 
Prince John, has been here about a week ; I am to dine 
with him to-day at Lord Dacre's with the Chute. 

Our burlettas are gone out of fashion ; do the Amicis 
come hither next year, or go to Guadaloupe, as is said ? 

I have been told that a Lady Kingsland 1 at Dublin has 
a picture of Madame Grammont by Petitot I don't know 
who Lady Kingsland is, whether rich or poor, but I know 
there is nothing I would not give for such a picture. I wish 
you would hunt it ; and if the dame is above temptation, do 
try if you could obtain a copy in water-colours, if there is 
anybody at Dublin could execute it. 

The Duchess of Portland has lately enriched me exceed- 
ingly nine portraits of the court of Louis Quatorze ! Lord 
Portland 2 brought them over ; they hung in the nursery at 
Bulstrode, the children amused themselves with shooting 
at them I have got them but I will tell you no more ; 
you don't deserve it you write to me as if I was your god- 
father : ' Hond. Sir, I am brave and well, my cousin George 
is well, we drink your health every night, and beg your 
blessing.' This is the sum total of all your letters; 
I thought in a new country, and with your spirits and 
humour, you could have found something to tell me I shall 
only ask you now when you return ; but I declare I will not 
correspond with you ; I don't write letters to divert myself, 
but in expectation of returns in short, you are extremely 
in disgrace with me ; I have measured my letters for some 
time, and for the future will answer you paragraph by para- 
graph. You yourself don't seem to find letter-writing so 
amusing as to pay itself. Adieu ! 

Yours ever, 

H. W. 

LETTER 800. 1 Honors, daughter Kingsland. 

ofPeterDaly; m. (1735) Henry Barne- 2 William Bentinok (d. 1709), first 
wall, fourth Viscount Barnewall of Earl of Portland. 

166 To Sir Horace Mann [i?62 


Arlington Street, Jan. 29, 1762. 

1 WISH you joy, sir minister ; the Czarina l is dead. As 
we conquered America 'in Germany*, I hope we shall overrun 
Spain by this burial at Petersburg. Yet, don't let us plume 
ourselves too fast ; nothing is so like a queen as a king, 
nothing so like a predecessor as a successor. The favourites 
of the Prince Royal of Prussia, who had suffered so much 
for him, were wofully disappointed, when he became the 
present glorious monarch ; they found the English maxim 
true, that the king never dies ; that is, the dignity and 
passions of the crown never die. We were not much less 
defeated of our hopes on the decease of Philip V. The 
Grand Duke 8 has been proclaimed Czar at the army in 
Pomerania ; he may love conquest like that army, or not 
know it is conquering, like his aunt. However, we cannot 
suffer more by this event. I would part with the Empress- 
Queen, on no better a prospect. 

We have not yet taken the galleons, nor destroyed the 
Spanish fleet. Nor have they enslaved Portugal, nor you 
made a triumphant entry into Naples. My dear Sir, you see 
how lucky you was not to go thither ; you don't envy 
Sir James Grey *, do you ? Pray don't make any categorical 
demands to Marshal Botta 5 , and be obliged to retire to 
Leghorn, because they are not answered. We want allies ; 
preserve us our friend the Great Duke of Tuscany. I like 
your answer to Botta exceedingly, but I fear the court of 

LETTER 801. J The Czarina Eliza- July, 1762, after having been forced 

beth. Walpole. to sign a renunciation of the throne. 

2 This phrase was first used by Pitt * He had been appointed Minister 
in the debate on the Address (Nov. 13, to Spain, but the war prevented his 
1761). going. Walpole. 

3 Peter III. Walpole. He was 6 Commander in Tuscany. Wal- 
strangled by Orloff and others in pole. 

1762] To Sir Horace Mann 167 

Vienna is shame-proof. The Apostolic and Eeligious 
Empress is not a whit a better Christian, not a jot less 
a woman, than the late Russian Empress, who gave such 
proofs of her being a woman. 

We have a mighty expedition 6 on the point of sailing ; 
the destination not disclosed. The German war loses 
ground daily ; however, all is still in embryo. My subse- 
quent letters are not likely to be so barren and indecisive. 
I write more to prove there is nothing, than to tell you 

You was mistaken, I believe, about the Graftons ; they do 
not remove from Turin, till George Pitt 7 arrives to occupy 
their house there. I am really anxious about the fate of 
my letter to the Duchess; I should be hurt if it had 
miscarried ; she would have reason to think me very 

I have given your letter to Mr. T. Pitt ; he has been very 
unfortunate since his arrival has lost his favourite sister in 
child-bed. Lord Tavistock 8 , I hear, has writ accounts of 
you that give me much pleasure. 

I am ashamed to tell you that we are again dipped into 
an egregious scene of folly. The reigning fashion is a 
ghost 9 a ghost, that would not pass muster in the paltriest 
convent in the Apennine. It only knocks and scratches ; 
does not pretend to appear or to speak. The clergy give it 
their benediction ; and all the world, whether believers or 
infidels, go to hear it. I, in which number you may guess, 
go to-morrow ; for it is as much the mode to visit the ghost 
as the Prince of Mecklenburg 10 , who is just arrived. I have 
not seen him yet, though I have left my name for him. But 

6 The expedition against Havana , 8 Francis Russell, eldest son of the 
which sailed on March 6, 1762, com- Duke of Bedford. Walpole. 
manded by the Earl of Albemarle 9 The Cock Lane Ghost. 

and Admiral Pocock. 10 Prince Charles, brother of the 

7 Appointed Minister to Turin ; Queen. Walpole. 
afterwards Lord Elvers. Walpole. 

168 To Sir Horace Mann [1762 

I will tell you who is come too Lady Mary Wortley. I went 
last night to visit her ; I give you my honour, and you who 
know her would credit me without it, the following is a 
faithful description. I found her in a little miserable bed- 
chamber of a ready-furnished house, with two tallow candles, 
and a bureau covered with pots and pans. On her head, in 
full of all accounts, she had an old black-laced hood, wrapped 
entirely round, so as to conceal all hair or want of hair. No 
handkerchief, but up to her chin a kind of horseman's riding- 
coat, calling itself a pet-en-Vair, made of a dark green (green 
I think it had been) brocade, with coloured and silver flowers, 
and lined with furs ; boddice laced, a foul dimity petticoat 
sprig'd, velvet muffeteens on her arms, grey stockings and 
slippers. Her face less changed in twenty years than I could 
have imagined ; I told her so, and she was not so tolerable 
twenty years ago that she needed have taken it for flattery, 
but she did, and literally gave me a box on the ear. She is 
very lively, all her senses perfect, her languages as imperfect 
as ever, her avarice greater. She entertained me at first with 
nothing but the dearness of provisions at Helvoet. With 
nothing but an Italian, a French, and a Prussian, all men 
servants, and something she calls an old secretary, but whose 
age till he appears will be doubtful, she receives all the 
world, who go to homage her as Queen Mother u , and crams 
them into this kennel. The Duchess of Hamilton, who came 
in just after me, was so astonished and diverted, that she 
could not speak to her for laughing. She says that she has 
left all her clothes at Venice. I really pity Lady Bute ; what 
will the progress be of such a commencement ! 

The King of France has avowed a natural son ia , and given 
him the estate which came from Marshal Belleisle, with the 
title of Comte de Gisors. The mother I think is called 

11 She was mother of Lady Bute, 12 This was a false report. Wal- 
wifo of the Prime Minister. Walpole. pole. 

1762] To George Montagu 169 

Matignon or Maquignon. Madame Pompadour was the 
Bathsheba that introduced this Abishag. Adieu, my 
dear Sir! 


Arlington Street, Feb. 2, 1762. 

I SCOLDED you in my last, but I shall forgive you, if you 
return soon to England, as you talk of doing; for though 
you are an abominable correspondent, and only write to beg 
letters, you are good company, and I have a notion I shall 
still be glad to see you. 

Lady Mary Wortley is arrived ; I have seen her ; I think 
her avarice, her dirt, and her vivacity, are all increased. Her 
dress, like her languages, is a galimatias of several countries ; 
the groundwork, rags ; and the embroidery, nastiness. She 
wears no cap, no handkerchief, no gown, no petticoat, no 
shoes. An old black-laced hood represents the first ; the 
fur of a horseman's coat, which replaces the third, serves 
for the second ; a dimity petticoat is deputy, and officiates 
for the fourth ; and slippers act the part of the last. When 
I was at Florence, and she was expected there, we were 
drawing Sortes Virgttianas for her ; we literally drew 

Insanam vatem aspicies. 

It would have been a stronger prophecy now, even than it 
was then. 

You told me not a word of Mr. Mcnaghton *, and I have 
a great mind to be as coolly indolent about our famous 
ghost in Cock Lane why should one steal half an hour 
from one's amusements to tell a story to a friend in another 
island? I could send you volumes on the ghost, and I 

LETTER 802. 1 John Macnaugh- murder of Miss Knoz on the pro- 
ton, an Irishman of good position, ceding NOT. 10. 
executed on Deo. 15, 1761, for the 

170 To George Montagu [i?62 

believe if I was to stay a little, I might send you its life, 
dedicated to my Lord Dartmouth, by the Ordinaiy of New- 
gate, its two great patrons. A drunken parish clerk 2 set it 
on foot out of revenge, the Methodists have adopted it, and 
the whole town of London think of nothing else. Elizabeth 
Canning and the Babbit-woman were modest impostors in 
comparison of this, which goes on without saving the least 
appearances. The Archbishop, who would not suffer The 
Minor to be acted in ridicule of the Methodists, permits this 
farce to be played every night, and I shall not be surprised 
if they perform in the great hall at Lambeth. I went to 
hear it for it is not an apparition, but an audition. We set 
out from the Opera, changed our clothes at Northumberland 
House, the Duke of York, Lady Northumberland, Lady 
Mary Coke, Lord Hertford, and I, all in one hackney coach, 
and drove to the spot ; it rained torrents ; yet the lane was 
full of mob, and the house so full we could not get in at 
last they discovered it was the Duke of York, and the 
company squeezed themselves into one another's pockets to 
make room for us. The house, which is borrowed, and to 
which the ghost has adjourned, is wretchedly small and 
miserable ; when we opened the chamber, in which were 
fifty people, with no light but one tallow candle at the end, 
we tumbled over the bed of the child to whom the ghost 
comes, and whom they are murdering there by inches in 
such insufferable heat and stench. At the top of the room 
are ropes to dry clothes I asked, if we were to have rope- 
dancing between the acts? we had nothing ; they told us, 
as they would at a puppet-show, that it would not come 
that night till seven in the morning that is, when there 
are only prentices and old women. We stayed, however, till 
half an hour after one. The Methodists have promised them 
contributions ; provisions are sent in like forage, and all the 
2 William Parsons, parish clerk of St. Sepulchre's. 

1762] To George Montagu 171 

taverns and ale-houses in the neighbourhood make fortunes. 
The most diverting part is to hear people wondering when it 
will be found out as if there was anything to find out as if 
the actors would make their noises where they can be dis- 
covered. However, as this pantomime cannot last much 
longer, I hope Lady Fanny Shirley will set up a ghost of 
her own at Twickenham, and then you shall hear one. The 
Methodists, as Lord Aylsford assured Mr. Chute two nights 
ago at Lord Caere's, have attempted ghosts three times in 
Warwickshire. There ! how good I am ! 

Yours ever, 

H. W. 


Arlington Street, Feb. 6, 1762. 

You must have thought me very negligent of your com- 
missions; not only in buying your ruffles, but in never 
mentioning them but my justification is most ample and 
verifiable. Your letter of Jan. 2nd arrived but yesterday 
with the papers of Dec. 29. These were the mails that 
have so long been missing, and were shipwrecked or some- 
thing on the Isle of Man. Now you see it was impos- 
sible for me to buy you a pair of ruffles for the 18th of 
January, when I did not receive the orders till the 5th 
of February. 

You don't tell me a word (but that is not new to you) of 
Mr. Hamilton's wonderful eloquence, which converted a 
whole House of Commons on the five regiments 1 . We 
have no such miracles here ; five regiments might work 
such prodigies, but I never knew mere rhetoric gain above 
one or two proselytes at a time in all my practice. 

We have a Prince Charles here, the Queen's brother ; he 
is like her, but more like the Hows. Low, but well made, 

LKTTEK 803. 1 On a motion for an increase of troops. 

172 To the Eev. William Cole [i?62 

good eyes and teeth. Princess Emily is very ill, has been 
blistered, and been blooded four times. 

My books appear on Monday se'nnight : if I can find any 
quick conveyance for them, you shall have them : if not, as 
you are returning soon, I may as well keep them for you. 
Adieu ! I grudge every word I write to you. 

Yours ever, 

H. W. 

804. To THE EEV. WILLIAM CoLE 1 . 

DEAR SlR, Tuesday, Feb. 7, 1762. 

The little leisure I have to-day will, I trust, excuse my 
saying very few words in answer to your obliging letter, of 
which no part touches me more than what concerns your 
health, which, however, I rejoice to hear is re-establishing 

I am sorry I did not save your trouble of cataloguing 
Ames's 2 heads, by telling you, that another person has 
actually done it, and designs to publish a new edition 
ranged in a different method. I don't know the gentleman's 
name, but he is a friend of Sir William Musgrave, from 
whom I had this information some months ago. 

You will oblige me much by the sight of the volume you 
mention. Don't mind the epigrams you transcribe on my 
father. I have been inured to abuse on him from my birth. 
It is not a quarter of an hour ago since, cutting the leaves 
of a new dab called Anecdotes of Polite Literature, I found 

LETTER 804. * William Cole (17 14- gence of opinion he was always on 
1782), antiquary, at this time Rector good terms with Walpole. The latter 
of Bletchley. He was a former school- found Cole's knowledge and industry 
fellow at Eton of Horace Walpole, of great use, while Cole was not insen- 
whose antiquarian tastes led him (in sible to the honour of being a cor- 
1762) to open a correspondence with respondent of Walpole's. Walpole's 
Cole, which was continued until Cole's letters to Cole are now, with Cole's 
death. Cole was a Tory and a High MSS., in the British Museum. 
Churchman, with leanings to Eoman 2 Joseph Ames (1689-1759), corn- 
Catholicism, but in spite of diver- piler of a Catalogue of English Heads, 

1762] To the Eev. Henry Zouch 173 

myself abused for having defended my father. I don't know 
the author, and suppose I never shall, for I find Glover's 
Leonidas is one of the things he admires and so I leave 
them to be forgotten together, fortiwati ambo I 

I sent your letter to Ducarel, who has promised me those 
poems I accepted the promise to get rid of him t'other 
day, when he would have talked me to death. Adieu ! 
dear Sir. 

Yours very sincerely, 



Arlington Street, Feb. 13, 1762. 

I should long ago have given myself the pleasure of 
writing to you, if I had not been constantly in hope of 
accompanying my letter with the Anecdotes of Painting, &c. ; 
but the tediousness of engravers, and the roguery of a fourth 
printer, have delayed the publication week after week for 
months : truly I do not believe that there is such a being as 
an honest printer in the world. 

I sent the books to Mr. Whiston, who, I think you told 
me, was employed by you : he answered, he knew nothing 
of the matter. Mr. Dodsley has undertaken now to convey 
them to you, and I beg your acceptance of them : it will be 
a very kind acceptance if you will tell me of any faults, 
blunders, omissions, &c., as you observe them. In a first 
sketch of this nature, I cannot hope the work is anything 
like complete. Excuse, Sir, the brevity of this. I am 
much hurried at this instant of publication, and have barely 
time to assure you how truly I am your humble servant. 

174 To the Earl of Bute [i?62 


MY LORD, Arlington Street, Feb. 15, 1762. 

I am sensible how little time your Lordship can have to 
throw away on reading idle letters or letters of compliment ; 
yet as it would be too great want of respect to your Lordship, 
not to make some sort of reply to the note * you have done 
me the honour to send me, I thought I could couch what 
I have to say in fewer words by writing, than in troubling 
you with a visit, which might come unseasonably, and 
a letter you may read at any moment when you are most 
idle. I had already, my Lord, detained you too long by 
sending you a book, which I could not flatter myself you 
would turn over in such a season of business: by the 
manner in which you have considered it, you have shown 
me that your very minutes of amusement you try to turn to 
the advantage of your country. It was this pleasing prospect 
of patronage to the arts that tempted me to offer you my 
pebble towards the new structure. I am flattered that you 
have taken notice of the only ambition I have : I should be 
more flattered if I could contribute to the least of your Lord- 
ship's designs for illustrating Britain. 

The hint that your Lordship is so good as to give me for 
a work like Montfaucon's M onumens de la Monarchic Francoisc, 

LETTER 806. Collated with copy Such a general work would be not 

supplied by Mr. Simon Gratz, of only very agreeable but instructive 

Philadelphia, U.SA., owner of the the French have attempted it; the 

original letter. Russians are about it ; and Lord Bute 

1 ' Lord Bute presents his compli- has been informed Mr. Walpole is 

ments to Mr. Walpole, and returns well furnished with materials for 

him a thousand thanks for the very such a noble work, 

agreeable present he has made him. ' Saturday.' 

In looking over it, Lord Bute observes (Works of Lord Orford, ed. 1798, 

Mr. Walpole has mixed several curious vol. ii. p. 878.) 

remarks on the customs, &c. of the Notes or Heads of Chapters compiled 

times he treats of ; a thing much by Horace Walpole in view of a work 

wanted, and that has never yet been of this kind are printed in his Works 

executed, except in parts by Peck, &c. (ed. 1798, vol. v. pp. 400-2). 

1762] To the Earl of Bute 175 

has long been a subject that I have wished to see executed, 
nor, in point of materials, do I think it would be a very 
difficult one. The chief impediment was the expense, too 
great for a private fortune. The extravagant prices extorted 
by English artists is a discouragement to all public under- 
takings. Drawings from paintings, tombs, &c., would be 
very dear. To have them engraved as they ought to be, 
would exceed the compass of a much ampler income than 
mine; which, though equal to my largest wish, cannot 
measure itself with the rapacity of our performers. 

But, my Lord, if his Majesty was pleased to command 
such a work, on so laudable an idea as your Lordship's, 
nobody would be more ready than myself to give his 
assistance. I own I think I could be of use in it, in 
collecting or pointing out materials, and I would readily 
take any trouble in aiding, supervising, or directing such 
a plan. Pardon me, my Lord, if I offer no more ; I mean, 
that I do not undertake the part of composition. I have 
already trespassed too much upon the indulgence of the 
public ; I wish not to disgust them with hearing of me, and 
reading me. It is time for me to have done ; and when 
I shall have completed, as I almost have, the History of the 
Arts on which I am now engaged, I did not purpose to 
tempt again the patience of mankind. But the case is very 
different with regard to my trouble. My whole fortune is 
from the bounty of the crown, and from the public : it 
would ill become me to spare any pains for the King's 
glory, or for the honour and satisfaction of my country ; 
and give me leave to add, my Lord, it would be an un- 
grateful return for the distinction with which your Lordship 
has condescended to honour me, if I withheld such trifling 
aid as mine, when it might in the least tend to adorn your 
Lordship's administration. From me, my Lord, permit me 
to say, these are not words of course or of compliment, this 

176 To George Montagu [i762 

is not the language of flattery ; your Lordship knows I have 
no views, perhaps knows that, insignificant as it is, my 
praise is never detached from my esteem : and when you 
have raised, as I trust you will, real monuments of glory, 
the most contemptible characters in the inscription dedi- 
cated by your country, may not be the testimony of, 
My Lord, 

Your Lordship's 

Most obedient 

Humble servant, 



Arlington Street, Feb. 22, 1762. 

MY scolding does you so much good, that I will for the 
future lecture you for the most trifling peccadilla '. You 
have writ me a very entertaining letter, and wiped out 
several debts not that I will forget one of them if you 

As we have never had a rainbow to assure us that the 
world shall not be snowed to death, I thought last night 
was the general connixation. We had a tempest of wind 
and snow for two hours beyond anything I remember: 
chairs were blown to pieces, the streets covered with tassels 
and glasses and tiles, and coaches and chariots were filled 
like reservoirs. Lady Eaymond's a house in Berkeley Square 
is totally unroofed ; and Lord Robert Bertie, who is going 
to marry her, may descend into it like a Jupiter Pluvius. 
It is a week of wonders, and worthy the note of an almanac 
maker. Miss Draycott, within two days of matrimony, has 

LETTER 807. * So in MS. Baron Raymond ; 2. (1762) Lord 

2 Mary, daughter of John diet- Robert Bertie, third son of first 

wynd, of Grendon, Warwickshire ; Duke of Ancaster. 

m. 1. (1741) Robert Raymond, second 

1762] To George Montagu 177 

dismissed Mr. Beauclerc but this is entirely forgot already 
in the amazement of a new elopement. In all your reading, 
true or false, have you ever heard of a young Earl, married 
to the most beautiful woman in the world, a Lord of the 
Bedchamber, a general officer, and with a great estate, 
quitting everything, resigning wife and world, and em- 
barking for life in a packet-boat with a miss ? I fear your 
connections will but too readily lead you to the name of the 
peer; it is Henry Earl of Pembroke the nymph Kitty 
Hunter*. The town and Lady Pembroke were but too 
much witnesses to this intrigue, last Wednesday, at a great 
ball at Lord Middleton's on Thursday they decamped. 
However, that the writer of their romance, or I, as he is 
a noble author, might not want materials, the Earl has left 
a bushel of letters behind him ; to his mother, to Lord 
Bute, to Lord Legonier (the two last to resign his employ- 
ments), and to Mr. Stopford, whom he acquits of all privity 
to his design. In none he justifies himself, unless this is 
a justification ! that having long tried in vain to make his 
wife hate and dislike him, he had no way left but this and 
it is to be hoped it will succeed ; and then it may not be the 
worst event that could have happened to her. You may 
easily conceive the hubbub such an exploit must occasion. 
With ghosts, elopements, abortive motions 4 , &c., we can 
amuse ourselves tolerably well, till the season arrives for 
taking the field, and conquering the Spanish West Indies. 

I have sent you my books by a messenger ; Lord Barring- 
ton was so good as to charge himself with them. They 
barely saved their distance ; a week later, and no soul could 
have read a line in them, unless I had changed the title- 
page, and called them ' The Loves of the Earl of and 

Miss H .' 

8 Catherine, daughter of Thomas * Against the war in Germany ; 
Orby Hunter, Lord of the Admiralty. see p. 180. 


178 To Dr. Ducarel [1762 

I am sorry Lady Kingsland is so rich. However, if the 
Papists should be likely to rise, pray disarm her of the 
enamel, and commit it to safe custody in the round tower 
at Strawberry. Good night ! mine is a life of letter- writing ; 
I pray for a peace, that I may sheathe my pen. 

Yours ever, 


808. To DR. DUCAEEL. 

SIR, Feb. 24, 1762. 

I am glad my books have at all amused you, and am 
much obliged to you for your notes and communications. 
Your thought of an English Montfaucon accords perfectly 
with a design I have long had of attempting something of 
that kind, in which too I have been lately encouraged ; and 
therefore I will beg you at your leisure, as they shall occur, 
to make little notes of customs, fashions, and portraits, 
relating to our history and manners. Your work on 
Vicarages, I am persuaded, will be very useful, as everything 
you undertake is, and curious. After the medals I lent 
Mr. Perry *, I have a little reason to take it ill, that he has 
entirely neglected me ; he has published a number, and sent 
it to several persons, and never to me. I wanted to see him 
too, because I know of two very curious medals, which 
I could borrow for him. He does not deserve it at my 
hands, but I will not defraud the public of anything 
valuable ; and therefore, if he will call on me any morning, 
but a Sunday or Monday, between eleven and twelve, I will 
speak to him of them. With regard to one or two of your 
remarks, I have not said that real lions were originally 
leopards. I have said that lions in arms, that is, painted 
lions, were leopards ; and it is fact, and no inaccuracy. 
Paint a leopard yellow, and it becomes a lion. You say, 

LKTTICE 808. * Francis Perry (d. 1766) ; he engraved a series of gold and 
silver British medals. 

1762] To Sir Horace Mann 179 

colours rightly prepared do not grow black. The art would 
be much obliged for such a preparation. I have not said 
that oil-colours would not endure with a glass ; on the 
contrary, I believe they would last the longer. 

I am much amazed at Vertue's blunder about my Marriage 
of Henry VII; and afterwards he said, 'Sykes, knowing 
how to give names to pictures to make them sell,' called 
this the Marriage of Henry VII ; and afterwards, he said, 
Sykes had the figures inserted in an old picture of a church. 
He must have known little indeed, Sir, if he had not known 
how to name a picture that he had painted on purpose that 
he might call it so ! That Vertue, on the strictest examina- 
tion, could not be convinced that the man was Henry VII, 
not being like any of his pictures. Unluckily, he is 
extremely like the shilling, which is much more authentic 
than any picture of Henry VIL But here Sykes seems to 
have been extremely deficient in his tricks. Did he order 
the figure to be painted like Henry VII, and yet could not 
get it painted like him, which was the easiest part of the 
task? Yet how came he to get the Queen painted like, 
whose representations are much scarcer than those of her 
husband? and how came Sykes to have pomegranates 
painted on her robe, only to puzzle the cause? It is not 
worth adding, that I should much sooner believe the 
church was painted to the figures, than the figures to 
the church. They are hard and antique: the church in 
a better style, and at least more fresh. If Vertue had 
made no better criticisms than these, I would never have 
taken so much trouble with his MS. Adieu ! 


Arlington Street, Feb. 25, 1762. 

WE have not writ to one another a great while : nothing 
has happened here very particular of a public nature. Our 

N 2 

180 To Sir Horace Mann [1762 

great expedition under Lord Albemarle is not yet sailed, 
but waits, I believe, for a card from Martinico 1 , to know 
how it will be received there. We have another preparing 
for Lisbon ; Lord Tyrawley is to command it, but goes first 
to see whether he shall want it. Dunn, a Jacobite Irishman, 
who married the daughter of Humphrey Parsons 2 , the 
brewer, and much in favour at Versailles, is named to 
counterwork Lord Tyrawley at Lisbon. Just at present 
we have a distant vision of peace ; every account speaks 
the new Czar disposed to Prussia, I hope no farther than 
to help him to a treaty, not to more glory and blood. 

We have had an odd kind of Parliamentary opposition, 
composed only of the King's own servants. In short, in the 
House of Lords the Duke of Bedford made a motion against 
the German war; but the previous question was put and 
carried by 105 to 16. Seven of the minority protested. 
Yet this stifled motion attempted to take root in our 
House. Young Bunbury *, whom I sent to you, and whom 
you have lately sent us back, and who is enrolled in a club 
of chicken orators, notified a day on which he intended to 
move such a question as had appeared in the Lords. When 
the day came, no Mr. Bunbury came till it was too late. 
However, he pretended to have designed it, and on the 1 5th 
appointed himself to make it on the 17th, but was again 
persuaded off, or repented, and told us he would reserve 
himself and his objections for the day of the subsidy to 
Prussia. Nothing was ever more childish than these scenes. 
To show himself more a man, he is going to marry Lady 
Sarah Lenox, who is very pretty, from exceeding bloom of 
youth : but, as she has no features, and her beauty is not 

LETTER 809. l An expedition Mayor of London. Mr. Dunn, who 

under General Monckton and Ad- married his eldest daughter, took 

miral Rodney captured Martinique the title of Count O'Dunn. Walpole. 

on Feh. 12, 1762. * He was afterwards Sir Thomas 

* A well-known Jacobite Lord Charles Bunbury. Walpole. 

1762] To Sir Horace Mann 181 

likely to last so long as her betrothed's, he will probably 
repent this step, like his motions. 

We have one of the Queen's brothers here, Prince Charles ; 
and she herself, I believe, is breeding a secret that, during 
the life of old Cosimo Kiccardi 4 , would have given you great 
weight with him. 

Our foolish ghost, though at last detected, lasted longer 
than it was in fashion: the girl made the noises herself; 
and the Methodists were glad to have such a key to the 
credulity of the mob. Our bishops, who do not dis- 
countenance an imposture, even in the subdivisions of their 
religion, looked mighty wise, and only took care not to say 
anything silly about it, which, I assure you, considering the 
capacities of most of them, was a good deal. 

You have not sent word to your brother or me what 
the altar cost. I should much oftener plague you with 
commissions, if you would draw for them. If you will 
not, I must totally stop, concluding you had rather bestow 
your money than your trouble. I have at this moment 
a job, with which I will make the trial. I have been 
informed that at Leghorn, the palace (I suppose the Great 
Duke's) and the front of a church 5 (I don't know which) 
were designed by Inigo Jones. If you can discover them 
and ascertain the fact, or great probability of it, I should be 
glad to have drawings of them ; but subject to the conclusion 
I have stated above. You know I never was at Leghorn, so 
know nothing of this myself. 

I almost wish to stop here, and not relate the cruel story 
I am going to tell you ; for though you are noways 
interested for any of the persons concerned, your tender 
nature will feel for some of them, and be shocked for all. 

* An old Marquis Riccardi, at Walpole. 

Florence, that was very inquisitive B The facade of the cathedral of 
about pregnancies, christenings, &c. Leghorn is attributed to Inigo Jones. 

182 To George Montagu [i?62 

Lord Pembroke Earl, Lord of the Bedchamber, Major- 
General, possessed of ten thousand pounds a year, master 
of Wilton, husband of one of the most beautiful creatures 6 
in England, father of an only son \ and himself but eight- 
and-twenty to enjoy this assemblage of good fortune is 
gone off with Miss Hunter, daughter to one of the Lords 
of the Admiralty 8 , a handsome girl with a fine person, but 
silly and in no degree lovely as his own wife, who has the 
face of a Madonna, and, with all the modesty of that idea, 
is dotingly fond of him. He left letters resigning all his 
employments, and one to witness to the virtue of Lady 
Pembroke, whom he says he has long tried in vain to make 
hate and dislike him. It is not yet known whither this 
foolish guilty couple have bent their course ; but you may 
imagine the distress of the Earl's family, and the resentment 
of the house of Marlborough, who dote on their sister : Miss 
Helen's family too takes it for no honour. Her story is not 
so uncommon ; but did ever one hear of an Earl running 
away from himself? 

I have just published a new book, a sort of History of the 
Arts in England 9 ; I will send it you on the first oppor- 
tunity. Adieu ! 


Arlington Street, Feb. 25, 1762. 

I SENT you my gazette but two days ago ; I now write to 
answer a kind long letter I have received from you since. 

I have heard of my brother's play several years ago ; but 
I never understood that it was completed, or more than 

Lady Elizabeth Spencer, younger 1794. 

sister of George, Duke of Marl- 8 Thomas Orby Hunter. Miss 

borough. Walpole. Hunter was afterwards married to 

7 George Augustus Herbert (1769- a Captain Clarke. Walpole. 

1827), Lord Herbert; succeeded his 9 Anecdotes of Painting in England. 

father as eleventh Earl of Pembroke, Walpole. 

1762] To George Montagu 183 

a few detached scenes. What is become of Mr. Bentley's 
play and Mr. Bentley's epistle ? 

When I go to Strawberry, I will look for where Lord 
Cutts was buried ; I think I can find it. 

I am disposed to prefer the younger picture of Madame 
Grammont by Lely but I stumble at the price ; twelve 
guineas for a copy in enamel is very dear. Mrs. Veezy 1 
tells me his originals cost sixteen, and are not so good as his 
copies. I will certainly have none of his originals. His; 
what is his name ? I would fain resist this copy ; I would 
more fain excuse myself for having it. I say to myself, it 
would be rude not to have it, now Lady Kingsland and 
Mr. Montagu have had so much trouble well 7 think 
I must have it, as my Lady Wishfort 2 says, why does not 
the fellow take me? Do try if he will not take ten. 
Kemember it is the younger picture and, oh ! now you 
are remembering, don't forget all my prints and a book 
bound in vellum. There is a thin folio too I want, called 
Hibernica s : it is a collection of curious papers, one a transla- 
tion by Carew Earl of Totness I had forgot that you have no 
books in Ireland however, I must have this; and your 
pardon for all the trouble I give you. 

No news yet of the runaways 4 , but all that comes out 
antecedent to the escape is more and more extraordinary 
and absurd. The day of the elopement he had invited his 
wife's family and other folk to dinner with her, but said he 
must himself dine at a tavern but he dined privately in his 
own dressing-room, put on a sailor's habit, and black wig, 
that he had brought home with him in a bundle, and 

LKTTIB 810. * Elizabeth (d. 1791), of the World. 

daughter of Sir Thomas Vesey, Baro- 8 Hibernica, or some Ancient Pieces 

net (Bishop of Ossory; m. I.William relating to the History bf Ireland, by 

Handcock ; 2. Agmondesham Vesey. Walter Harris. 

Her London parties were almost as 4 The Earl of Pembroke and Miss 

famous as Mrs. Montagu's. Hunter. 

2 A character in Congreve's Way 

184 To the Countess of Ailesbury [i?62 

threatened the servants he would murder them if they 
mentioned it to his wife. He left a letter for her, which 
the Duke of Marlborough was afraid to deliver to her, and 
opened. It desired she would not write to him, as it would 
make him completely mad. The poor soul, after the first 
transport, seemed to bear it tolerably, but has been writing 
to him ever since. He desires the King would preserve his 
rank of Major-General, as some time or other he may serve 
again. Here is an indifferent epigram made on the occasion ; 
I send it to you, though I wonder anybody could think it 
a subject to joke upon : 

As Pembroke a horseman by most is accounted, 

'Tis not strange that his Lordship a Hunter has mounted. 

Adieu ! yours ever, H. W. 


MADAM, Strawberry Hill, March 5, 1762. 

One of your slaves, a fine young officer, brought me two 
days ago a very pretty medal from your Ladyship. Amidst 
all your triumphs you do not, I see, forget your English 
friends, and it makes me extremely happy. He pleased me 
still more, by assuring me that you return to England when 
the campaign opens. I can pay this news by none so good 
as by telling you that we talk of nothing but peace. We 
are equally ready to give law to the world, or peace. 
Martinico has not made us intractable. We and the new 
Czar are the best sort of people upon earth: I am sure, 
Madam, you must adore him ; he is willing to resign all his 
conquests, that you and Mr. Conway may be settled again 
at Park Place. My Lord Chesterfield, with the despondence 
of an old man and the wit of a young one, thinks the French 
and Spaniards must make some attempt upon these islands, 
arid is frightened lest we should not be so well prepared to 

1762] To the Countess of Ailesbury 185 

repel invasions as to make them: he says, 'What will it 
avail us if we gain the whole world, and lose our own soul ? ' 

I am here alone, Madam, and know nothing to tell you. 
I came from town on Saturday for the worst cold I ever 
had in my life, and, what I care less to own even to myself, 
a cough. I hope Lord Chesterfield will not speak more 
truth in what I have quoted, than in his assertion, that 
one need not cough if one did not please. It has pulled me 
extremely, and you may believe I do not look very plump, 
when I am more emaciated than usual. However, I have 
taken James's powder for four nights, and have found 
great benefit from it ; and if Miss Conway does not come 
back with sotoante el douze quartiers, and the hauteur of 
a landgravine, I think I shall still be able to run down 
the precipices at Park Place with her this is to be under- 
stood, supposing that we have any summer. Yesterday 
was the first moment that did not feel like Thule : not a 
glimpse of spring or green, except a miserable almond-tree, 
half opening one bud, like my Lord Powerscourt's * eye. 

It will be warmer, I hope, by the King's Birthday, or 
the old ladies will catch their deaths. There is a court 
dress to be instituted (to thin the Drawing-rooms) stiff- 
bodied gowns and bare shoulders. What dreadful dis- 
coveries will be made both on fat and lean ! I recommend 
to you the idea of Mrs. Cavendish, when half-stark ; and 
I might fill the rest of my paper with such images, but 
your imagination will supply them ; and you shall excuse 
me, though I leave this a short letter : but I wrote merely 
to thank your Ladyship for the medal, and, as you perceive, 
have very little to say, besides that known and lasting 
truth, how much I am Mr. Conway's and your Ladyship's 
faithful humble servant, HOB. WALPOLE. 

LETTER 811. * Edward Wingfield (1729-1764), second Viscount Powers- 

186 To George Montagu [1762 


Arlington Street, March 9, 1762. 

I AM glad you have received my books safe, and are con- 
tent with them. I have little idea of Mr. Bentley's Odes ; 
though his imagination is sufficiently Pindaric, nay, obscure, 
his numbers are not apt to be so tuneful as to excuse his 
flights. He should always give his wit, both in verse and 
prose, to somebody else to make up. If any of his things 
are printed at Dublin, let me have them I have no quarrel 
to his talents. 

Your cousin's * behaviour has been handsome, and so was 
his speech ; which is printed in our papers. 

Advice is arrived to-day, that our troops have made good 
their landing at Martinico. I don't know any of the inci- 
dents yet. 

You ask me for an epitaph for Lord Cutts ; I scratched out 
the following lines last night as I was going to bed ; if they 
are not good enough, pray don't take them ; they were written 
in a minute, and you are under no obligation to like them : 

Late does the Muse approach to Cutts's grave, 
But ne'er the grateful Muse forgets the brave ; 
He gave her subjects for th' immortal lyre, 
And sought in idle hours the tuneful choir; 
Skilful to mount by either path to fame, 
And dear to mem'ry by a double name. 
Yet if ill-known amid th' Aonian groves, 
His shade a stranger and unnoticed roves, 
The dauntless chief a nobler band may join: 
They never die, who conquer'd at the Boyn. 

The last line intends to be popular in Ireland ; but you 
must take care to be certain that he was at the battle of the 
Boyn ; I conclude so ; and it should be specified the year, 

LETTER 812. l Lord Halifax re- Viceroy, although he accepted it for 
fused an addition to his salary as his successors. 

1762] To the Eev. Henry Zouch 187 

when you erect the monument. The latter lines mean to 
own his having been but a moderate poet, and to cover that 
mediocrity under his valour ; all which is true. Make the 
sculptor observe the stops. 

I have not been at Strawberry above a month, nor ever 
was so long absent ; but the weather has been cruelly cold 
and disagreeable. We have not had a single dry week since 
the beginning of September ; a great variety of weather, all 
bad. Adieu ! Yours ever, 



Arlington Street, March 20, 1762. 

I AM glad you are pleased, Sir, with my Anecdotes of 
Painting ; but I doubt you praise me too much : it was an 
easy task when I had the materials collected, and I would 
not have the labours of forty years, which was Vertue's 
case, depreciated in compliment to the work of four months, 
which is almost my whole merit. Style is become, in a 
manner, a mechanical affair, and if to much ancient lore our 
antiquaries would add a little modern reading, to polish their 
language and correct their prejudices, I do not see why books 
of antiquities should not be made as amusing as writings on 
any other subject. If Tom Hearne had lived in the world, 
he might have writ an agreeable history of dancing; at 
least, I am sure that many modern volumes are read for no 
reason but for their being penned in the dialect of the age. 

I am much beholden to you, dear Sir, for your remarks ; 
they shall have their due place whenever the work pro- 
ceeds to a second edition, for that the nature of it as a 
record will ensure to it. A few of your notes demand 
a present answer: the Bishop of Imola 1 pronounced the 

LETTER 813. 1 The ecclesiastic re- Walpole, in his Anecdotes, with that 
presented in Mabuse's 'Marriage of Bishop. 
Henry VII 1 was identified by Horace 

188 To the Rev. Henry Zouch [1752 

nuptial benediction at the marriage of Henry VII, which 
made me suppose him the person represented. 

Burnet, who was more a judge of character than statues, 
mentions the resemblance between Tiberius and Charles II ; 
but, as far as countenances went, there could not be a more 
ridiculous prepossession ; Charles had a long face, with very 
strong lines, and a narrowish brow ; Tiberius a very square 
face, and flat forehead, with features rather delicate in pro- 
portion. I have examined this imaginary likeness, and see 
no kind of foundation for it 2 . It is like Mr. Addison's 
Travels, of which it was so truly said, he might have com- 
posed them without stirring out of England. There are a 
kind of naturalists who have sorted out the qualities of the 
mind, and allotted particular turns of features and com-- 
plexions to them. It would be much easier to prove that 
every form has been endowed with every vice. One has 
heard much of the vigour of Burnet himself; yet I dare 
to say, he did not think himself like Charles II. 

I am grieved, Sir, to hear that your eyes suffer ; take 
care of them ; nothing can replace the satisfaction they 
afford : one should hoard them, as the only friend that will 
not be tired of one when one grows old, and when one 
should least choose to depend on others for entertainment. 
I most sincerely wish you happiness and health in that and 
every other instance. 

2 King Charles II's 'person and an appearance of softness, brings 

temper, his vices as well as his for- them so near a likeness, that I did 

tunes, did resemble the character not wonder much to observe the 

that we have given as of Tiberius so resemblance of their face and person, 

much, that it were easy to draw the At Borne I saw one of the last statues 

parallel between them. Tiberius his made for Tiberius, after he had lost 

banishment, and his coming after- his teeth ; but bating the alteration 

wards to reign, makes the comparison which that made, it was so like King 

in that respect come pretty near. His Charles, that Prince Borghese, and 

hating of business, and his love of Signior Dominico to whom it be- 

pleasures, his raising of favourites longed, did agree with me in think- 

and trusting them entirely, and his ing that it looked like a statue made 

pulling them down and hating them for him.' (Burnet, History of My Own 

excessively, his art of covering deep Time, ed. Airy, vol. ii. p. 470.) 
designs, particularly of revenge, with 

1762] To Sir Horace Mann 189 


Arlington Street, March 22, 1762. 

You have nothing to do but to send for a conquest, and 
I send it you : Martinico is yours. Victory, it seems, did 
not expire with George II, nor resign with Mr. Pitt. The 
whole island was not subdued when the express came away, 
but little remained to be mastered. In short, General 
Monckton *, by the first dispatch, promised it all, and when 
he has so well kept the greatest part of his word, it would 
be abominable to doubt the residue. He is a hero in all the 
forms, eager to engage, and bold to perform. This con- 
quest is entirely owing to his bravery, to his grenadiers, 
and his sailors, and I don't question but he will achieve 
the whole, though George Townshend is not there to take 
the capitulation and the glory out of his mouth 2 . The 
great fear was the climate: of that I own I shall be as 
much afraid when we have got the island, for it cannot be 
an article of the surrender that the climate should only 
kill its enemies, not its masters. This is a vast event, and 
must be signally so to Lord Albemarle, who will find a 
victorious army ready to sail with him on new exploits ; 
and the Spaniards, I should think, are not more trained 
than the French, not to be surprised at our hardiness. 

Well ! I wish we had conquered the world, and had 
done ! I think we were full as happy when we were a 
peaceable quiet set of tradesfolks, as now we are heirs- 
apparent to the Romans, and overrunning East and West 
Indies. The new Czar seems to admire heroes more than 
I do ; he is quite an enthusiast to the King of Prussia ; 

LITTER 814. l Robert, Monckton, severely wounded, 

brother of the Earl of Galway. Wai- 2 George, Lord Townshend, on the 

pole. Second in command under death of General Wolfe, received the 

Wolfe at Quebec, where he was capitulation of Quebec. Walpole. 

190 To Sir Horace Mann [i?62 

it may save the latter, but woe to the world when such 
a portion of the globe is in the hands of a man who admires 
a great general ! I can tell you no more of Martinico than 
you will see in the Gazette, nor little else that is new. Lord 
Pembroke is quite forgotten. He and his nymph were 
brought back by a privateer, who had obligations to her 
father, but the father desired no such recovery, and they 
are again gone in quest of adventures. The Earl was so 
kind as to invite his wife to accompany them ; and she, 
who is all gentleness and tenderness, was with difficulty 
withheld from acting as mad a part from goodness, as he 
had done from guilt and folly. 

Your master, Lord Egremont, is dying of an apoplectic 
lethargy ; and your friend, Lord Melcombe, will, I believe, 
succeed him. Your old acquaintance, Mrs. Goldsworthy 3 , 
was t'other night at Bedford House ; I never saw her, and 
wanted to see her, but missed her. Lady Mary Wortley 
too was there, dressed in yellow velvet and sables, with 
a decent laced head and a black hood, almost like a veil, 
over her face. She is much more discreet than I expected, 
and meddles with nothing but she is wofully tedious in 
her narrations. 

By this time you have seen my charming Duchess 4 . 
I shall build an altar to Pam, for having engaged her, 
when the house fell at Kome, where she was invited to 
a concert. 

You scold me for going to see the ghost, and I don't 
excuse myself ; but in such a town as this, if a ghost is in 
fashion, one must as much visit it, as leave one's name with 
a new Secretary of State. I expect soon that I shall keep 
Good Friday, for enthusiasm is growing into fashion too ; 
and while they are cancelling holidays at Rome, the Metho- 

3 Her husband had been Consul at * Anne, Duchess of Grafton. Wal- 
Leghorn. Walpole. pole. 

1762] To George Montagu , 191 

dists are reviving them here. We have never recovered 
masquerades since the earthquake at Lisbon. Your country 
is very victorious, but by no means a jot wiser than it was. 
I hope, and I think I did not forget to tell you how much 
I like the altar ; you are not apt to neglect a commission, 
or to execute it ill. My gallery and tribune will be 
finished this summer, and then I shall trouble you about 
the brocadella. Mr. T. Pitt has taken a sweet little house 
just by me at Twickenham, which will be a comfortable 
addition to my viUeggiatura. Adieu ! 

P.S. I am sorry for my Florentine friends, that they are 
losing their good governor, Marshal Botta there are not 
many of the species in an Austrian court. 


Arlington Street, March 22, 1762. 

You may fancy what you will, but the eyes of all the 
world are not fixed upon Ireland. Because you have a little 
virtue, and a Lord Lieutenant that refuses four thousand 
pounds a year, and a Chaplain 1 of a Lord Lieutenant that 
declines a huge bishopric, and a Secretary whose eloquence 
can convince a nation of blunderers, you imagine that 
nothing is talked of but the Castle of Dublin. In the first 
place, virtue may sound its own praises, but it never is 
praised ; and in the next place there are other feats besides 
self-denials ; and for eloquence, we overflow with it. Why, 
the single eloquence of Mr. Pitt, like an annihilated star, 
can shine many months after it has set. I tell you, it has 
conquered Martinico. If you will not believe me, read the 
Gazette ; read Monckton's letter ; there is more martial 

LITTER 815. 1 Dr. Crane, Chaplain the bishopric of Elphin. (Note in 4to 
to the Earl of Halifax, had refused (1819) ed. of Letters to Montagu.) 

192 To George Montagu [i762 

spirit in it than in half Thucydides, and in all the Grand 
Cyrus. Do you think Demosthenes or Themistocles ever 
raised the Grecian stocks two per cent, in four-and-twenty 
hours ? I shall burn all my Greek and Latin books ; they 
are histories of little people. The Eomans never conquered 
the world, till they had conquered three parts of it, and 
were three hundred years about it ; we subdue the globe in 
three campaigns ; and a globe, let me tell you, as big again 
as it was in their days. Perhaps you may think me proud ; 
but you don't know that I had some share in the reduction 
of Martinico ; the express was brought by my godson, Mr. 
Horatio Gates 2 ; and I have a very good precedent for attri- 
buting some of the glory to myself ; I have by me a love- 
letter, written during my father's administration, by a 
journeyman tailor to my mother's second chambermaid ; his 
offers were honourable ; he proposed matrimony, and to better 
his terms, informed her of his pretensions to a place : they 
were founded on what he called, some services to the govern- 
ment. As the nymph could not read, she carried the epistle 
to the housekeeper to be deciphered, by which means it 
came into my hands. I inquired what were the merits of 
Mr. Vice-Crispin, was informed that he had made the suit 
of clothes for a figure of Lord Marr, that was burned after 
the Kebellion. I hope now you don't hold me too pre- 
sumptuous for pluming myself on the reduction of Martinico. 

2 'Gates was the son of a house- old myself. This godson, Horatio 
keeper of the second Duke of Leeds, Gates, was protected by General Corn - 
who, marrying a young husband wallis when Governor of Halifax ; 
when very old, had this son by him. but, being afterwards disappointed of 
That Duke of Leeds had been saved, preferment in the army, he joined the 
when guilty of a Jacobite plot, by my Americans.' (Horace Walpole, Last 
father, Sir Robert Walpole, and the Journals, vol. ii. p. 200.) On the out- 
Duke was very grateful, and took break of the War of Independence 
great notice of me when I was quite Gates received a command in the 
a boy. My mother's woman was inti- American army. He defeated Bur- 
mate with that housekeeper, and goyne at Saratoga (1777), and was 
thence I was godfather to her son, himself defeated by Cornwallis at 
though I believe not then ten years Camden (1780). He died in 1806. 

1762] To Sir Horace Mann 193 

However, I shall not aspire to a post, nor to marry my 
Lady Bute's abigail. I only trust my services to you as 
a friend, and do not mean, under your temperate adminis- 
tration, to get the list of Irish pensions loaded with my 
name, though I am godfather to Mr. Horatio Gates. 

The Duchess of Grafton and the English have been 
miraculously preserved at Home by being at loo, instead 
of going to a great concert, where the palace fell in, and 
killed ten persons and wounded several others. I shall 
send orders to have an altar dedicated in the Capitol : 

Pammio 0. M. 


Ob Annam Ducissam de Grafton 
Merito Incolwnem. 

I tell you of it now, because I don't know whether it will 
be worth while to write another letter on purpose. Lord 
Albemarle takes up the victorious grenadiers at Martinico, 
and in six weeks will conquer the Havannah. Adieu ! 

Yours ever, 



Arlington Street, April 13, 1762. 

I AM two letters in your debt, without much capital to 
pay them. This twilight between Parliament and the 
campaign is not favourable for news. The Houses are not 
prorogued indeed, but the end of a session always languishes, 
and we actually are adjourned for the holidays ; and what 
is more, for Newmarket. All that was reported of the Czar 
proves true, but is of consequence only to the King of 
Prussia ; even the conquest of Martinico has not advanced 
the Peace. The other Empress must die too, I believe, 
before her rage will subside. Portugal cries out for help, 
and our troops are going thither ; but I don't think that 


194 To Sir Horace Mann [1762 

every Spanish soldier in the world will march to Lisbon. 
There are some grumblings in Ireland, which look as if 
that kingdom would not be quite inactive this summer. 
A set of levellers 1 there have been committing great dis- 
orders for some time, and we think there is a leaven of 
French officers and Spanish gold among them. Two regi- 
ments of dragoons have been ordered against them, and are 
to be followed by some foot. In short, our enemies must 
try something, and cannot sit entirely tranquil, while the 
Havannah is probably following the fate of Martinico. 
Well! we may make a bad peace at last, and yet keep 
a good deal ! 

I don't know how to execute the request made to 
Palombo 8 for my father's history, for the Nouvelles Litte- 
raires. I have very slender opinion of the capacity of such 
panegyrists. Anecdotes, which they could not comprehend, 
and would mangle, are not fit to be dispensed to such shops. 
All I can do, I think, is to transcribe the principal dates of 
his life from Collins's Peerage, for there is no good life of 
him : this, I suppose, would content both Italian writers 
and readers. If I have time before the post goes out, I will 
subjoin the extract to this letter, or send it by next mail. 

It was very true that Miss Hunter was brought back by 
a privateer, but her father desired she might be released ; 
so they sailed again. Don't compassionate Lord Pembroke ; 
he is a worthless young fellow. He does nothing but write 
tender and mournful letters to his charming wife, which 
distress her, and are intended to draw money from her. He 
is forgotten here, which is the best thing can happen to him. 

LETTER 816. * The name ' levellers ' of the Whiteboys were high rents and 

applies to their practice of leTelling low wages, those of the Oakboys the 

walls and ditches, with a view to exorbitant tithes ; and all com- 

' restoring the ancient commons.' plained of the heavy rates levied for 

The rioters were known as White- road-making. 

boys in the south of Ireland, and as 2 Secretary to Sir Horace Mann. 

Oakboye in the north. The grievances Walpole. 

1762] To Sir Horace Mann 195 

How could I not commend the altar? It was just the 
thing I wished, and, if anything, prettier than I wished. 
I would by no means come into the tariff you propose to 
me between us, if I did not think it would be convenient 
to you. I wish so much to contribute to your satisfaction 
in any shape, that if it will facilitate it I will even consent 
to your paying for your commissions ; but then you must 
take care they are numerous. Your brother James is really 
a good creature, but he is not your brother Gal ; there was 
but one he! James has no notion of the delicacies and 
attentions of friendship, I hope I have ; therefore let me 
be your factotum. Write to me and employ me without 
reserve, and you shall prescribe your own terms, that is, 
if they are not too much in my favour. To open the inter- 
course, I desire you will send me the new volume of 
Herculaneum ; it is the third, but only the second of prints. 
Don't let us baulk our wishes, but without ceremony draw 
bills regularly for the commissions we execute ; and paying 
them shall be all your brother James shall do. 

Mr. T. Pitt has taken a small house at Twickenham, 
within a stone's-throw of me. This will add to the comfort 
of my Strawberry-tide. He draws Gothic with taste, and 
is already engaged on the ornaments of my cabinet and 
gallery. Adieu ! 

P.S. Here are the notes for my father's eulogium. I fear 
you will be plagued in translating the terms into Italian. 
Let them look to the Latin. 

EGBERT WALPOLE was born at Houghton in Norfolk, 
August 26th, 1675. He was third son of Kobert Walpole of 
the same place, but his two elder brothers dying before 
their father, he succeeded the latter, in 1700, in an estate of 
above 2,OOOZ. a year : and was chosen member of Parliament 
for Lynn in every Parliament, except in the year 1711, from 

o 2 

196 To Sir Horace Mann [i?62 

his father's death till his own admission into the peerage in 

He was extremely in the confidence of the Lord Treasurer 
Godolphin, and particularly employed by him in drawing 
Queen Anne's speeches. On the change of the ministry 
great offers were made to him by Lord Treasurer Oxford, 
but he adhered steadily to the Whig party, and was so 
formidable to the Tory administration that they sent him 
to the Tower; after he had been one of the council to 
Prince George in the Admiralty in 1705, Secretary at War 
in 1707, and Treasurer of the Navy in 1709. In that year 
he was one of the managers of the House of Commons 
against Dr. Sacheverel. 

On the accession of George I, he was made Paymaster of 
the Forces; and in October 1715 was appointed First Lord 
of the Treasury and Chancellor of the Exchequer ; and the 
same year was elected Chairman of the Secret Committee 
appointed to inquire into the conduct of Queen Anne's last 

On the differences between the King and Prince of Wales, 
he followed the latter, and resigned his employments ; but, 
in June 1720, he was again made Paymaster of the Forces, 
and in April 1721 became once more First Lord of the 
Treasury, Chancellor of the Exchequer, and Prime Minister, 
as he continued during the whole remainder of that reign, 
and under the successor ; and was several times one of the 
Lords Justices during the absences of those kings. 

May 27th, 1725, he was made Knight of the Bath, on the 
revival of that Order ; and in the same month of the 
ensuing year was created Knight of the Garter the only 
commoner who had received such an honour since the 
restoration of Charles II. 

He enjoyed his post of Prime Minister till February 9th, 
1742, when the opposition prevailing in Parliament, he 
resigned his employments, and was created Earl of Orford. 
His enemies obtained a secret committee to inquire into the 
last ten years of his administration ; but being able to prove 
no more crimes against him, though he had lost his power, 
than they could while he held it, he enjoyed to his death 
that tranquillity and honour that were due to his virtues, 
services, and age. 

1762] To the Earl of Egremont 197 

He died of the stone, in Arlington Street, March 25th, 
1745, aged near seventy. His first wife was Catherine 
Shorter, by whom he had Robert, his successor, created 
a baron by George I, and Knight of the Bath ; Sir Edward, 
Knight of the Bath ; and Horatio ; Catherine, who died 
unmarried ; and Mary, married to George Earl of Chol- 
mondeley, Lord Privy Seal in the reign of George II. Sir 
Robert married, secondly, Maria Skerret, by whom he had 
one daughter, Lady Maria, married to Charles Churchill, 


MY LORD Arlington Street, April 20, 1762. 

I must entreat your Lordship to be assured that in what 
I am going to say I have neither positive nor negative 
view; and only lay the following information before you, 
as I think it mine and every man's duty to contribute their 
mite to the service of his Majesty and his country. 

I happened lately to have in my hands the journal of the 
Admiral Earl of Sandwich, when he was Embassador at 
Madrid, negotiating a truce between Spain and Portugal. 
He sets down a very exact relation of the then force of each 
country, as he received it from Don Gulielmo Cascar, 
a Scotch Sergeant-Major of Battalia, in the Spanish army in 
Badajoz; and adds this particular passage from the same 
intelligence : 

The climate (he is speaking of the war on the frontiers 
of Portugal) too is very unfit for war, there being only two 
months, viz. April and May, fit for a campania, and then 
begins drowth and heat, that it is impossible for an army 
to be kept together in ; and at the latter end of the year the 
season is temperate enough again, but then the rains are so 
uncertain, sometimes coming earlier (in September) some- 

LETTER 817. Not in C. ; now first dressed ; it may have been written 

published from original in possession to the Earl of Egremont, as Sec- 

of Mr. F. Sabin, 118 Shaftesbury rotary of State for the Southern 

Avenue, W. The letter is not ad- Province. 

198 To George Montagu [i?62 

times later, and when they come, they make the country so 
soft, that the artillery cannot stir, but must stay where the 
rain finds them, what design soever they are upon. 

He says (adds Lord Sandwich) the armies usually retire 
to the quarters from the hot season about July 15th. 

I will beg your Lordship not to mention this intelligence 
as coming from me. If it is of any use to your Lordship, 
or of any service in general, I am satisfied, and am, 

My Lord, 

Your Lordship's 
Most obedient 
Humble Servant, 



Arlington Street, April 29, 1762. 

I AM most assuredly glad to hear you are returned well 
and safe, of which I have at this moment received your 
account from Hankelow, where you talk of staying a week. 
However, not knowing the exact day of your departure, 
I direct this to Greatworth, that it may rather wait for you, 
than you for it, if it should go into Cheshire and not find 
you there. 

As I should ever be sorry to give you any pain, I hope 
I shall not be the first to tell you of the loss of poor Lady 
Charlotte Johnston l , who, after a violent fever of less than 
a week, was brought to bed yesterday morning of a dead 
child, and died herself at four in the afternoon. I heartily 
condole with you, as I know your tenderness for all your 
family, and the regard you have for Colonel Johnston. The 
time is wonderfully sickly ; nothing but sore throats, colds, 

LETTEB 818. * Sixth daughter of Colonel James Johnston. (See 
of first Earl of Halifax, and wife Table H.) 

1762] To George Montagu 199 

and fevers. I got rid of one of the worst of these disorders, 
attended with a violent cough, by only taking seven grains 
of James's powder for six nights. It was the first cough 
I ever had, and when coughs meet with so spare a body as 
mine, they are not apt to be so easily conquered. Take 
great care of yourself, and bring the fruits of your expedition 
in perfection to Strawberry. I shall be happy to see you 
there whenever you please. I have no immediate purpose 
of settling there yet, as they are laying floors, which is very 
noisy, and as it is uncertain when the Parliament will rise ; 
but I would go there at any time to meet you. The town 
will empty instantly after the King's birthday ; and con- 
sequently I shall then be less broken in upon, which I know 
you do not like. If, therefore, it suits you, any time you 
will name after the 5th of June will be equally agreeable to 
me ; but sooner, if you like it better. 

We have little news at present (except a profusion of new 
peerages), but are likely, I think, to have much greater 
shortly. The ministers disagree, and quarrel with as much 
alacrity as ever; and the world expects a total rupture 
between Lord Bute and the late King's servants. This 
comedy has been so often represented, it scarce interests 
one, especially one who takes no part, and who is deter- 
mined to have nothing to do with the world, but hearing 
and seeing the scenes it furnishes. 

The new peers (I don't know their rank, scarce their 
titles) are Lord Wentworth 2 and Sir William Courtney 8 , 
Viscounts ; Lord Egmont, Lord Milton, Vernon of Sudbury *, 
old Fox Lane 6 , Sir Edward Montagu 6 , Barons, and Lady 

* Edward Noel (1715-1774), eighth 1780), of Sndbnry, Derbyshire ; cr. 
Baron Wentworth ; cr. Viscount (May 12, 1762) Baron Vernon of Kin- 
Wentworth. derton, Cheshire, 

* Sir William Courtenay, Baronet 6 George Fox Lane, or. (May 4, 
(1710-1762), of Powderham Castle, 1762) Baron Bingley of Bingley, 
Devonshire ; cr. Viscount Courtenay. Yorkshire. 

* George Venables Vernon (1708- 6 Sir Edward Hussey - Montagu, 

200 To Sir Horace Mann [i?62 

Caroline Fox, a Baroness ; the Duke of Newcastle is created 
Lord Pelham, with an entail to Tommy Pelham ; and Lord 
Brudenel 7 is called to the House of Lords, as Lord 
Montagu. The Duchess of Manchester was to have had 
the peerage alone, and wanted the latter title: her sister 
(very impertinently, I think, as being the younger) objected, 
and wished her husband Marquis of Monthermer. This 
difference has been adjusted, by making Sir Edward 
Montagu Lord Bewley, and giving the title of the family 
to Lord Brudenel. With pardon of your Cw-blood, I hold 
that Lord Cardigan makes a very trumpery figure by so 
meanly relinquishing all Brudenelhood. 

Adieu ! let me know soon when you will keep your 

Yours ever, 

H. W. 

P.S. Lord Anson is in a very bad way ; and Mr. Fox, 
I think, in not a much better. 


Arlington Street, April 30, 1762. 

SOME people think we are going to have peace whatever 
we have abroad, it does not increase at home. The 
ministers are divided ; the old for continuing the German 
war (take care you don't look back to my letters of last 
October), the new for supporting Portugal ; neither point 
is resolved, consequently either will not be over timely. 
With much affection for Portugal, and seriously with 

K.B., husband of the Dowager Brudenell, eldest son of fourth Earl 

Duchess of Manchester ; or. (May 11, of Cardigan (afterwards Duke of 

1762) Baron Beaulicu of Beaulieu, Montagu), whom he predeceased ; cr. 

Hampshire. Baron Montagu of Boughton. 
7 John Montagu (1735-1770), Lord 

1762] To Sir Horace Mann 201 

much commiseration, I cannot entirely lament that Spain 
is occupied there. If we quarrel on great chapters, you 
may be sure we do not agree more on little ones. A new 
cargo of peers has set much ill-humour afloat, for when 
large pains are taken to content many, they are sure to 
offend more. As I neither wished to be a peer, nor to 
hinder anybody else from being one, I can repeat the list 
without any gall. 

Lord Wentworth and Sir William Courtney Viscounts, 
same names. 

Lord Milton, "V / Milton. 

Sir Edward Montagu, ( r> J Beaulieu, or Beirley. 

Fox Lane, f 5aroJ } Bingley. 

Vernon of Sudbury, / ' Vernon. 

Lady Caroline Fox, a Baroness, Lady Holland. Lord 
Brudenel called up to the House of Lords as Lord Montagu. 
Duke of Newcastle, created Lord Pelham, with reversion 
to your friend Mr. Pelham ; and Lord Egmont l made 
Lord Lou vain and Holland, and Baron of Enmore. 

The Flemish titles of Lord Egmont are very diverting, 
I suppose he is descended from one of the three hundred 
and sixty-five brats of the Countess of Holland. People 
recollect a pamphlet, published in the reign of James I, 
called A Help to Weak Memories, for the use of those 
who would know all the new peers ; and they tell a story 
of a Neapolitan, who being offered a dukedom by the 
Germans, when they were so profuse of honours at Naples, 
refused it, unless they would make his footman a duke too ; 
but in this country ten new peerages will at least produce 
twenty bons mots. Our war is more serious, and I wish 
it well finished. It is uncertain whether we will give the 
King of Prussia a subsidy, or whether he will accept it. 

LETTER 819. l John Pcrcival, He was created Baron Lovel and 
second Earl of Egmont. Walpole. Holland of Enmore. 

202 To George Montagu [i?62 

The disturbances in Ireland are at least checked ; the 
insurgents are driven into bogs and woods. The French 
squadron narrowly escaped their fate : sailing to Martinico, 
they met their own prisoners conducted to France, and 
steered away ; but Kodney soon followed them, with 
thirteen ships to their eight, and we hope will overtake 
them ; however, it is plain they had not joined the Spanish 
fleet. The chief of our naval affairs, Lord Anson, is dying 
at Bath. Indeed, many of our former actors seem to be 
leaving the stage: Lord Granville is much broken, and 
Mr. Fox in a very bad state of health ; but Lord Egremont 
is recovered. 

Poor Lady Pembroke has at last acted with spirit. Her 
Lord being ordered to the German army, wrote that he 
had a mind to come over first and ask her pardon. To 
the surprise of her family and without their instigation, 
she sent him word that she was surprised he could think 
of showing himself in England ; and, for her part, she 
never wished to see him, till he should have retrieved 
his character. 

I am very happy, as I told you, in my new neighbour 
Mr. Pitt ; he calls his small house Palazzo Pitti 2 ; which 
does not look as if he had forgotten you, and sounds 
pleasantly in my ears. Adieu ! 


Arlington Street, May 14, 1762. 

IT is very hard, when you can plunge over head and 
ears in Irish claret, and not have even your heel vulnerable 
by the gout, that such a Pythagorean as I am should yet 
be subject to it I It is not two years since I had it last, 
and here am I with my foot again upon cushions but 
8 Name of the Great Duke's palace at Florence. Walpole, 

1762] To George Montagu 203 

I will not complain ; the pain is trifling, and does little 
more than prevent my frisking about. If I can bear the 
motion of the chariot, I shall drive to Strawberry to- 
morrow, for I had rather only look at verdure and hear my 
nightingales from the bow-window, than receive visits and 
listen to news. I can give you no certain satisfaction 
relative to the Viceroy, your cousin. It is universally said 
that he has no mind to return to his dominions, and pretty 
much believed that he will succeed to Lord Egremont's 
Seals, who will not detain them long from whoever is 
to be his successor. 

I am sorry you have lost another Montagu, the Duke of 
Manchester. Your cousin Guilford is among the com- 
petitors for Chamberlain to the Queen. The Duke of 
Chandos 1 , Lord Northumberland, and even the Duke of 
Kingston, are named as other candidates; but surely they 
will not turn the latter loose into another chamber of 
Maids of Honour ! Lord Cantelupe has asked too to rise 
from Vice-Chamberlain, but met with little encouragement. 
It is odd, that there are now seventeen English and Scotch 
dukes unmarried, and but seven out of twenty-seven have 
the Garter. 

It is very comfortable to me to have a prospect of 
seeing Mr. Conway soon ; the ruling part of the adminis- 
tration are disposed to recall our troops from Germany. 
In the meantime our officers and their wives are embarked 
for Portugal what must Europe think of us, when we 
make wars and assemblies all over the world ? 

I have been for a few days this week at Lord Thomond's 2 ; 
by making a river-like piece of water, he has converted 
a very ugly spot into a tolerable one. As I was so near, 
I went to see Audley Inn once more but it is only the 

LKTTEB 820. * Henry Brydgea 2 Shortgrove, near Saffron Walden, 
(1708-1 771\ second Duke of Chandos. in Essex. 

204 To the Rev. William Cole [i762 

monument now of its former grandeur. The gallery is 
pulled down, and nothing remains but the great hall, and 
an apartment like a tower at each end. In the church * 
I found, still existing and quite fresh, the escutcheon of 
the famous Countess of Essex and Somerset 4 . 

Adieu! I shall expect you with great pleasure the 
beginning of next month. 

Yours ever, 

H. W. 


DEAR SlB, Strawberry Hill, May 20, 1762. 

You have sent me the most kind and obliging letter in 
the world, and I cannot sufficiently thank you for it ; but 
I shall be very glad to have an opportunity of acknowledging 
it in person, by accepting the agreeable visit you are so 
good as to offer me, and for which I have long been 
impatient. I should name the earliest day possible ; but, 
besides having some visits to make, I think it will be more 
pleasant to you a few weeks hence (I mean any time in 
July) when the works with which I am finishing my 
house will be more advanced, and the noisy part, as laying 
floors and fixing wainscots, at an end, and which now 
make me in a deplorable litter. As you give me leave, 
I will send you notice. 

I am glad my books amused you yet you, who are 
so much deeper an antiquarian, must have found more 
faults and omissions, I fear, than your politeness suffers 
you to reprehend. Yet you will, I trust, be a little more 
severe. We both labour, I will not say for the public, 
for the public troubles its head very little about our 
labours, but for the few of posterity that shall be curious, 

Saffron Walden Church. Howards, Earls of Suffolk, former 

4 She was of the family of the owners of the Walden estates. 

1762] To the Eev. William Cole 205 

and therefore, for their sakes, you must assist me in 
making my work as complete as possible. This sounds 
ungrateful, after all the trouble you have given yourself: 
but I say it to prove my gratitude, and to show you how 
fond I am of being corrected. 

For the faults of impression, they were owing to the 
knavery of a printer, who, when I had corrected the sheets, 
amused me with revised proofs, and never printed off the 
whole number, and then ran away this accounts, too, for 
the difference of the ink in various sheets, and for some 
other blemishes ; though there are still enough of my own 
which I must not charge on others. 

Ubaldini's l book I have not, and shall be pleased to see 
it ; but I cannot think of robbing your collection, and am 
amply obliged by the offer. 

The anecdotes of Horatio Palavacini 2 are extremely 
entertaining. In an Itinerary of the late Mr. Smart 
Lethuillier, I met the very tomb of Gainsborough 3 this 
winter that you mention, and, to be secure, sent to Lincoln 
for an exact draft of it. But what vexed me then, and 
does still, is, that by the defect at the end of the in- 
scription, one cannot be certain whether he lived in CCC 
or CCCC ; as another C might have been there. Have you 
any corroborating circumstance, Sir, to affix his existence 
to 1300, more than to 1400? Besides, I don't know any 
proof of his having been architect of the church, his 

LETTER 821. 1 Petruccio Ubal- who executed the carved work of the 

dini, a Florentine illuminator and Angel Choir in Lincoln Cathedral, as 

scholar, who flourished in the six- well as that on the crosses in memory 

teenth century. He resided for some of Queen Eleanor. He is buried in 

time in England, and is noticed in the cloister at Lincoln. The inscrip- 

the Anecdotes of Painting. tion on his monument is as follows : 

3 Sir Horatio Pallavicini, Knight ' Hio jacet Hicardus de Gaynisburgh 

(d. 1600), collector of the Pope's taxes olym cementarius istius ecclesie qui 

in England during the reign of Queen obiit duodecim kalendarum junii 

Mary. Anno Domini MCCC.' (Kendrick, Lin- 

3 Bichard of Gainsborough, or of coin Cathedral, p. 142.) 
Stow (a village dear Gainsborough), 

206 To George Montagu [i?62 

epitaph only calls him Caementarius, which, I suppose, 
means Mason. 

I have observed, since my book was published, what 
you mention of the tapestry in Laud's trial 4 ; yet as the 
Journals were my authority, and certainly cannot be 
mistaken, I have concluded that Hollar engraved his 
print after the Eestoration. Mr. Wight, clerk of the 
House of Lords, says that Oliver placed them in the House 
of Commons. I don't know on what grounds he says so. 
I am, Sir, with great gratitude, 

Your most obliged humble servant, 


Strawberry Hill, May 25, 1762. 

I AM diverted with your anger at old Kichard ; can you 
really suppose that I think it any trouble to frank a few 
covers for you? Had I been with you, I should have 
cured you and your whole family in two nights with 
James's powder. If you have any remains of the disorder, 
let me beg you to take seven or eight grains when you go 
to bed. If you have none, shall I send you some? For 
my own part, I am released again, though I have been 
tolerably bad, and one day had the gout for several hours in 
my head. I do not like such speedy returns. I have been 
so much confined that I could not wait on Mrs. Osborn, and 
I do not take it unkindly that she will not let me have the 
prints without fetching them. I met her, that is, passed 
her, t'other day as she was going to Bushy, and was sorry 
to see her look much older. 

4 Cole stated that the tapestry in graved in Hollar's print of Laud's 
the House of Lords, representing the trial, 
destruction of the Armada, was en- 

1762] To George Montagu 207 

Well ! to-morrow is fixed for that phenomenon, the 
Duke of Newcastle's resignation 1 . He has had a parting 
levee, and as I suppose all bishops are prophets, they foresee 
that he will never come into place again, for there was but 
one that had the decency to take leave of him, after crowding 
his rooms for forty years together ; it was Cornwallis a . 
I hear not even Lord Lincoln resigns. Lord Bute succeeds 
to the Treasury, and is to have the Garter too on Thursday, 
with Prince William. Of your cousin I hear no more 
mention, but that he returns to his island. I cannot tell 
you exactly even the few changes that are to be made ; 
but I can divert you with a Ion mot, which they give to 
my Lord Chesterfield. The new peerages being mentioned, 
somebody said, ' I suppose there will be no duke made ' ; 
he replied, ' Oh yes, there is to be one.' ' Is ? who ? ' 
' Lord Talbot he is to be created Duke Humphrey, and 
there is to be no table kept at court but his 8 .' If you 
don't like this, what do you think of George Selwyn, who 
asked Charles Boone if it is true that he is going to be 
married to the fat rich Crawley 4 ? Boone denied it 
' Lord ! ' said Selwyn, ' I thought you was to be Patrick 
Fleming on the mountain, and that gold and silver you 
were counting ! '. . . B 

P.S. I cannot help telling you how comfortable the new 
disposition of the court is to me ; the King and his wife 
are settled for good and all at Buckingham House 6 , and 
are stripping the other palaces to furnish it. In short, they 

LKTTEU 822. I The Duke's resigna- 3 Alluding to the extreme economy 

tion was announced on May 26. The introduced by him (as Lord Steward) 

reason given was Lord Bute's refusal into the royal household, 

to grant farther subsidies to the King 4 Boone married Miss Crawley on 

of Prussia. Oct. 22, 1762. 

1 Hon. Frederick Cornwallis (17 13- c Passage omitted. 

1783), seventh son of fourth Baron 6 Eecently purchased for the 

Cornwallis ; Bishop of Lichfield, 1750; Queen. 
Archbishop of Canterbury, 1768. 

208 To Sir Horace Mann [1762 

have already fetched pictures from Hampton Court, which 
indicates their never living there ; consequently Strawberry 
Hill will remain in possession of its own tranquillity, and 
not become a cheese-cake-house to the palace. All I ask 
of Princes is, not to live within five miles of me. 


Arlington Street, May 26, 1762. 

WHENEVER I am a little remiss in writing to you, I am 
sure to make you amends by a revolution. Anybody would 
wait five weeks for a letter, if it was to tell them that the 
government was turned topsy-turvy. Not that it is set 
upon its head now ; it has only lost an old tooth that had 
bit all the world. The Duke of Newcastle resigned this 
morning ! Finding, at last, to his great surprise that he had 
not as much power under this King as under his great- 
grandfather and grandfather, he is retired, meditating, 
I suppose, a plan for being Prime Minister again under 
this King's son. Of four-and-twenty bishops that he had 
made, but one expects this restoration ; all the rest, hoping 
to arrive at Canterbury before that aera, took care not to 
be at his Grace's last levee. People think that a little 
more than want of power had been necessary to make 
him take this resolution, and that all kind of disgusts 
had been given to convince him how unwelcome his 
company was. This is the second revolution in a year 
and a half I wish the next struggle be not a little more 
serious. Lord Bute plays a dangerous game ; he is now 
First Lord of the Treasury, and is to have the Garter to- 
morrow, with Prince William. The other changes are few, 
for the Duke of Newcastle's friends episcopfee, that is, abandon 
him, or are ordered to remain as they are. Mr. George 
Grenville is Secretary of State ; and Sir Francis Dash- 

1762] To Sir Horace Mann 209 

wood Chancellor of the Exchequer; Mr. Elliot 1 , Treasurer 
of the Chambers. The Navy Board and one or two com- 
missions of the Treasury will be all the other vacancies. 

But there is a bigger event to come ; the stocks believe 
the Peace is made, and lift up their heads. It is certain 
that a very courteous answer is arrived from France ; and 
the moneyd philosophers, who do not look on dangers as 
wise measures, conclude that unless Lord Bute was sure 
of peace, he would not have ventured on dismissing the 
Duke. If you should not hear from me soon, you will be 
persuaded that we are up in arms. I have some fear that 
Spain is not very pacific : they have begun the siege of 
Miranda 2 . I used to expect the King of Prussia at 
Somerset House ; perhaps now Queen Catherine's 3 apart- 
ment will be inhabited by her great nephews and nieces. 
I shall have curiosity enough to go and see Infantas, though 
I have little else left : I have none of that vigour of ambition 
that has carried on the Duke of Newcastle for five-and-forty 
years. Three slight fits of the gout have taught me what 
I believe all the ingratitude of the clergy of Cambridge * has 
not been able to instil into him. I am just recovered of an 
attack, far from painful, except one day that it was in my 
head ; but even the harbinger of age is sufficient to convince 
me that retirement is a blessing. 

It would look like vanity in me to thank you for 
attentions, where so much attention is due ; and yet I am 
apt to think you did pay a little homage extraordinary on 
my account to the Duchess of Grafton. I am pleased you 
admire her so much, and she tells me how charmed she is 
with your reception of her. I warned you to expect no great 

LETTER 823. * Afterwards Sir s Catherine of Braganza, after the 

Gilbert Elliot. Walpole. death of Charles II, lived at Somerset 

* In the province of Traz os Montes ; House. Walpole. 

taken by the Spaniards on May 9, * The Duke was Chancellor of that 

1762. University. 


210 To George Montagu [1762 

beauty, and yet the more you saw her, did not you like her 
the more? Her air, and manner, and majesty are quite 
her own. I must not forget my thanks too for Mr. Morrice 
you must have had some satisfaction in talking over the 
Chute and me with him. 

You may imagine that I am anxious to have the Peace, 
and to see Mr. Conway safe in England. I wish it privately 
and publicly I pray for an end to the woes of mankind ; 
in one word, I have no public spirit, and don't care a farthing 
for the interests of the merchants. Soldiers and sailors who 
are knocked on the head, and peasants plundered or 
butchered, are to my eyes as valuable as a lazy luxurious 
set of men, who hire others to acquire riches for them ; 
who would embroil all the earth, that they may heap or 
squander; and I dare to say this, for I am no minister. 
Beckford is a patriot 5 , because he will clamour if Guadaloupe 
or Martinico is given up, and the price of sugars falls. I am 
a bad Englishman, because I think the advantages of com- 
merce are dearly bought for some by the lives of many 
more. This wise age counts its merchants, and reckons 
its armies ciphers. But why do I talk of this age ? every 
age has some ostentatious system to excuse the havoc it 
commits. Conquest, honour, chivalry, religion, balance of 
power, commerce, no matter what, mankind must bleed, and 
take a term for a reason. 'Tis shocking ! Good night. 


Strawberry Hill, June 8, 1762. 

WELL! you have had Mr. Chute. I did not dare to 
announce him to you, for he insisted on enjoying all your 
ejaculations. He gives me a good account of your health 
and spirits, but does not say when you come hither. 

6 William Beckford, of Jamaica, man of London ; and friend of Mr. 
and Fonthill in Dorsetshire, Alder- Pitt. Walpole. 

1762] To George Montagu 211 

I hope the General, as well as your brother John, know 
how welcome they would be, if they would accompany you. 
I trust it will be before the end of this month, for the very 
beginning of July I am to make a little visit to Lord 
Dchester, in Somersetshire 1 , and I should not like not to 
see you before the middle or end of next month. 

Mrs. Osborn has sent me the prints ; they are woful ; but 
that is my fault and the engraver's, not yours, to whom I am 
equally obliged ; you don't tell me whether Mr. Bentley's 
play was acted or not, printed or not. 

There is another of the Queen's brothers come over. 
Lady Northumberland made a pompous festino for him 
t'other night ; not only the whole house, but the garden, 
was illuminated, and was quite a fairy scene. Arches and 
pyramids of lights alternately surrounded the enclosure ; 
a diamond necklace of lamps edged the rails and descent, 
with a spiral obelisk of candles on each hand ; and dispersed 
over the lawn were little bands of kettle-drums, clarionets, 
fifes, &c., and the lovely moon, who came without a card. 
The Birthday was far from being such a show ; empty and 
unfine as possible. In truth, popularity does not make 
great promises to the new administration, and for fear it 
should hereafter be taxed with changing sides, it lets 
Lord Bute be abused every day, though he has not had 
time to do the least wrong thing. His first levee was 
crowded. Bothmar, the Danish minister, said, 'La chaleur 
est excessive!' George Selwyn replied, 'Pour se mettre 
au froid, il faut aller chez Monsieur le Due de Newcastle.' 
There was another George, not quite so tender: George 
Brudenel was passing by ; somebody in the mob said, 
'What is the matter here?' Brudenel answered, 'Why, 
there is a Scotchman got into the Treasury, and they can't 

LETTER 824. l At Redlynch House, near Bruton. 
P 2 

212 To Sir Horace Mann [i?62 

get him out.' The Archbishop 8 , conscious of not having 
been at Newcastle's last levee, and ashamed of appearing at 
Lord Bute's first, pretended he had been going by in his 
way from Lambeth, and, upon inquiry, had found it was 
Lord Bute's levee, and so had thought he might as well go 
in I am glad he thought he might as well tell it. 

The mob call Buckingham House, Holyrood House in 
short, everything promises to be like times I can remember. 
Lord Anson is dead poor Mrs. Osborn will not break her 
heart. I should think Lord Melcomb would succeed to the 
Admiralty. Adieu ! 

Yours ever, 

H. W. 


Strawberry Hill, June 20, 1762. 

I SHALL certainly execute your commissions cheerfully, 
punctually, and on the terms you desire: the Annual 
Registers, I mean the historic parts, are incomparable. The 
oratorios, as Mr. Morrice rightly advises, I will choose by 
proxy ; for, as he and you know, I have not only very little 
music in me, but the company I keep are far from 
Handelians. But what shall I say about your brother 
James? I should have lectured him severely, if you had 
not enjoined me not nay, I wish you would permit me ; 
he is a good creature in general, and I think would mind 
me ; but attentions are not his excellence I need not repeat 
the name of our dear Gal, when I talk of attentions and 
excellence] he was perfect from the least offices to the 

Have you not felt a pang in your royal capacity? Seriously, 
it has been dreadful, but the danger is over. The King had 
one of the last of these strange and universally epidemic 

> Thomas Seeker. 

1762] To Sir Horace Mann 213 

colds, which, however, have seldom been fatal: he had a 
violent cough, and oppression on his breast, which he con- 
cealed, just as I had ; but my life was of no consequence, 
and having no physicians in ordinary, I was cured in four 
nights by James's powders, without bleeding. The King 
was blooded seven times, and had three blisters. Thank 
God, he is safe, and we have escaped a confusion beyond 
what was ever known, but on the accession of the Queen of 
Scots nay, we have not even the successor born. Faza- 
kerley 1 , who has lived long enough to remember nothing 
but the nonsense of the law, maintained, according to their 
wise tenets, that as the King never dies, the Duke of York 
must have been proclaimed King, and then been unpro- 
claimed again on the Queen's delivery. We have not even 
any standing law for the regency ; but I need not paint to 
you all the difficulties there would have been in our 

The new administration begins tempestuously. My 
father was not more abused after twenty years than Lord 
Bute is in twenty days. Weekly papers swarm, and like 
other swarms of insects, sting. The cry you may be sure is 
on his Scot-hood. Lord Halifax * is made First Lord of the 
Admiralty, but will keep Ireland for some time, as it will 
not be necessary to appoint a new Lord-Lieutenant this 
twelvemonth. He is popular with the merchants, so that 
at least this promotion does not offend. 

Our great expedition were all well at Martinico, and had 
lost but sixteen men. Lord Albemarle carried thence nine 
thousand men. We are very sanguine, and reckon the 
Havannah ours ; but we shall not know it at least before 
the end of next month. 

LKTTKB 825. 1 Nicholas Fazacker- - George Montagu, third and last 
ley, Esq., an eminent Tory lawyer. Earl of Halifax. Wai pole. He was 
Walpole. the second Earl of that creation. 

214 To Lady Mary Coke [i?62 

I smiled at your idea of our war with Spain lying in 
Portugal, as our war with France does in Germany. The latter 
is dormant, and yet I do not think the Peace advances. Our 
allies, the Portuguese, behave wofully. I don't know what 
spirit Count La Lippe s , who is still here, will transport to 
them from Westphalia : he is to command the Portuguese, 
and Lord Tyrawley the English. 

This is a diminutive letter, but you excuse duodecimos in 


Strawberry Hill, June 80th, 1762. 

WHEN Britons are victorious 1 , it is impossible not to 
congratulate the first heroine of Britain. Pray, Madam, 
did your Ladyship command Prince Ferdinand to attack the 
French camp in revenge for the Governor of Calais presum- 
ing to attempt making you a prisoner ? Or did the spirit 
of John, Duke of Argyle, inspire his countrymen with this 
ardour, and vindicate his daughter from such an insult? 
I have told my Lord Hertford that I expect to hear your 
Ladyship has made a triumphant entry into our headquarters, 
and that with becoming dignity you have obtained from 
our general the liberty of the two hundred French officers, 
a proper way of resenting your confinement. Go to the 
army you certainly will. Steel waters you cannot want, you 
who want nothing but a helmet to be taken for Britannia. 

Pray, let me know in time ; it would be most shameful 
in me to be languishing under an acacia, while my sovereign 

8 Comte de la Lippe had been born during the Seven Years' War. 

in England, his father and mother LETTER 826. Not in C. ; reprinted 

being here in the reign of George L from Lettert and Journal* of Lady 

Walpole. William, Count of Lippe- Mary Coke, vol. iii. pp. xv-xvi. 

Buckeburg (1724-1777). His mother * At Wilhelmsthal in Hesse-Casael, 

was a daughter of George I by the where on June 24, 1762, Prince Fer- 

Duchess of Kendal. He acted as Ord- dinand defeated the French under 

nance Master to Prince Ferdinand Soubise and D'Estrees. 

1762] To Lady Mary Coke 215 

lady is at the head of a squadron. All our other militant 
dames have followed their husbands; your Ladyship will 
follow victory, and influence more. It is grievous that one 
female Campbell 8 should have quitted Germany at the open- 
ing of a campaign no, I will go fetch my Lady Ailesbury 
from Park Place, and my Lady Cecilia, who is not big 
enough yet to hurt Master Johnson's head by wearing a coat 
of mail, though I fear she and I shall look a little like 
starved vultures that follow the army for prey. As to peace, 
it is now undoubtedly removed to a great distance ; there 
can be no end of war while another Mary has Calais written 
on her heart, and a Mary whose heart will not easily break. 
I know to my sorrow how invulnerable it is ! Well ! I can 
but go and be killed. I shall die in your sight, and you 
will revenge my death, though you would not save my life. 
I did not think this would be my end, but the Kong of 
Prussia and other great men have been made heroes, whom 
nature never intended for the profession, yet I cannot help 
laughing to think what a figure I shall make ! for I am too 
much a Goth, and not so much a hero, but I will be com- 
pletely armed and from my own armoury here. A rusty 
helmet with rotten wadding ; a coat of mail that came from 
Coombe, and belonged to a trooper of the Earl of Warwick 3 ; 
it will be full heavy for my strength, but there is a mark of 
its being bullet-proof alas ! I had forgot I am to be shot 
one gauntlet ; I have no more ; a Persian shield enamelled, 
a Chinese bow, quiver, and arrows, an Indian sabre and 
dagger, and a spear made of wood with fifty points. Dear 

1 The Cotmtess of Ailesbury had to the great Richard Neville Earl of 

recently returned to England. Warwick. These arms therefore prob- 

8 ' Two suits of armour, on one of ably were part of those which served 
which is the mark of a bullet ; two his troops when he marched to West- 
helmets ; a gauntlet ; a round leathern minster to awe the Parliament in the 
quiver ; and two pair of stirrups ; reign of Henry the Sixth.' (Detcrip- 
from Coombe, near Kingston in tion of Strawberry Hill.) 
Surry, which seat formerly belonged 

216 To George Montagu [1762 

Lady, don't set out without me, stay for Sir Scudamore. 
Cannot you find any little episode to amuse you in the 
meantime ? How has the Bishop of Liege 4 behared to you ? 
has he neglected to kiss the hem of your garment ? dispossess 
him ; order the Chapter to elect another. I flatter myself 
you cannot want warfare. ' Confined to an inn ! Sir, I never 
was a prisoner yet ; I will not stay a moment in your town.' 
Dear Lady Mary, how I honour your spirit ! I can give 
you a very good account of part of your family. I was at 
Sudbroke this evening and saw the Duchess and Lady Betty 
in perfect health. Mr. McKinsy told me of the battle. 

If you had not had my heart before, you would have won 
it by your kind attention to Lady Hertford ; but I fear all 
is in vain. She will not hear of Spa, and is gone to-day to 
Kagley, and I doubt will go to Ireland. Nothing touches 
her about herself ; she is as indifferent to that, as active and 
anxious about her family. Adieu, Madam. Whether we 
meet on the banks of the Elbe or the Thames, you know 
I am 

Most devotedly yours, 



Strawberry Hill, Wednesday night 

SINCE you left Strawberry, the town (not the King of 

Prussia) has beaten Count Daun, and made the Peace, but 

the benefits of either have not been felt beyond Change Alley. 

Lord Melcomb is dying of a dropsy in his stomach, and 

Lady Mary Wortley of a cancer in her breast. 

Mr. Hamilton was here last night, and complained of 

* John Theodore of Bavaria, Bishop C. Jane 1, 1762. (See Notet and 
of Liege, 1744-63. Queries, Feb. 17, 1900.) 

LETTER 827. Wrongly dated by 

1762] To Sir Horace Mann 217 

your not visiting him. He pumped me to know if Lord 
Hertford has not thoughts of the crown of Ireland, and was 
more than persuaded that I should go with him. I told 
him what was true, that I knew nothing of the former, and 
for the latter, that I would as soon return with the King of 
the Cherokees 1 . When England has nothing that can tempt 
me, it would be strange if Ireland had. The Cherokee 
Majesty dined here yesterday at Lord Macclesfield's, where 
the Olive sang to them and the mob don't imagine I was 
there, but I heard so at my Lady Suffolk's. 

We have tapped a little butt of rain to-night, but my 
lawn is far from being drunk yet. Did not you find the 
Vine in great beauty? My compliments to it, and to your 
society I only write to enclose the enclosed. I have 
consigned your button to old Kichard. Adieu ! 

Yours ever, 

H. W. 

I hope Mr. John has had no return. 


Strawberry Hill, July 1, 1762. 

I NEVER attempt to tell you the first news of a battle in 
Germany, which must always reach you before it can arrive 
here and be sent to Florence. I scarcely ought to call it a 
battle, though it is a victory for us ; but the French (to 
speak in Gibber's style) have outrun their usual outrunnings l . 
Their camp was ill-guarded, and Prince Ferdinand surprised 
it. At first their cavalry made a decent show of advancing, 
but soon turned and fled. Stainville 2 flung three thousand 

1 Three Cherokee chiefs from South 'Mrs. Gibber had outdone her usual 

Carolina arrived in London on June outdoings.' Walpole. 

21 ; they set ont on their return in * Jacques de Choiseul, Marquis de 

the following August. Stainville, brother of the Duo de 

LETTER 828. 1 Gibber, in the Pro- Choiseul. 
face to his Provoked Husband, said, 

218 To Sir Horace Mann [1762 

men into a wood to cover their retreat ; they were all taken, 
with above one hundred and forty officers ; he himself is 
believed slain. Our loss was trifling ; two hundred and fifty 
men, a Captain Middleton s killed ; and Colonel Henry 
Townshend, a brave spirited young fellow of parts, youngest 
son of Mr. Thomas Townshend. The French grenadiers 
raved against their commanders, who, it is to be hoped, will 
shift off the blame on each other, quarrel, and pass the 
campaign in altercation. D'Estr6es will not make Broglio 4 
appear a worse general than Soubize. Lord Granby is much 
commended. My chief joy arises from knowing Mr. Conway 
is safe. 

Poor Lady Ailesbury is just arrived, and this is the first 
taste of the peace she promised herself. Unless the French 
now despair of Germany, where their fairest prospect lay, 
I should think this action likely to continue the war ; and 
I don't doubt but Prince Ferdinand hoped it would. He 
had much ground to regain here, and has now revived the 
passions of the people, who will not be eager for peace on 
the morrow of a victory, nor be very reasonable after re- 
peated successes. Lord Bute's situation is unpleasant : mis- 
fortunes would remind us of Mr. Pitt's glory ; advantages 
will stiffen us against accepting even such a peace as he 
rejected ; and, I think, two Havannahs lost will not weigh 
with the Spaniards against their rapid progress in Portugal : 
the recovery of that diadem will soothe their pride more 
than any province taken from them will mollify it. The 
Portuguese behave shamefully; Lord Tyrawley is coming 
home disgusted with the nomination of Count La Lippe ; 
and in truth I cannot see the wisdom or honour of that 
measure. If we protect Portugal, is not it more creditable 
to give them an English commander? And that general 

3 This was not the case. 

* He had been recalled before the battle. 

1762] To Sir Horace Mann 219 

was almost a Portuguese, almost naturalized amongst them, 
trusted, and beloved there. What do they know of this 
German ? Or can the English soldiery prefer him to their 
countryman? For though La Lippe was born here, he is 
a German prince. 

I trust very soon to be able to send you a brick, like 
Harlequin, as a sample of the Havannah we shall have taken. 
In return, you must make Saunders 6 beat the French and 
Spanish squadrons. 

Poor Hamburgh has tasted of the royal injustice of this 
age ; they have compounded with the King of Denmark for 
a million 6 . But his is trifling usurpation ; commend me to 
the King of Spain, for violating more ties than were ever 
burst by one stroke of a sceptre. We have not had a 
masquerade here these eight or nine years, because there 
was an earthquake at Lisbon ; while that earthquake which 
fell about the ears of his own sister and her children could 
not stop the King of Spain from marching to drive her and 
them out of the ruins ! Montezuma's ghost cannot complain 

I have ordered all your books, and your brother James 
has undertaken for the oratorios. There is a ship going, so 
I would not wait for more consultation in the choice of 
them. Handel's best pieces are settled among his sect, and 
your brother knows more of his followers than I do. I was 
impatient to have your commission executed, and I knew 
no better way than this. I did not say a syllable to James, 
as he has repaired his omissions. 

I am in distress about my gallery and cabinet : the latter 
was on the point of being completed, and is really striking 

6 Coinmander-in-Chief in the Modi- possession of Schleswig. The King, 

terranean. ill-provided with money, suddenly 

Frederick V was threatened with appeared before Hamburg, and forced 

war by the Czar, who, in his capacity that city, under threat of a siege, to 

of Duke of Holstein , wished to regain raise the necessary funds. 

220 To the Eev. William Cole [i?62 

beyond description. Last Saturday night my workmen took 
their leave, made their bow, and left me up to the knees in 
shavings. In short, the journeymen carpenters, like the 
cabinet-makers, have entered into an association not to work 
unless their wages are raised ; and how can one complain ? 
The poor fellows, whose all the labour is, see their masters 
advance their prices every day, and think it reasonable to 
touch their share. You would be frightened at the dearness 
of everything ; I build out of economy, for unless I do now, 
in two years I shall not be able to afford it. I expect that 
a pint of milk will not be sold under a diamond, and 
then nobody can keep a cow but my Lord Clive. Indeed 
your country's fever is almost at the height every way. 
Adieu ! 

P.S. You have asked for the last volumes of the Monthly 
Review ; I have ordered you the five last volumes ; if that is 
not all you want, let me know. In this parcel you will 
receive my two first volumes of the Anecdotes of Painting. 


S IR) Strawberry Hill, July 29, 1762. 

I fear you will have thought me neglectful of the visit you 
was so good as to offer me for a day or two at this place : 
the truth is, I have been in Somersetshire on a visit, which 
was protracted much longer than I intended. I am now 
returned, and shall be glad to see you as soon as you please, 
Sunday or Monday next if you like either, or any other day 
you will name. I cannot defer the pleasure of seeing you 
any longer, though to my mortification you will find Straw- 
berry Hill with its worst looks not a blade of grass. My 
workmen too have disappointed me : they have been in the 
association for forcing their masters to raise their wages, and 

1762] To the Countess of Ailesbury 221 

but two are yet returned so you must excuse litter and 
shavings. I am, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 



MADAM, Strawberry Hill, July 31, 1762. 

Magnanimous as the fair soul of your Ladyship is, and 
plaited with superabundance of Spartan fortitude, I felicitate 
my own good fortune who can circle this epistle with 
branches of the gentle olive, as well as crown it with 
victorious laurel. This pompous paragraph, Madam, which 
in compliment to my Lady Lyttelton I have penned in the 
style of her Lord, means no more, than that I wish you joy 
of the castle of Waldeck *, and more joy on the Peace, which 
I find everybody thinks is concluded. In truth, I have still 
my doubts ; and yesterday came news, which, if my Lord 
Bute does not make haste, may throw a little rub in the 
way. In short, the Czar is dethroned 2 . Some give the 
honour to his wife s ; others, who add the little circumstance 
of his being murdered too, ascribe the revolution to the 
Archbishop of Novogorod, who, like other priests, thinks 
assassination a less affront to Heaven than three Lutheran 
churches *. I hope the latter is the truth ; because, in the 
honey-moonhood of Lady Cecilia's tenderness, I don't know 
but she might miscarry at the thought of a wife preferring 
a crown, and scandal says a regiment of grenadiers, to her 

LETTKE 830. * Taken by General She was proclaimed Empress on her 

Con way. husband's deposition, and reigned as 

* He was deposed on June 28, 1762, Catherine II till her death in 1796. 
by a decree of the senate and clergy, * The clergy apprehended that 
and murdered on July 6 following. Peter intended to disestablish the 

* Catherine, a princess of Anhalt- Greek Church in favour of Luther- 
Zorbst, married to the Czar in 1745. anism. 

222 To Sir Horace Mann [i?62 

I have a little meaning in naming Lady Lyttelton and 
Lady Cecilia, who I think are at Park Place. Was not 
there a promise that you all three would meet Mr. Churchill 
and Lady Mary here in the beginning of August? Yes, 
indeed was there, and I put in my claim. Not confining 
your heroic and musical Ladyships to a day or a week ; my 
time is at your command : and I wish the rain was at mine ; 
for, if you or it do not come soon, I shall not have a leaf 
left. Strawberry is browner than Lady Bell Finch. 

I was grieved, Madam, to miss seeing you in town on 
Monday, particularly as I wished to settle this party. If 
you will let me know when it will be your pleasure, I will 
write to my sister. 

I am your Ladyship's 

Most faithful servant, 



Strawberry Hill, July 31, 1762. 

I BEGIN this letter to-night, though I don't know when it 
will set out, for I have a mind it should be a little more 
complete than I can make it at present. We are at the eve 
of big events, or in the obscurity of them ; a Prince of 
Wales, a Peace, the Havannah, a revolution in Kussia, all 
to come to light this week! 

We know nothing certain, but that we have lost New- 
foundland 1 , and that the new opposition have got a real 
topic, for hitherto they have only been skirmishing with 
names ; however, as all oppositions must improve on the 
foregoing, the present gives us names at length, which at 
least is new. Parallels, you know, are the food of all party 

LETTBB 831. l Taken in June by tember by Colonel Amherst, brother 
De Ternay, and retaken in Sep- of the general of that name. 

1762] To Sir Horace Mann 223 

writings : we have Queen Isabel and Mortimer, Queen 
Margaret and the Duke of Suffolk, every week. You will 
allow that abuse does not set out tamely, when it even 
begins with the King's mother. Last week they were so 
brutal as to call the Queen a beggarly duke's daughter ; it is 
shocking, for she has offended nobody, and is far from being 
suspected of power ; but it was to load the Duke of Suffolk 2 , 
for making the match. But what say you to a real Queen 
Isabel*} We hear from Holland, but the account is very 
imperfect, that the Czarina has dethroned her husband. 
That he should be dethroned does not surprise me. He 
struck extraordinary strokes so fast, that I suppose his head 
had not much ballast. Her reign, probably, will not be of 
much longer duration ; but I do not believe that, like her 
husband, she will fall in love with the King of Prussia. 
The Czar, in his aunt's time, was reckoned weak ; his wife, 
very sensible and very handsome. Russia puts one in mind 
of the Seleucidae and the Constantinopolitan History, the 
Cleopatras and Irenes ; if vast crimes are not in fashion, 
you see it is only because despotism is generally exploded. 
Give human nature scope, it can still be sublimely abomin- 
able. My prophetic spirit says, that the young Emperor 
John 8 will come upon the scene again ; in the meantime 
my Lord Buckingham *, who is going ambassador to Peters- 
burg, may try the remainder of his charms upon the heart 
of an Empress. 

Of all the important events we are expecting, the Peace 
is nearest my heart. We had refused Kussians 5 ; and this 
catastrophe, if it is true, will silence the clamour there 
would have been on that chapter. It delivers the King of 

* Lord Bute. 6 Prince Ferdinand ' told Mr. Con- 

* John VI, deposed in 1741. On way that we might be joined by a 
an attempt to reinstate him in 1764, body of Russians for a trait deplume.'' 
he was put to death. (Memoirs of George III, ed. 1894, voL i, 

4 John Hobart, second Earl of p. 146.) 
Buckinghamshire. Walpole. 

224 To Sir Horace Mann [i762 

Denmark, too, from a storm ; for the hero of Prussia, you 
know, he never was in my litany. In short, we have heard 
for this week that our peace with France was in a manner 
made, and that the Dukes of Bedford and Nivernois were 
ready to be exchanged at Dover. If France has dabbled in 
this revolution, adieu the olive-branch ! Nay, we are told 
that your Italian King 6 is rather disposed to put on his old 
cuirass again, and thinking the Austrians have their hands 
full, has an eye upon a little more of the Milanese. Nothing 
will be cleared up, till there is another courier from Muscovy. 
Their poor ambassador 7 , who is just arrived, has had no 
letters. He is not only nephew to the Chancellor, but 
brother to the Czar's mistress. What a region, where 
Siberia is next door to the drawing-room ! 

Mr. Conway has had a little success, which shows, at 
least, what he is fit for. He was ordered to besiege the 
castle of Waldeck, for which Prince Ferdinand was in 
a hurry ; it was impregnable without cannon ; he had none, 
and his powder was spent. He made them believe he was 
preparing to storm it, and they instantly surrendered. You 
may be sure this makes me happy, and yet I am impatient 
to have the Peace nip his laurels. 

Your friend Lord Melcombe is dead of a dropsy in his 
stomach, just when the views of his life were nearest being 
realized. Lady Mary Wortley, too, is departing. She brought 
over a cancer in her breast, which she concealed till about 
six weeks ago. It burst, and there are no hopes of her. 
She behaves with great fortitude, and says she has lived 
long enough. 

Two days ago I saw your nephew Horace ; it always gives 
me pleasure, though a melancholy one ; it was increased 
now, as he is grown much more like to his father. He 

Charles Emmanuel, second King of Sardinia. Walpole. 
7 Count Woroneow. Walpole, 

1762] To Sir Horace Mann 225 

thinks he shall go to you in about a year ; I am eager for it, 
as I know the tender satisfaction it will give you. 

August 4th. 

I must send away my letter to-night, or it will not be in 
town time enough for the foreign post to-morrow. The 
Kussian revolution is confirmed ; the papers have even 
produced a declaration of the new Czarina, in which she 
deposes her husband with the utmost sang-froid. I should 
easily believe it genuine ; it is in the style of the age ; there 
is an honest impudence in modern majesty that is delightful. 
They scorn plausibility ; however, there is one comfort 
they level their crimes chiefly against one another. This 
Muscovite history, as I hear from very good authority, 
happened thus : The Czar, who was originally supposed 
impotent, and who, notwithstanding his mistress, seems to 
have had the modesty of thinking himself so, intended to 
return his two children upon his wife's hands, and had 
declared his rival John, his successor. The late Czarina 
had had the curiosity to see young John, though unknown 
to him : this had given Peter uneasiness ; yet one of his 
first proceedings was to take the same step. The anecdotes 
of that court, however, say that John has had so many 
drugs given to him as to shatter his understanding ex- 
tremely. Probably, as our Charles II said of a foolish 
popular parson, 'John's nonsense suited Peter's nonsense.' 
Peter, intoxicated with brandy and the King of Prussia, had 
thoughts of divorcing his Empress. She was at Peterhoff, 
two miles from Petersburgh ; the Czar at another villa. An 
officer arrived post with a led horse, told the Czarina there 
was a design against her life ; that she had no time to lose ; 
she must fly, or present herself to the army in the city. 
Pray, Sir Horace, what do ladies in a panic do? To be 
sure, run into the danger, not from it. Just so acted the 


226 To Sir Horace Mann [1762 

Czarina. She trotted away to the capital, threw herself 
upon the gallantry of the Preobazinsky (or Praetorian) 
guards, who in Russia are the most polite and compassionate 
cavaliers in the world, and begged they would not protect 
her but give her the crown. One troop, who have been 
a little Prussianized, hesitated ; the rest thought her request 
as reasonable as possible, and immediately proclaimed her. 
The rest of the people, who abhor innovations, and who, 
consequently, could not pardon the Czar for giving them 
their liberty, concurred unanimously. Not a word was said 
in favour of Master Fitz-Catherine 8 , who certainly has no 
right to the diadem, till his mother's no-right devolves to 
him by her death. The Czar, informed of the change of 
scene, fled to Cronstad, and embarked. All the royal galleys 
were sent after him, and he was overtaken. An act of 
abdication was presented to him. He signed it, and then 
made three requests, for his own life, and for those of his 
mistress and of a Prussian adjutant who had accompanied 
him in his flight. Whether the first and last boons were 
granted, story is hitherto silent ; but the next morning, 
Mademoiselle Woronzow flung herself on her knees before 
the Czarina, and begged to resign the order of St. Catherine, 
which she said the Czar had bestowed on her two months 
ago, and of which she owned herself unworthy, so, probably, 
knows the Czarina, who returned the cross and dismissed 
her. Bestuchef 9 is recalled ; somebody, I forgot who, 
and Schualow 10 , the late Empress's minion, are the chief 

A civil message has been sent to Mr. Keith 11 to the 
King of Prussia, that he, having thirty thousand Russians 

8 The Grand-Duke Paul the Empress Elizabeth ; but this did 

9 Count Bestuchew-Eiumin (1693- not prove true he was not employed 
1768), Chancellor of the Empire in by Catherine II. Walpole. 

1744 ; exiled, 1767. u The English Minister. Walpole. 

10 Count Schoualow, favourite of 

1762] To Sir Horace Mann 227 

in his army, which her Majesty wants, she should be glad 
to have them return ; however, as she knows his Majesty's 
occasions, she permits them to obey his orders till he can 
spare them. He replied that by their assistance he had 
extricated himself from his greatest difficulty, and would 
send them back immediately. Here ends my first tome. 
One wants to know the fate of the Czar, of his predecessor 
and successor John ; of Munich, Biron, and all those heroes 
of former dramas, who had been recalled from Siberia. 
One does not want to know what the Empress-Queen feels. 
She, who devoutly hates every monarch who cannot or will 
not get children, must be transported. But what seeds are 
here for more revolutions ! If John and Peter never come 
to light again, the blood-royal of Russia will be extinct, at 
least be extremely equivocal ; and the title of a Princess of 
Anhalt-Zerbst to the crown cannot fascinate the eyes of 
every good Muscovite. As they are compendious in their 
proceedings, I should think the malcontents would not 
waste a summer in writing Monitors and North-Russians K . 

The King of Prussia has certainly driven back Daun, and 
got between him and Schweidnitz. Prince Ferdinand, too, 
has obtained another advantage 18 . The accounts came 
yesterday ; no English were engaged ; the affair lay between 
Hessians and Saxons, and Stainville is dislodged from his 
post. The advantage is reckoned considerable. The King 
of France is impatient to stop the effusion of blood. 
Choiseul is eager for peace, and the more so, as all his 
schemes are baffled. That we wish it all Europe knows, 
but that is not the best secret for obtaining it. Many 
people think it agreed. I dread this northern tempest. 

What a volume is here ! and, perhaps, not a syllable of 
it new to you ! You will, at least, excuse the intention. 

11 In allusion to North Britons, the Wilkes against Lord Bute. Walpole. 
famous weekly papers written by ls On July 23, 1762, near Munden. 

9, 2 

228 To the Earl of Strafford [1762 

I wish you and I had any common acquaintance left, that 
we might chat of something else than kings and queens ! 
Adieu ! 

P.S. The Bussian minister here, I am told, has received 
credentials from the new government. 


MY DEAR LORD, Strawberry Hill, August 5, 1762. 

As you have correspondents of better authority in town, 
I don't pretend to send you great events, and I know no 
small ones. Nobody talks of anything under a revolution. 
That in Kussia alarms me, lest Lady Mary should fall in 
love with the Czarina, who has deposed her Lord Coke, and 
set out for Petersburgh. We throw away a whole summer 
in writing Britons and North Britons ; the Kussians change 
sovereigns faster than Mr. Wilkes 1 can choose a motto for 
a paper. What years were spent here in controversy on the 
abdication of King James, and the legitimacy of the Pre- 
tender ! Commend me to the Czarina. They doubted, that 
is, her husband did, whether her children were of genuine 
blood-royal. She appealed to the Preobazinski guards, ex- 
cellent casuists ; and, to prove Duke Paul heir to the 
crown, assumed it herself. The proof was compendious and 

I trust you know that Mr. Conway has made a figure by 
taking the castle of Waldeck. There has been another 
action to Prince Ferdinand's advantage, but no English 
were engaged. 

You tantalize me by talking of the verdure of Yorkshire ; 
we have not had a teacupful of rain till to-day for these six 

LETTER 832. * John Wilkea (1727- to publish the North Briton in 
1797), M.P. for Aylesbury. He began January, 1762. 

1762] To the Rev. William Cole 229 

weeks. Corn has been reaped that never wet its lips ; not 
a blade of grass ; the leaves yellow and falling as in the end 
of October. In short, Twickenham is rueful ; I don't believe 
Westphalia looks more barren. Nay, we are forced to fortify 
ourselves too. Hanworth was broken open last night, though 
the family was all there. Lord Vere lost a silver standish, 
an old watch, and his writing-box with fifty pounds in it. 
They broke it open in the park, but missed a diamond ring, 
which was found, and the telescope, which by the weight 
of the case they had fancied full of money. Another house 
in the middle of Sunbury has had the same fate. I am 
mounting cannon on my battlements. 

Your chateau, I hope, proceeds faster than mine. The 
carpenters are all associated for increase of wages ; I have 
had but two men at work these five weeks. You know, to 
be sure, that Lady Mary Wortley cannot live. Adieu, my 
dear Lord! 

Your most faithful servant, 



SlB, Strawberry Hill, August 5, 1762. 

As I had been dilatory in accepting your kind offer of 
coming hither, I proposed it as soon as I returned. As we 
are so burnt, and as my workmen have disappointed me, 
I am not quite sorry that I had not the pleasure of seeing 
you this week. Next week I am obliged to be in town on 
business. If you please, therefore, we will postpone our 
meeting till the first of September ; by which time I flatter 
myself we shall be green, and I shall be able to show you 
my additional apartment to more advantage. Unless you 
forbid me, I will expect you, Sir, the very beginning of next 
month. In the meantime, I will only thank you for the 

230 To George Montagu [i?62 

obliging and curious notes you have sent me, which will 
make a great figure in my second edition. 

I am, Sir, your much obliged humble servant, 



Strawberry Hill, August 10, 1762. 

I HAVE received your letter from Greatworth since your 
return, but I do not find that you have got one, which I sent 
you to the Vine, enclosing one directed for you : Mr. Chute 
says you did not mention hearing from me there. I left 
your button too in town with old Kichard to be trans- 
mitted to you. 

Our drought continues, though we have had one hand- 
some storm. I have been reading the story of Phaeton in 
the Metamorphosis', it is a picture of Twickenham. Ardet 
Athos, taurusque Cilix, &c. : Mount Kichmond burns, parched 
is Petersham ; Parnassusque biceps, dry is Pope's grot, the 
nymphs of Clivden are turning to blackmores, their faces 
are already as glowing as a cinder ; Cycnus is changed into 
a swan ; quodque swo Tagus amne vehit, fluit ignibus aurum, 
my gold-fishes are almost molten. Yet this conflagration 
is nothing to that in Kussia ; what do you say to a Czarina 
mounting her horse, and marching at the head of fourteen 
thousand men, with a large train of artillery, to dethrone 
her husband ? Yet she is not the only virago in that 
country ; the conspiracy was conducted by the sister l of the 
Czar's mistress, a heroine under twenty ! They have no 
fewer than two Czars now in coops that is, supposing these 
gentle damsels have murdered neither of them. Turkey 
will become a moderate government ; one must travel to 

LETTER 834. * Ekaterina Eomanova (1744-1810), Princess Daskkov, 
Catherine's confidante. 

1762] To George Montagu 231 

frozen climates if one chooses to see revolutions in per- 
fection. ' Here's room for meditation ev'n to madness ; ' the 
deposed Emperor possessed Muscovy, was heir to Sweden, 
and the true heir of Denmark ; all the northern crowns 
centred in his person one hopes he is in a dungeon that 
is, one hopes he is not assassinated you cannot crowd more 
matter into a lecture of morality than is comprehended in 
those few words. This is the fourth Czarina that you and 
I have seen to be sure, as historians, we have not passed 
our time ill. Mrs. Anne Pitt, who, I suspect, envies the 
heroine of twenty a little, says, 'The Czarina has only 
robbed Peter to pay Paul ' and I do not believe that her 
brother, Mr. William Pitt, feels very happy, that he cannot 
immediately dispatch a squadron to the Baltic to reinstate 
the friend of the King of Prussia. I cannot afford to live 
less than fifty years more, for so long, at least, I suppose, 
it will be before the court of Petersburgh will cease to pro- 
duce amusing scenes. Think of old Count Biron, formerly 
master of that empire, returning to Siberia, and bowing to 
Bestucheff, whom he may meet on the road from thence. 
I interest myself now about nothing but Eussia ; Lord 
Bute must be sent to the Orcades before I shall ask a 
question in English politics : at least I shall expect that 
Mr. Pitt, at the head of the Preobazinski guards, will seize 
the person of the prime minister for giving up our conquests 
to the chief enemy of this nation. 

My pen is in such a sublime humour, that it can scarce 
condescend to tell you that Sir Edward Peering 2 is going 
to marry Polly Hart, Draper's old mistress ; and three more 
baronets, whose names nobody knows but Collins 3 , are 
treading in the same steps. My compliments to the house 

2 Sir Edward Bering, sixth Baronet, of the well-known Peerage, published 
of Surrenden Bering, Kent, d. 1798. a Baronetage of England in 1720. 

3 Arthur Collins (d. 1760), author 

232 To Sir Horace Mann [i?62 

of Montagu upon my word I congratulate the General and 
you, and your Viceroy, that you escaped being deposed by 
the primate of Novogorod. 

Yours ever, 


I this minute receive yours of Sunday you frighten me 
about your bill was it a bank-bill ? Whatever it was, it 
came in a little dab of a letter ; I enclosed it in one I wrote 
to you on the 29th of last month, and directed mine to the 
Vine, so that you ought to have had it the Friday before 
you set out. Louis put it into the post here, with three or 
four other letters, to one of which I have had an answer. 
Write immediately to Mr. Hampden 4 ; tell him it went 
from hence on the 29th for the Vine and you may enclose 
the following bit of a direction to him, to show how careless 
his people are: it is my maid's handwriting in Arlington 
Street and the postmark is Portsmouth. But I must scold 
you a little ; how can you be so careless, not to give me 
notice that I was to receive a bill of consequence for you ; 
and why not tell Eichard when you was to leave this place ? 
you see how many idle journeys his letter necessarily 
took. I shall be very anxious till I hear you have found it. 


Arlington Street, Aug. 12, 1762. 

A PRINCE of Wales l was born this morning ; the pros- 
pect of your old neighbour 2 at Kome does not improve ; the 
House of Hanover will have numbers in its own family 
sufficient to defend their crown unless they marry a Prin- 
cess of Anhalt-Zerbst s . What a shocking tragedy that has 

4 As Joint Postmaster-General. 2 The Pretender. Walpole. 

LETTER 835. x Afterwards George 8 The Czarina Catherine II was 

IV. Princess of Anhalt-Zerbst. Walpole. 

1762] To Sir Horace Mann 233 

proved already ! There is a manifesto * arrived to-day that 
makes one shudder ! This northern Athaliah, who has the 
modesty not to name her murdered husband in that light, 
calls him her neighbour ; and, as if all the world were savages, 
like Eussians, pretends that he died suddenly of a distemper 
that never was expeditious ; mocks Heaven with pretensions 
to charity and piety ; and heaps the additional inhumanity 
on the man she has dethroned and assassinated, of im- 
puting his death to a judgement from Providence. In short, 
it is the language of usurpation and blood, counselled and 
apologized for by clergymen! It is Brunehault and an 
archbishop ! 

I have seen Mr. Keith's first dispatch; in general, my 
account was tolerably correct ; but he does not mention 
Ivan 8 . The conspiracy advanced by one of the gang being 
seized, thougk for another crime ; they thought themselves 
discovered. Orloff 8 , one of them, hurried to the Czarina, 
and told her she had no time to lose. She was ready for 
anything; nay, marched herself at the head of fourteen 
thousand men and a train of artillery against her husband, 
but not being the only Alecto in Muscovy, she had been 
aided by a Princess Daschkaw, a nymph under twenty, 
and sister to the Czar's mistress. It was not the latter, 
as I told you, but the Chancellor's wife 7 , who oifered up 
the order of St. Catherine. I do not know how my Lord 
Buckingham feels, but unless to conjure up a tempest 
against this fury of the north, nothing could bribe me to 
set my foot in her dominions. Had she been priestess of 
the Scythian Diana, she would have sacrificed her brother 
by choice. It seems she does not degenerate ; her mother 

4 The manifesto, with other papers Alexis Orloff (1737-1808), brother 
relating to the deposition of Peter IH, of the Empress's favourite. He was 
is printed in Ann. Beg., 1762, supposed to be the actual murderer 
pp. 222-8. of Peter in. 

5 Ivan or John, the former de- 7 Countess Woronzow. 
throned young Czar. Walpole. 

234 To Sir Horace Mann [i762 

was ambitious and passionate for intrigues; she went to 
Paris, and dabbled in politics with all her might. 

The world had been civilizing itself till one began to 
doubt whether ancient histories were not ancient legends. 
Voltaire had unpoisoned half the victims to the Church and 
to ambition. Oh ! there never was such a man as Borgia ; 
the league seemed a romance. For the honour of poor 
historians, the assassinations of the Kings of France and 
Portugal, majesties still living in spite of Damien and the 
Jesuits, and the dethronement and murder of the Czar, 
have restored some credibility to the annals of former ages. 
Tacitus recovers his character by the edition of Petersburgh. 

We expect the definitive courier from Paris every day. 
Now it is said that they ask time to send to Spain. What ? 
to ask leave to desert them? The Spaniards, not so ex- 
peditious in usurpation as the Muscovites, have made no 
progress in Portugal. Their absurd manifestoes appeared 
too soon. The Czarina and Princess Daschkaw stay till the 
stroke is struck. Eeally, my dear Sir, your Italy is grow- 
ing unfashionably innocent, if you don't take care, the 
Archbishop of Novogorod will deserve, by his crimes, to be 
at the head of the Christian Church. I fear my friend, 
good Benedict 8 , infected you all with his virtues. 

You see how this Russian revolution has seized every cell 
in my head a Prince of Wales is passed over in a line, the 
Peace in another line. I have not even told you that the 
treasure of the Hermione 9 , reckoned eight hundred thousand 
pounds, passed the end of my street this morning in one- 

8 Pope Benedict XIV. Walpole. English frigates, and carried into 

9 Gent. Mag. 1762, July 6 : ' In the Gibraltar. Her cargo is said to con- 
Ckteette of this day, is the following sist of near twelve millions of money 
intelligence from the Hague : " The registered, and unregistered to be 
Hermione, a Spanish register ship, likewise very considerable, besides 
which left Lima the 6th of January, 2000 serons of cocoa, and a great deal 
bound for Cadiz, was taken the 21st of other valuable merchandize." ' 

of May off Gape St. Vincent, by three 

1762] To the Rev. William Cole 235 

and-twenty waggons. Of the Havannah I could tell you 
nothing if I would ; people grow impatient at not hearing 
from thence. Adieu ! 

You see I am a punctual correspondent when Empresses 
commit murders. 


SIR, Strawberry Hill, August 19, 1762. 

I am very sensible of the obligations I have to you 
and Mr. Masters *, and ought to make separate acknowledge- 
ments to both ; but, not knowing how to direct to him, 
I must hope that you will kindly be once more the channel 
of our correspondence ; and that you will be so good as to 
convey to him an answer to what you communicated from 
him to me, and in particular my thanks for the most 
obliging offer he has made me of a picture of Henry VII ; 
of which I will by no means rob him. My view in publish- 
ing the Anecdotes was, to assist gentlemen in discovering 
the hands of pictures they possess ; and I am sufficiently 
rewarded when that purpose is answered. If there is 
another edition, the mistake in the calculation of the tapes- 
try shall be rectified, and any others, which any gentleman 
will be so good as to point out. With regard to the monu- 
ment of Sir Nathaniel Bacon 2 , Vertue certainly describes it 
as at Culford ; and in looking to the place to which I am 
referred, in Mr. Masters's History of C.C.C.C. 3 , 1 think he 
himself allows in the note, that there is such a monument 

LETTER 836. Incomplete in C. ; Christi and the Blessed Virgin Mary 

now first printed entire after colla- (commonly called Bene't) in the Univer- 

tion with original in possession of sity of Cambridge. 

Mrs. Alfred Morrison. 2 Sir Nathaniel Bacon, K.B., an 

1 Robert Masters (1713-1798), Bee- artist mentioned in the Anecdotes of 

tor of Landbea c h and Vicar of Water- Painting. 

beach, in Cambridgeshire ; author of 3 Corpus Christi College, Cam- 

The History of the Cottege of Corpus bridge. 

236 To the Rev. Thomas Warton [i?62 

at Culford. Of Sir Balthazar Gerbier 4 there are several 
different prints. Nich. Laniere B purchasing pictures at the 
King's sale, is undoubtedly a mistake for one of his brothers 
I cannot tell now whether Vertue's mistake or my own. 
At Longleat is a whole-length of Frances, Duchess of 
Richmond, exactly such as Mr. Masters describes, but in 
oil, and I have another whole-length of the same Duchess, 
I believe by Mytens 8 , but younger than that at Longleat. 
But the best picture of her is in Wilson's 7 Life of King 
James, and very diverting indeed. I will not trouble you, 
Sir, or Mr. Masters, with any more at present ; but, repeat- 
ing my thanks to both, will assure you that I am, Sir, your 
obliged humble servant, 


Petitot never painted but in enamel. The miniature 
might, notwithstanding, be copied from him. 


SlB^ Strawberry Hill, Aug. 21, 1762. 

I was last week surprised with a very unexpected pre- 
sent a in your name ; and still more, when, upon examining 
it, I found myself so much and so undeservedly distin- 
guished by your approbation. I certainly ought to have 
thanked you immediately, but I chose to defer my acknow- 
ledgements till I had read your volumes very attentively. 

4 Sir Balthazar Gerbier, Knight Hill Horace Walpole attributes this 

(d. 1667), ' painter, architect, and portrait to Mark Garrard, or Gheer- 

courtier.' (D. N. B.) aerts. 

6 Nicholas Lanier or Laniere (d. 7 Arthur Wilson (1595-1652). 

1666), Master of the Music to Charles I LETTER 837. * Thomas Warton 

and Charles II, and purchaser of (1728-1790), Professor of Poetry at 

many pictures for the collection of Oxford. 

Charles I. He repurchased several a Observations en the Faery Qtfeene 

of these at the sale, as Walpole of Spenser. Warton's mentions of 

stated in the Anecdotes of Painting. Horace Walpole occur in the eighth, 

8 In hig Description of Strawberry tenth, and eleventh sections. 

1762] To the Rev. Thomas Warton 237 

The praise you have bestowed on me debars me, Sir, from 
doing all the justice I ought to your work: the pleasure 
I received from it would seem to have grown out of the 
satisfaction I felt in what, if it would not be ungrateful, 
I should be humble enough to call flattery ; for how can 
you, Sir, approve such hasty, superficial writings as mine, 
you, who in the same pursuits are so much more correct, 
and have gone so much deeper ? for instance, compare your 
account of Gothic architecture with mine; I have scarce 
skimmed the subject ; you have ascertained all its periods. 
If my Anecdotes should ever want another edition, I shall 
take the liberty of referring the readers to your chronicle of 
our buildings. 

With regard to the Dance of Death, I must confess you 
have not convinced me. Vertue (for it was he, not I, that 
first doubted of that painting at Basil) persuaded me by the 
arguments I found in his MSS., and which I have given, 
that Holbein was not the author. The latter's prints, 
as executed by Hollar, confirmed me in that opinion : and 
you must forgive me if I still think the taste of them 
superior to Albert Durer. This is mere matter of opinion, 
and of no consequence, and the only point in your book, 
Sir, in which I do not submit to you and agree with you. 

You will not be sorry to be informed, Sir, that in the 
library of the Antiquarian Society there is a large and very 
good print of Nonsuch s , giving a tolerable idea of that pile, 
which was not the case of Speed's confused scrap. I have 
myself drawings of the two old palaces of Kichmond and 
Greenwich ; and should be glad to show them to you, if at 
any time of your leisure you would favour me with a visit 
here. You would see some attempts at Gothic, some minia- 
tures of scenes which I am pleased to find you love. 
Cloisters, screens, round towers, and a printing-house, all 
8 In Surrey, built by Henry VIII, pulled down about 1670. 

238 To Sir Horace Mann [1762 

indeed of baby dimensions, would put you a little in mind 
of the age of Caxton and Wynken. You might play at 
fancying yourself in a castle described by Spenser. 

You see, Sir, by the persuasions I employ, how much 
I wish to tempt you hither ! 

I am, Sir, 
Your most obliged and obedient servant, 


P.S. You know, to be sure, that in Ames's Typographical 
Antiquities are specified all the works of Stephen Hawes *. 


Strawberry Hill, Sunday, August 29, 1762. 
WE cannot afford to stay any longer for the Havannah, 
and must make peace without it. The Duke of Bedford, 
on Wednesday next, is to be named in form Ambassador 
Extraordinary, as the Due de Nivernois 1 will be the same 
day at Paris ; on the 7th of next month they are to meet 
at Dover, cross over and figure-in. Our duke carries good 
dispositions, but as there is a grain of wrong-headed warmth 
in his temper, I hope it will not leaven the whole pacific 
cake. Still I fear that obstinate diadem in Spain ! who will 
not be bullied as when he was plain Don Carlos Bang of 
Naples, and which perhaps he has not forgot. Lord 
Tyrawley is returned, and as they were not pleased to see 
him and English troops in Portugal, when they feared it 
would draw down the war upon them, he now will not 
allow there is any war there, calls it a combination to get 

* Stephen Hawes (d. 1523 ?), to Borne and Berlin. He was a littera- 

\vlaose writings, apparently, Spenser teur and a member of the French 

was to some extent indebted. Academy. He translated into French 

LETTER 838. 1 Louis Jules Barbon Horace Walpole's Essay on Modern 

Mancini Mazarin (1716-1798), Due de Gardening, printed in both languages 

Nivernais, sometime Ambassador at at Strawberry Hill in 1785. 

1762] To Sir Horace Mann 239 

our money, and says he will eat every man that is killed, 
if the Portuguese will engage to roast him. Absurd as this 
proposition is, it is the only tolerable excuse I have heard 
for the King of Spain. En attendant the signing of 
preliminaries, we have a victory 2 of the King of Prussia 
over Laudohn, and a new squabble with the Dutch. They 
were sending a convoy of naval stores to Gales to sell 
underhand ; our good allies do not injure us for nothing ; 
Commodore More sent some men-of-war to visit them ; 
their guardian would not be examined, which he intimated 
by a cannon ; a fight ensued, he has lost his nose and his 
first-lieutenant, and is brought into Portsmouth. This is 
our story as arrived to-day. The Dutch minister Borel 
is very temperate about it, though the lost nose belonged 
to his nephew. 

1 rejoice that you agree with me in abhorring that good 
woman the Czarina. Semiramis and her models never 
thought of palliating murders by manifestoes. One would 
think that Peter the Great had not yet taught the Kussians 
to read ! or she could not have the confidence to write such 
horrid and such gross falsehoods. They are as ill-drawn as 
if penned in Spain or Portugal. But what do you think of 
her recollecting herself, crying for her husband, and 
wanting to attend his funeral? This, and her backward 
and forward dealing with the King of Prussia, show what 
confusion subsists in her councils. I do not grieve to hear 
that as much reigns in her empire. I am impatient to learn 
that she is in a covered waggon on the road to Siberia. 

I condole with you for the misfortune of the Gallery*, 
and the loss of the Laocoon ; yet, if a fine statue was to be 
demolished, it was one that could most easily be spared, as 

2 At Beichenbach, where, on Schweidnitz. 

August 16, 1762, the Prince of 8 The fire took place on August 18, 
Brunswick-Bevern defeated Lacy in 1762. Except for the loss of the 
an attempt to interrupt the siege of Laocoon, no great damage was done. 

240 To Sir Horace Mann [1752 

there is a duplicate at Eome, and, as I remember, not only 
a finer, but a more authentic. But how came the Florentines 
to see their gallery burn with so much indifference ? It was 
collected by the Medici. If formed by the Lorrainers I 
should not wonder. 

Lady Mary Wortley is dead, as I prepared you to expect. 
Except some trifling legacies, she has given everything to 
Lady Bute, so we shall never know the sum perhaps that 
was intended. It is given out for inconsiderable, besides 
some rich baubles. Another of our old acquaintance at 
Florence is greatly advanced ; Lady Charlotte Finch 4 is 
made governess to the Prince ; a choice so universally 
approved that I do not think she will be abused even in 
the North Briton. 

Mrs. Foote's 5 friend, Lord Westmoreland 8 , is just dead, 
from a stroke of the palsy. His countess 7 is gone to your 
sister at Linton. His Chancellorship of Oxford will be an 
object of contention. Lord Litchfield 8 will have the interest 
of the court, which now has some influence there ; yet, 
perhaps, those 9 who would have voted for him formerly 
may not now be his heartiest friends. 

Oh, when I was talking of the royal child, I should have 
told you of a delightful card which was sent by Mrs. Salvador 
and Mrs. Mendez, two rich Jewesses, to knmv how the Queen 
did. Lady Northumberland, who was in waiting, told the 
servant that that was not the manner that they should 
have come in person to inquire. ' That's good,' replied the 
fellow ; ' why, my mistress lies in herself ' : if she had not, 

4 Second daughter of Thomas Far- ' John Fane, seventh Earl of 

mor, Earl of Pomfret, and widow of Westmorland. 

William Finch, Vice-Chamberlain, 7 Mary Cavendish, Countess of 

next brother to the Earl of Win- Westmoreland. Walpole. 

chelsea, who was succeeded in the 8 George Henry Lee, Earl of Lich- 

title by her only son. Walpole. field. Walpole. 

6 Mary, sister of Sir Horace Mann. 9 The Jacobites. Walpole. 

1762] To Sir Horace Mann 241 

I suppose she would have expected the Queen to send 
to her. 

The embassy to Paris is not the single glory of the 
Bedfords. After long hopes and trials on their side, and 
vast repugnance on his, the Duke of Marlborough has at 
last married their daughter 10 . 

I will make your compliments to Palazzo Pitti 11 when 
I see it ; but he has scarce been here ; he is not well, and 
drinking waters at Sunning Hill. 

Have you received your commissions, particularly the 
music? Your brother James promised to be expeditious, 
but I have been so much out of town I have not seen him. 
Did not you tell me you had sent a parcel of my letters by 
somebody ? I have not received them, and have forgot who 
the messenger was. 

Thank you for Cocchi's ia Spectator, I like it better than 
you shall own to him. With his father's freedom of think- 
ing, he has a great deal of humour; but don't let him 
pursue it. Wit will be but slender comfort in the prisons 
of the Inquisition, or in a fortress ; more uncomfortable, if 
his opening the eyes of others leads them into the same 
situation. If curing old errors would prevent the world 
from falling into new ones, a la bonne heure', but one 
nonsense is as good as another; better, if the change is 
to be made by blood. A Gustavus Vasa may strike a stroke 
for liberty, but few men are born to overturn a tyranny 
with their pen. When established liberty is in danger, 
then write for it ; one may prevent people perhaps from 
shutting their eyes ; 'tis more difficult to unclose them if 
shut. Nor can it be done when the world is in cold blood ; 

10 Lady Caroline Bussell, only the Duchess of Bedford. Walpole. 

daughter of the Duke of Bedford, n Mr. T. Pitt. Walpole. 

wife of George Spencer, Duke of 12 Son of Dr. Cocchi, a Florentine 

Marlborough, who, though in love physician and author ; the son wrote 

with her, was unwilling to marry some Spectators on the model of 

her, as he did not like her mother, Addison's. Walpole. 


242 To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway [1762 

you may snatch a fortunate fermenting minute, but you 
cannot prepare it. If Cocchi must write, let him come 
hither ; here he may make reeds say what he will ls ; but 
let his own barber remind him that in some countries it is 
not safe even to trust reeds with one's thoughts. Adieu ! 

P.S. When I was mentioning acquaintance you have 
lost, I forgot to name Lady Fane " ; you see nervous 
disorders are not very mortal ; I think she must have been 
above seventy. 


Strawberry Hill, Sept 9, 1762. 

Nondum laurus erat, longoque decentia crine 
Tempora cingebat de gualibct arbore Phoebus. 

THIS is a hint to you, that as Phoebus, who was certainly 
your superior, could take up with a chestnut garland, or any 
crown he found, you must have the humility to be content 
without laurels, when none are to be had : you have hunted 
far and near for them, and taken true pains to the last in 
that old nursery-garden Germany, and by the way have 
made me shudder with your last journal: but you must 
be easy with qualibet other arbore ; you must come home 
to your own plantations. The Duke of Bedford is gone in 
a fury to make peace, for he cannot be even pacific with 
temper ; and by this time I suppose the Duke de Nivernois 
is unpacking his portion of olive dans la rue de Suffolk Street. 
I say, I suppose for I do not, like my friends at Arthur's, 
whip into my postchaise to see eveiy novelty. My two 

Alluding to Midas's barber. Charles, the last Viscount Fane, 

Walpole. friend of Sir Horace Mann, and hia 

14 Charlotte, sister of James, first predecessor at Florence. Walpole. 
Earl Stnnhope, and mother of 

1762] To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway 243 

sovereigns, the Duchess of Grafton and Lady Mary Coke, 
are arrived, and yet I have seen neither Polly nor Lucy. 
The former, I hear, is entirely French ; the latter as abso- 
lutely English. 

Well ! but if you insist on not doffing your cuirass, you 
may find an opportunity of wearing it. The storm thickens. 
The City of London are ready to hoist their standard ; 
treason is the bon ton at that end of the town ; seditious 
papers pasted up at every corner : nay, my neighbourhood 
is not unfashionable; we have had them at Brentford and 
Kingston. The Peace is the cry ; but to make weight, they 
throw in all the abusive ingredients they can collect. They 
talk of your friend the Duke of Devonshire's resigning ; and, 
for the Duke of Newcastle, it puts him so much in mind of 
the end of Queen Anne's time, that I believe he hopes to be 
minister again for another forty years. 

In the meantime, there are but dark news from the 
Havannah ; the Gazette, who would not fib for the world, 
says we have lost but four officers ; the world, who is not 
quite so scrupulous, says our loss is heavy. But what 
shocking notice to those who have Harry Conways there ! 
The Gazette breaks off with saying that they were to storm 
the next day ! Upon the whole, it is regarded as a prepara- 
tive to worse news. 

Our next monarch was christened last night, George 
Augustus Frederick ; the Princess, the Duke of Cumber- 
land, and Duke of Mecklenburgh, sponsors ; the ceremony 
performed by the Bishop of London. The Queen's bed, 
magnificent, and they say in taste, was placed in the great 
drawing-room : though she is not to see company in form, 
yet it looks as if they had intended people should have been 
there, as all who presented themselves were admitted, which 
were very few, for it had not been notified ; I suppose to 
prevent too great a crowd : all I have heard named, besides 

R 2 

244 To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway [1702 

those in waiting, were the Duchess of Queensbury, Lady 
Dalkeith, Mrs. Grenville, and about four more ladies. 

My Lady Ailesbury is abominable : she settled a party to 
come hither, and put it off a month ; and now she has been 
here and seen my cabinet, she ought to tell you what good 
reason I had not to stir. If she has not told you that it is 
the finest, the prettiest, the newest, and the oldest thing in 
the world, I will not go to Park Place on the 20th, as I have 
promised. Oh ! but tremble you may for me, though you 
will not for yourself all my glories were on the point of 
vanishing last night in a flame ! The chimney of the new 
gallery, which chimney is full of deal-boards, and which 
gallery is full of shavings, was on fire at eight o'clock. 
Harry had quarrelled with the other servants, and would 
not sit in the kitchen ; and to keep up his anger, had 
lighted a vast fire in the servants' hall, which is under the 
gallery. The chimney took fire ; and if Margaret had not 
smelt it with the first nose that ever a servant had, a quarter 
of an hour had set us in a blaze. I hope you are frightened 
out of your senses for me : if you are not, I will never live 
in a panic for three or four years for you again. 

1 have had Lord March and the Rena 1 here for one night, 
which does not raise my reputation in the neighbourhood, 
and may usher me again for a Scotchman into the North 
Briton*. I have had too a letter from a German that 

LETTER 839. 1 A fashionable cour- with a superior partition of sense (and 

tosan. Walpole. he ought to have added, of humour 

2 The favourable opinion given by and taste, in both which we excel), 
Mr. Walpole of the abilities of the / should be inclined to give the pre- 
Scotch in the Royal and Noble ference in that particular. How faith- 
Authora, first drew upon him the ful is this masterly pen of Mr. Wai- 
notice of the North Briton. The pole ! How unlike the odious sharp 
passage alluded to is the following, and strong incision pen of Swift ! 
in the second number of that paper : He has called us only a poor FIKRCE 
1 Mr. Horace Walpole, in that deep northern people ; and has asserted, 
book called the Royal and Noble that the pensions and employments 
Authors, says, We are the most ac- possessed by the natives of Scotland in 
complished nation in Europe ; the nation England, amounted to more than the 
to which, if any one country is endowed whole body of their nobility ever spent 

1762] To Grosvenor Bedford 245 

I never saw, who tells me that, hearing by chance how 
well I am with my Lord Bute, he desires me to get him 
a place. The North Briton first recommended me for an 
employment, and has now given me interest at the back- 
stairs. It is a notion, that whatever is said of one, has 
generally some kind of foundation : surely I am a contra- 
diction to this maxim ! yet, was I of consequence enough to 
be remembered, perhaps posterity would believe that I was 
a flatterer ! Good night ! 

Yours ever, 



DEAR SiB, Strawberry Hill, Sept. 9, 1762. 

I must trouble you in an affair in which it is not easy, 
I fear, to assist me. My servant, Henry Jones, is grown 
old and wants to retire. If you could find a very good 
servant for me, it would be of great use. I will tell you 
exactly what sort of man I want. He is to be steward and 
butler, not my gentleman, nor have anything to do with 
dressing me, or with my clothes, but is to wait at table and 
at tea. His chief business will be to look after my family, 
in which he must be strict ; and he must understand buying 
and selling, for what I shall chiefly expect will be, that he 
shall bring me every Saturday night the house-bills for the 
week, and every month those of the other tradesmen and 
servants. For these reasons which I cannot dispense with, 
' I choose to have a grave servant of forty, or near it, with 

at home ; and that all the money they very particular a compliment (which 
raised, upon the public was hardly suffi- I hope flowed from his heart still 
dent to defray their civil and military more than from his head), and I en- 
lists. This was at the latter end of treat his Lordship to put him on the 
Queen Anne's reign. How very list immediately after my country- 
different is the case now ! I heg to men and the Cocoa." Walpole. 
recommend Mr. Walpole, too, for so 

246 To George Montagu [1762 

a very good character, and I should wish, not married. 
When you inquire, be so good as not to let it be known 
that it is for me ; as I do not like to have servants present 
themselves, whom I should probably not care to take. The 
wages I shall make little difficulty about, if it is one that 
I can depend upon for being careful in my family, and 
letting there be no waste. I shall be in town on Monday 
night, and if you will call on me on Tuesday or Wednesday 
mornings, I will talk to you farther, for though I should be 
glad to have this servant soon, I am in no particular haste. 
Adieu, dear Sir ! Yours ever, 

H. W. 

P.S. One material condition will be, that he is not to 
have friends coming to my house after him. 


DEAR SiB, Strawberry Hill, Sept. 24, 1762. 

I would not trouble you with the enclosed commissions, 
but as I think you pass by both doors almost every day. 
Be so good as to inquire if the persons mentioned in these 
advertisements are really objects of charity, and if they are, 
I will beg you to leave a guinea for each, and put it to my 
account. Yours ever, 

H. W. 


Strawberry Hill, Sept. 24, 1762. 

I WAS disappointed at not seeing you, as you had given 
me hopes, but shall be glad to meet the General, as I think 
I shall, for I go to town on Monday to restore the furniture 
of my house, which has been painted ; and to stop the gaps 
as well as I can, which I have made by bringing everything 

1762] To George Montagu 247 

hither ; but as long as there are auctions, and I have any 
money or hoards, those wounds soon close. 

I can tell you nothing of your Dame Montagu and her 
arms ; but I dare to swear Mr. Chute can. I did not doubt 
but you would approve Mr. Bateman's, since it has changed 
its religion ; I converted it from Chinese to Gothic. His 
cloister of founders, which by the way is Mr. Bentley's, is 
delightful; I envy him his old chairs, and the tomb of 
Bishop Caducanus 1 ; but I do not agree with you in pre- 
ferring the Duke's 2 to Stowe. The first is in a greater style, 
I grant, but one always perceives the mesalliance ; the blood 
of Bagshot Heath will never let it be green. If Stowe had 
but half so many buildings as it has, there would be too 
many ; but that profusion, that glut, enriches, and makes it 
look like a fine landscape of Albano ; one figures oneself 
in Tempe or Daphne. I never saw St. Leonard's Hill ; 
would you spoke seriously of buying it ! one could stretch 
out the arm of one's postchaise, and reach you when one 

1 am here all in ignorance and rain, and have seen nobody 
these two days since I returned from Park Place. I do not 
know whether the mob hissed my Lord Bute at his installa- 
tion 3 , as they intended, or whether my Lord Talbot drubbed 
them for it. I know nothing of the Peace, nor of the 
Havannah, but I could tell you much of old English en- 
gravers 4 , whose lives occupy me at present. On Sunday 
I am to dine with your prime minister Hamilton, for though 
I do not seek the world, and am best pleased when quiet 
here, I do not refuse its invitations, when it does not press 
one to pass above a few hours with it. I have no quarrel to 
it, when it comes not to me, nor asks me to lie from home. 

LETTXR 842. * Caducanus or Ca- s Afl Knight of the Garter, on 

dwgan, Bishop of Bangor, 1215-41. Sept. 22, 1762. 

2 The Banger's Lodge, in Windsor * A Catalogue of Engravers, printed 
Great Park. at Strawberry Hill in 1763. 

248 To Sir Horace Mann [i?62 

That favour is only granted to the elect, to Greatworth, and 
a very few more spots. Adieu ! 

Yours most sincerely, 
H. W. 


Strawberry Hill, Sept. 26, 1762. 

WELL, my dear Sir, we write and write, but we do not 
take the Havannah or make the Peace ; I wish the latter 
may not depend on the former ! Lord Albemarle's last 
letters have not been made public ; we do not doubt but 
there is great sickness among our troops, nor do the Spaniards 
seem so terrified at the name of an Englishman as the 
French are. The former proceed in conquering Portugal 
before our faces ; yet we have given them a little check \ 
and I hope a little spirit to the Portuguese. The Duchess 
of Bedford is certainly going to Paris, but we do not expect 
the definitive treaty before the Parliament meets. The 
clamour does not increase, though I do not tell you it abates. 
One knows not what to believe about the chiefs. Pitt is 
said to declare firmly against opposition; others make a 
salvo for him, unless in case of a lad peace. But neither 
they nor he know what he will do till he is in the middle 
of his first speech. In the meantime Lord Temple is all 
flax, tow, pitch, and combustibles. What I do believe is, 
that Pitt has refused all junction with the Duke of Newcastle, 
who has certainly contributed most to raise the flame, who 
is for ever at court, and yet ruining himself with more 
alacrity than ever in entertainments to keep up a party ; yet 
I dare to say he will neither have courage to head an oppo- 
sition, nor art enough to get to the top again, but will be 
just troublesome enough to obtain some insignificant post in 

LETTER 848. 1 The capture of Va- by British troops under Brigadier 
lencia de Alcantara on Aug. 27, 1762, Burgoyne. 

1762] To Sir Horace Mann 249 

the Cabinet Council. Somebody said t'other day, ' Yet sure 
the Duke of Newcastle does not want parts ' ; ' No,' replied 
Lord Talbot, 'for he has done without them for forty years.' 
His Grace, Lord Temple, and Lord Bute, met last Wednesday 
at the installation of the last. The first, when he performed 
the ceremony, embraced Lord Bute ; Lord Temple sat next 
to him at dinner, but they did not exchange a syllable, and 
yet I do not esteem habitual virulence more than habitual 
dissimulation. The pomp was great ; the King, Queen, and 
all the family, but Princess Amelia (who excused herself 
from seeing her father's trophies buried), were there : Prince 
William 2 was installed too, and it was the King's first ap- 
pearance to take his stall. The Queen was charmed with 
Windsor, and they stay there till Tuesday. Pains had been 
taken to breed a riot, but nothing happened. The Duke de 
Nivernois was ill, and could not see the ceremony. He is 
very battered, delicate, and anxious about his health ; very 
plain and little in his person, but with the air of a gentleman, 
so I hear. I have not seen him, nor have any curiosity ; he 
translated Lord Lyttelton's Dialogues of the Dead, which has 
not given me much opinion of him. 

I did not doubt but such humanity as yours would agree 
with me about the Czarina but I grow a little cooled upon 
that subject ; I have not named her with abhorrence above 
seven times this week. 

Well, I have seen my Duchess s you have not returned 
her as you received her. I was quite struck at seeing her 
so much altered. She wears no rouge, and being leaner, 
her features, which never were delicate, seem larger. Then, 
she is not dressed French, but Italian, that is, over-French. 
In one point, in which she cannot be improved, she seemed 

William Henry, third son of 3 The Duchess of Grafton. TPoZ- 
Frederick, Prince of Wales, after- pole, 
wards Duke of Gloucester. WalpoU. 

250 To Sir Horace Mann [i?62 

so ; being thinner, she looked taller. She spoke of you to 
my perfect content ; and as if I did not know it, told me of 
all your good-breeding, good-nature, and attentions. She 
had said to a friend of mine that she had something for me 
from you, but that I should not have it till she saw me. 
That was but for half an hour, and not at her own house, so 
she and I both forgot it ; was it my letters ? I hope not, 
for she is gone to her father's 4 in Northumberland, and 
being doomed never to appear where she is formed to shine, 
was not at the Installation ; nay, will not be in town till 
December. If she who was so proper for it was not at 
Windsor, pray do not imagine I was. I saw that show 
above thirty years ago, and do not, like the Duke of New- 
castle, tease every reign with my presence. 

Lord Melcombe, except some trifling legacies, has left 
everything in his power to a near relation, Mr. Windham ; 
but Eastbury 5 and the estate are Lord Temple's, who 
having always threatened to pull down that pile of ugliness 
when it should be his, is charmed since he has seen it 
through the eyes of possession. I told you of Lady Mary 
Wortley's death and will, but I did not then know that, 
with her usual maternal tenderness, and usual generosity, 
she has left her son one guinea. 

Arlington Street, Monday night, 27th. 

This codicil to my letter will not rejoice you. I find here 
great doubts of the Peace : in the City they disbelieve it, and 
prove their disbelief substantially : the stocks fall fast. 
What a scene will follow, if this negotiation breaks off too ! 
What acrimony, if we think ourselves again deluded by 
France ! And does war want new edge ? Wretched mortals ! 
more wretched Kings and ministers, who look on lives as on 
gunpowder, and care not how many barrels they waste of 

* Lord Bavensworth. Walpole. 5 Near Blandford, in Dorsetshire. 

1762] To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway 251 

either ! Negotiations indeed will fluctuate before they settle. 
I wish this may be only one of their qualms. Prince 
Ferdinand, too, will not be sparing of the human gunpowder 
committed to his charge : he will have a match ready in his 
hand to the last moment to blow up the treaty ; such a 
blessing is a foreign general, who has a different interest 
and cannot be called to account ! Sure these monarchs and 
heroes would shudder, if they saw a bill drawn upon them 
thus : 

Queen of Hungary, debtor to the human species Millions. 
King of Prussia, ditto .... do. 

King of France, by his stewards ... do. 

King of Spain Many thousands. 

Prince Ferdinand, a private gentleman . Some thousands. 
Czarina Only her own husband. 

Total . . Half Europe. 


Strawberry Hill, Sept. 28, 1762. 

To my sorrow and your wicked joy, it is a doubt whether 
Monsieur de Nivernois will shut the temple of Janus. We 
do not believe him quite so much in earnest as the dove ' 
we have sent, who has summoned his turtle to Paris. She 
sets out the day after to-morrow, escorted, to add gravity to 
the embassy, by George Selwyn. The stocks don't mind 
this journey of a rush, but draw in their horns every day. 
We can learn nothing of the Havannah, though the axis on 
which the whole treaty turns. We believe, for we have 
never seen them, that the last letters thence brought accounts 
of great loss, especially by the sickness. Colonel Burgoyne 2 

LETTER 844. l The Duke of Bed- goyne, with the Comto de Lippe, 

ford, then Embassador at Paris. commanded the British troops sent 

WcUpole. to the relief of Portugal. Walpole. 

8 Colonel, afterwards General Bur- John Burgoyne (1722-1792), soldier 

252 To tJie Hon. Henry Seymour Conway [i?62 

has given a little fillip to the Spaniards, and shown them, 
that though they can take Portugal from the Portuguese, it 
will not be entirely so easy to wrest it from the English. 
Lord Pulteney 3 , and my nephew 4 , Lady Waldegrave's 
brother, distinguished themselves. I hope your Hereditary 
Prince is recovering of the wounds in his loins ; for they say 
he is to marry Princess Augusta. 

Lady Ailesbury has told you, to be sure, that I have been 
at Park Place. Everything there is in beauty ; and, I should 
think, pleasanter than a campaign in Germany. Your 
Countess is handsomer than fame ; your daughter improv- 
ing every day; your plantations more thriving than the 
poor woods about Marburg and Cassel. Chinese pheasants 
swarm there. For Lady Cecilia Johnston, I assure you, she 
sits close upon her egg, and it will not be her fault if she 
does not hatch a hero. We missed all the glories of the 
Installation 5 , and all the faults, and all the frowning faces 
there. Not a Knight was absent, but the lame and the 

Your brother, Lady Hertford, and Lord Beauchamp, are 
gone from Windsor into Suffolk. Henry 8 , who has the 
genuine indifference of a Harry Conway, would not stir from 
Oxford for those pageants. Lord Beauchamp showed me 
a couple of his letters, which have more natural humour and 
cleverness than is conceivable. They have the ease and 
drollery of a man of parts who has lived long in the world 
and he is scarce seventeen ! 

I am going to Lord Waldegrave's 7 for a few days, and, 

and dramatist, afterwards well Garter. Walpole. 

known for his surrender to Gates at 6 Henry Seymour Conway, second 

Saratoga in 1777. son of Francis, Earl and afterwards 

3 Only son of William Pulteney, Marquis of Hertford. Walpole. He 
Earl of Bath. He died before his died unmarried in 1830. 

father. Walpole. 7 James, second Earl of Walde- 

4 Edward, only son of Sir Edward grave, Knight of the Garter, had 
Walpole. He died in 1771. Walpole. married Maria, second daughter of 

6 An installation of Knights of the Sir Edward Walpole. Walpole. 

1762] To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway 253 

when your Countess returns from Goodwood, am to meet 
her at Churchill's. Lord Strafford, who has been terribly 
alarmed about my Lady, mentions, with great pleasure, the 
letters he receives from you. His neighbour and cousin, 
Lord Kockingham, I hear, is one of the warmest declaimers 
at Arthur's against the present system 8 . Abuse continues 
in much plenty, but I have seen none that I thought had 
wit enough to bear the sea. Good night. There are satiric 
prints enough to tapestry Westminster Hall. 

Yours ever, 


Stay a moment : I recollect telling you a He in my last, 
which, though of no consequence, I must correct. The right 
reverend midwife, Thomas Seeker, Archbishop, did christen 
the babe, and not the Bishop of London 9 , as I had been told 
by matron authority. Apropos to babes : have you read 
Kousseau on Education 10 ? I almost got through a volume 
at Park Place, though impatiently; it has more tautology 
than any of his works, and less eloquence. Sure he has 
writ more sense and more nonsense than ever any man did 
of both ! All I have yet learned from this work is, that one 
should have a tutor for one's son to teach him to have no 
ideas, in order that he may begin to learn his alphabet as he 
loses his maidenhead. 

Thursday, noon, 30th. 

lo Havannah ! lo Albemarle ! I had sealed my letter, 
and given it to Harry for the post, when my Lady Suffolk 
sent me a short note from Charles Townshend, to say the 
Havannah surrendered on the 12th of August, and that we 
have taken twelve ships of the line in the harbour. The 

8 Rockingham resigned his place 9 Bichard Osbaldeston ; d. 1764. 

in the Bedchamber in the following 10 Emile, ou de V Education, pub- 

November, in consequence of his lished in April, 1761. 
disapproval of the Peace. 

254 To the Eev. William Cole [1702 

news came late last night. I do not know a particular more. 
God grant no more blood be shed ! I have hopes again of 
the Peace. My dearest Harry, now we have preserved you 
to the last moment, do take care of yourself. When one has 
a whole war to wade through, it is not worth while to be 
careful in any one battle ; but it is silly to fling one's self 
away in the last. Your character is established ; Prince 
Ferdinand's letters are full of encomiums on you ; but what 
will weigh more with you, save yourself for another war, 
which I doubt you will live to see, and in which you may 
be superior commander, and have space to display your 
talents. A second in service is never remembered, whether 
the honour of the victory be owing to him, or he killed. 
Turenne would have a very short paragraph, if the Prince 
of Conde had been general when he fell. Adieu ! 


Strawberry Hill, Sept. 30, 1762. 

IT gives me great satisfaction that Strawberry Hill 
pleased you enough to make it a second visit. I could 
name the time instantly, but you threaten me with coming 
so loaded with presents, that it will look mercenary, not 
friendly, to accept your visit. If your chaise is empty, to 
be sure I shall rejoice to hear it at my gate about the 22nd 
of this next month : if it is crammed, though I have built 
a convent, I have not so much of the monk in me as not to 
blush nor can content myself with praying to Our Lady of 
Strawberries to reward you. 

I am greatly obliged to you for the accounts from 
Gothurst 1 . What treasures there are still in private seats, 
if one knew where to hunt them ! The emblematic picture 

LETTER 845. j Gothurst or Qayhurst, near Newport Pagnell in Buck- 

1762] To Lady Hervey 255 

of Lady Digby 2 is like that at Windsor, and the fine small 
one at Mr. Skinner's. I should be curious to see the 
portrait of Sir Kenelm's father ; was not he the remarkable 
Everard Digby s ? How singular too is the picture of young 
Joseph and Madam Potiphar ! His Majoraone has heard 
of Josephs that did not find the lady's purse any hindrance 
to Majora. 

You are exceedingly obliging in offering to make an 
index to my prints, Sir; but that would be a sad way of 
entertaining you. I am antiquary and virtuoso enough 
myself not to dislike such employment, but could never 
think it charming enough to trouble anybody else with it. 
Whenever you do me the favour of coming hither, you will 
find yourself entirely at liberty to choose your own amuse- 
ments if you choose a bad one, and in truth there is not 
very good, you must blame yourself; while you know, I 
hope, that it would be my wish that you did not repent your 
favours to, Sir, 

Yr. most obliged 

Humble Servant, 



MADAM, Strawberry Hill, Oct. 1, 1762. 

I hope you are as free from any complaint, as I am sure 
you are full of joy. Nobody partakes more of your satis- 
faction for Mr. Hervey's l safe return * ; and now he is safe, 
I trust you enjoy his glory : for this is a wicked age ; you 
are one of those un-Lacedaemonian mothers, that are not 

* Venetia, daughter of Sir Edward LETTER 846. l General William 

Stanley, of Tonge Castle, Shropshire, Hervey, youngest son of Lady Her- 

and wife of Sir Kenelm Digby, Knight, vey. Walpole. Probably a mistake 

3 Sir Everard Digby, Knight (1578- for Captain Augustus Hervey. See 

1606), executed for participation in the following letter, 

the Gunpowder Plot. 2 From the Havannah. Walpole. 

256 To Sir Horace Mann [i?G2 

content unless your children come off with all their limbs. 
A Spartan countess would not have had the confidence of 
my Lady Albemarle to appear in the Drawing-room without 
at least one of her sons being knocked on the head 3 . How- 
ever, pray, Madam, make my compliments to her; one 
must conform to the times, and congratulate people for 
being happy, if they like it. I know one matron, however, 
with whom I may condole ; who, I dare swear, is miserable 
that she has not one of her acquaintance in affliction, and to 
whose door she might drive with all her sympathizing grey- 
hounds to inquire after her, and then to Hawkins's, and 
then to Graham's, and then cry over a ball of rags that she 
is picking, and be so sorry for poor Mrs. Such-an-one, who 
has lost an only son ! 

When your Ladyship has hung up all your trophies, I will 
come and make you a visit. There is another ingredient 
I hope not quite disagreeable that Mr. Hervey has brought 
with him, un-Lacedaemonian too, but admitted among the 
other vices of our system. If besides glory and riches they 
have brought us peace, I will make a bonfire myself, though 
it should be in the mayoralty of that virtuous citizen 
Mr. Beckford. Adieu, Madam ! 

Your Ladyship's most faithful humble servant, 



Strawberry Hill, Oct. 3, 1762. 

I AM now only the Peace in your debt, for here is the 
Havannah. Here it is, following despair and accompanied 
by glory, riches, and twelve ships of the line l ; not all in 
person, for four are destroyed. The booty that is an un- 

3 See note on the following letter. 

LKTTER 847. ' Taken in harbour of Havana. 

1762] To Sir Horace Mann 257 

dignified term I should say, the plunder, or the spoils, 
which is a more classic word for such heroes as we are, 
amounts to at least a million and a half. Lord Albemarle'a 
share will be about 140,OOOZ. I wish I knew how much 
that makes in talents, or great sesterces. What to me is 
better than all, we have lost but sixteen hundred men ; but, 
alas ! Most of the sick recovered ! What an affecting 
object my Lady Albemarle 2 would make in a triumph, 
surrounded by her three victorious sons ; for she had three 
at stake ! My friend Lady Hervey 3 , too, is greatly happy ; 
her son Augustus distinguished himself particularly 4 , brought 
home the news, and on his way took a rich French ship 
going to Newfoundland with military stores. I do not 
surely mean to detract from him, who set all this spirit on 
float, but you see we can conquer, though Mr. Pitt is at his 

The express arrived while the Due de Nivernois was at 
dinner with Lord Bute. The world says that the joy of 
the company showed itself with too- little politeness I hope 
not ; I would not exult to a single man, and a minister of 
peace ; it should be in the face of Europe, if I assumed that 
dominion which the French used to arrogate; nor do I 
believe it happened ; all the company are not so charmed 
with the event. They are not quite convinced that it will 
facilitate the pacification, nor am I clear it will The City 
of London will not lower their hopes, and views, and 
expectations, on this acquisition. Well, if we can steer 

' Lady Anne Lenox, youngest William, Augustus, and Frederic, all 

daughter of the first Duke of Bich- successively Earls of Bristol. Wai- 

mond. George, third Earl of Albe- pole. 

marie ; Augustus Keppel, afterwards 4 In command of the Dragon he 

admiral ; and General William Kep- took part in the cannonade of the 

pel, her three eldest sons, all com- Moro Castle at the entrance to the 

manded at the taking of the Ha- harbour of Havana. His ship went 

vannah. Walpole. aground, but he continued to fire till 

1 Mary Lepelle, widow of John, ordered to desist. 
Lord Hervey, and mother of George 


258 To Sir Horace Mann [1762 

wisely between insolence from success and impatience for 
peace, we may secure our safety and tranquillity for many 
years. But they are not yet arrived, nor hear I anything 
that tells me the Peace will certainly be made. France 
wants peace ; I question if she wishes it. How his Catholic 
royalty will take this, one cannot guess. My good friend, 
we are not at table with Monsieur de Nivernois, so we may 
smile at this consequence of the family-compact. Twelve 
ships of the line and the Havannah ! it becomes people 
who cannot keep their own, to divide the world between 

Your nephew Foote has made a charming figure ; the 
King and Queen went from Windsor to see Eton ; he is 
captain of the Oppidans, and made a speech to them with 
great applause. It was in English, which was right ; why 
should we talk Latin to our Kings rather than Euss or 
Iroquois? Is this a season for being ashamed of our 
country ? Dr. Barnard s , the master, is the Pitt of masters, 
and has raised the school to the most flourishing state it 
ever knew. 

Lady Mary Wortley has left twenty-one large volumes in 
prose and verse, in manuscript ; nineteen are fallen to Lady 
Bute, and will not see the light in haste. The other two 
Lady Mary in her passage gave to somebody in Holland, 
and at her death expressed great anxiety to have them 
published. Her family are in terrors lest they should be, 
and have tried to get them : hitherto the man is inflexible. 
Though I do not doubt but they are an olio of lies and 
scandal, I should like to see them. She had parts, and had 
seen much. Truth is often at bottom of such compositions, 
and places itself here and there without the intention of the 

5 Edward Barnard (1717-1781), the numbers of the school from three 
Head Master of Eton, 1754-64 ; to five hundred. 
Provost of Eton, 1764, He raised 

1762] To Sir Horace Mann 259 

mother. I dare say in general, these works are like Madame 
del Pozzo's ' M&moires. Lady Mary had more wit, and some- 
thing more delicacy ; their manners and morals were a good 
deal more alike. 

There is a lad, a waiter at St. James's Coffee House, of 
thirteen years old, who says he does not wonder we beat 
the French, for he himself could thrash Monsieur de Niver- 
nois. This duke is so thin and small, that when minister 
at Berlin, at a time that France was not in favour there, 
the King of Prussia said, if his eyes were a little older, he 
should want a glass to see the ambassador. I do not admire 
this bon mot. Voltaire is continuing his Universal History ; 
he showed the Duke of Grafton a chapter, to which the title 
is, Les Anglois vainqueurs dans les Quatre Parties du Monde. 
There have been minutes in the course of our correspondence 
when you and I did not expect to see this chapter. It is 
bigger by a quarter than our predecessors the Eomans had 
any pretensions to, and larger than I hope our descendants 
will see written of them, for conquest, unless by necessity, 
as ours has been, is an odious glory ; witness my hand, 


P.S. I recollect that my last letter was a little melancholy ; 
this, to be sure, has a grain or two of national vanity ; why, 
I must own I am a miserable philosopher ; the weather of 
the hour does affect me. I cannot here, at a distance from 
the world and unconcerned in it, help feeling a little satis- 
faction when my country is successful ; yet, tasting its 
honours and elated with them, I heartily, seriously wish 

8 Madame del Pozzo, an Italian wrote M&moires of her life, in which 

lady, who, for a short time, had been she had spoken so scandalously of 

mistress of the Itegent of France, Elizabeth Farnese, Queen Dowager 

was celebrated for her wit, which of Spain, that the latter employed 

was extremely coarse and indelicate, persons to seize her and force them 

and was infamous for her debauch- from her. Mr. Walpole knew her at 

cries and abusive language. She Florence. Walpole. 

S 2 

260 To Sir Horace Mann [1762 

they had their quietus. What is the fame of men compared 
to their happiness ? Who gives a nation peace, gives tran- 
quillity to all. How many must be wretched, before one 
can be renowned ! A hero bets the lives and fortunes of 
thousands, whom he has no right to game with : but, alas ! 
Caesars have little regard to their fish and counters ! 

Arlington Street, Oct. 4th. 

I find I have told you an enormous lie 7 , but luckily 
I have time to retract it. Lady Mary Wortley has left 
nothing like the number of volumes I have said. At the 
Installation I hear Charles Townshend said they were four 
last Thursday he told me twenty-one. I seldom do 
believe or repeat what he says for the future I will think 
of these twenty-one volumes. 

There has been a disagreeable bloody affair 8 in Germany. 
Soubize sent Lord Granby word that he hoped soon to 
embrace him in two days they cannonaded us. It was 
entirely a cannonading affair, but it lasted fourteen hours, 
and cost them between two and three thousand men. We 
have lost between seven and eight hundred, with fourteen 
officers of the Guards killed and wounded. Prince Ferdi- 
nand, who either suspected the Danaos, or had a mind his 
army should, gave it out in orders that the whole army 
should be upon their guard. If our amity begins thus, how 
will it end ? 

7 It was true that Lady Mary to publish them too ; but, in two 

Wortley did leave seventeen volumes days, the man had a crown living 

of her works and memoires. She from Lord Bute, and Lady Bute had 

gave her letters from Constantinople the seventeen volumes. Walpole. 

to an English clergyman in Holland, 8 The cannonade of Brucken- 

who published them ; and, the day Muhle or Amoneburg, in Hesse- 

before she died, she gave him those Nassau, carried on throughout Sept. 

seventeen volumes, with injunctions 21, 1762, without any decisive result. 

1762] To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway 261 


Arlington Street, Oct. 4, 1762. 

I AM concerned to hear you have been so much out of 
order, but should rejoice your sole command * disappointed 
you, if this late cannonading business 2 did not destroy all 
my little prospects. Can one believe the French negotiators 
are sincere, when their marshals are so false ? What vexes 
me more is to hear you seriously tell your brother that you 
are always unlucky, and lose all opportunities of fighting. 
How can you be such a child ? You cannot, like a German, 
love fighting for its own sake. No : you think of the mob 
of London, who, if you had taken Peru, would forget you 
the first Lord Mayor's Day, or for the first hyaena that comes 
to town. How can one build on virtue and on fame too ? 
When do they ever go together ? In my passion, I could 
almost wish you were as worthless and as great as the King 
of Prussia ! If conscience is a punishment, is not it a reward 
too? Go to that silent tribunal, and be satisfied with its 

I have nothing new to tell you. The Havannah is more 
likely to break off the Peace than to advance it. We are 
not in a humour to give up the world ; anei, are much more 
disposed to conquer the rest of it. We shall have some 
cannonading here, I believe, if we sign the Peace. Mr. Pitt, 
from the bosom of his retreat, has made Beckford mayor. 
The Duke of Newcastle, if not taken in again, will probably 
end his life as he began it at the head of a mob. Person- 
alities and abuse, public and private, increase to the most 
outrageous degree, and yet the town is at the emptiest. 

LITTER 848. 1 During Lord Gran- 8 The affair of Bucker-MuhL See 

by's absence from the army in Flan- Annual Register for the year 1762, 

ders the command in chief had p. 49. Walpole. 
devolved on Mr. Conway. Walpole. 

262 To George Montagu [1762 

You may guess what will be the case in a month. I do not 
see at all into the storm : I do not mean that there will not 
be a great majority to vote anything ; but there are times 
when even majorities cannot do all they are ready to do. 
Lord Bute has certainly great luck, which is something 
in politics, whatever it is in logic : but whether peace or 
war, I would not give him much for the place he will 
have this day twelvemonth. Adieu ! The watchman goes 
past one in the morning ; and as I have nothing better 
than reflections and conjectures to send you, I may as well 
go to bed. 


Strawberry Hill, Oct. 14, 1762. 

You will not make your fortune in the Admiralty at 
least ; your King and cousin is to cross over and figure 
in with George Grenville ; the latter takes the Admiralty, 
Lord Halifax the Seals 1 still, I believe, reserving Ireland 
for pocket-money at least no new viceroy is named. 
Mr. Fox undertakes the House of Commons* and the 
Peace and the war for if we have the first, we may be 
pretty sure of the second. 

You see Lord Bute totters ; reduced to shift hands so 
often, it does not look like much stability. The campaign 
at Westminster will be warm. When Mr. Pitt can have 
such a mouthful as Lord Bute, Mr. Fox, and the Peace, 
I do not think three thousand pounds a year will stop it. 
Well, I shall go into my old corner under the window, and 
laugh ; I had rather sit by my fire here ; but if there are 
to be bull-feasts, one would go and see them, when one has 

LETTER 849. ! As Secretary of King that Parliament should approve 

State for the Northern Province. of the Peace by large majorities, and 

a ' In October 1762, Fox, with con- by the employment of the grossest 

siderable reluctance, once more ac- bribery and intimidation he kept his 

cepted the leadership of the House of word.' (D. N. B.) 
Commons. . . . Fox had assured the 

1762] To Sir Horace Mann 263 

a convenient box for nothing, and is very indifferent about 
the cavalier-combatants. Adieu ! 

Yours ever, 



Strawberry Hill, Oct. 20, 1762. 

A NEW revolution has happened, which perhaps has 
not struck you as such, from what little has appeared 
in the papers. Mr. Grenville l , Secretary of State, and Lord 
Halifax, First Lord of the Admiralty, have changed places. 
' Well ! ' say you foreigners, ' and do you call that a revo- 
lution? Sure, you English are not accustomed to great 
events, violent catastrophes, when you look on two 
ministers crossing over and figuring-in, as a revolution? 
Why, in Russia, a wife murders her husband, seizes the 

crown ' Stay, my good Sir ; we do not strangle the 

ten commandments every time there is to be an alteration 
in the state ; but, have a little patience, and you will 
find these removes not quite so simple as you imagine. 
Mr. Grenville, besides holding the Seals, was something 
else, was not he ? Have you never heard of ' manager in 
the House of Commons'? or, what defines it better, had 
the management of the House of Commons. This, Lord 
Halifax, being in the Lords, cannot execute if he could, 
Lord Bute would perform it himself. 'Well,' you cry, 
' and who is to do it ?' I will tell you presently let us 
dispatch Mr. Grenville first. Three explanations are 
given the majority, of which number for once am I, say 
he had qualms on the Peace, could not digest such good 
terms as have been offered to France. Another set, no 

LETTKK 850. 1 George Grenville, next brother of Richard, Earl Temple. 

264 To Sir Horace Mann [1762 

friends of Mr. Grenville, suspect some underhand dealings 
with his brother and Mr. Pitt. This I, who have a very 
good opinion of Grenville, do not believe. At most, I will 
allow him to have been afraid of signing the treaty. The 
third opinion, held by some of Lord Bute's friends, at 
least, given out by them, though not by himself, who 
imputes only timidity to Mr. Grenville, whisper, that the 
latter wanted the real power 2 of the House of Commons, 
and did not notify this ambition, till he thought the 
nearness of the Parliament would oblige his demands to 
be accorded. I have many reasons for disbelieving this. 
In the first place, the service was forced upon him, not 
sought; in the next, considering what steps have been 
taken for sole power, he could not expect it. In the last, 
the designation of his successor proves this was not fact, 
as Lord Bute must still have thought Mr. Grenville a less 
formidable substitute than the person he has been obliged 
to embrace in short, Mr. Fox is again manager of the 
House of Commons, remaining Paymaster and waiving 
the Seals ; that is, will defend the treaty, not sign it. 
This wants no comment. 

1 see your impatience again what, is the treaty then 
made ? No shall I tell you more ? I mean my private 
opinion ; it will not be made. Not for want of inclination 
here, nor in the Ambassador at Paris but I do not believe 
we can get it. Does that horrid and treacherous carnage, 
cannonading they call it, look like much sincerity on the 
French side? But the Spaniards will not accede. Have 
not I always told you, I was persuaded that the crown of 
Portugal reannexed had more charms in the proud eye 
of Spain than the Havannah in the eye of their interest ? 
Mr. Stanley is indeed going directly after the Duke of 

2 Grenville proved a very ambi- secretly, an enemy of Lord Bute, as 
tious man, and grew early, though appeared afterwards. Walpole. 

1762] To Sir Horace Mann 265 

Bedford for what I know not. I do not expect much 
from it. 

This is the state of the day. If you ask what is to follow, 
I answer, confusion ; and the end of the war removed to 
the Lord knows when. When the administration totters 
in four months, when the first breach is made within 
the walls, not from without, is such a citadel impregnable ? 
But if new armies, unexpected armies, join the enemy ? 
nay, I do not tell you the Duke of Newcastle has joined 
Mr. Pitt ; on the contrary, the world says the latter has 
haughtily rejected all overtures. But, pray, did not the 
Patriots and the Jacobites concur in every measure against 
my father, whatever were their different ends? That 
an opposition, much more formidable than is yet known, 
will appear, is very probable; and that Mr. Fox, so far 
from bringing any strength, except great abilities, to Lord 
Bute's support, will add fuel to the flame is, I think, past 
doubt. Unpopularity heaped on unpopularity does not 
silence clamour. Even the silly Tories will not like to 
fight under Mr. Fox's banner. 

Upon the whole, I look on Lord Bute's history as drawing 
fast to a conclusion. So far from being ready to meet the 
Parliament, I shall not be surprised if they are not able 
to meet it, but throw up the cards before they begin to 
play them. My hopes of peace are vanished ! Few dis- 
interested persons would be content with so moderate a one 
as I should ; yet I can conceive a peace with which 
I should not be satisfied. Yet if the time comes when you 
hear me again lamenting a glorious war, do not think 
me fickle and inconsistent. Had that happy stroke of 
a pen been struck last year, when we might have had 
a reasonable peace, we should not now be begging it, nor 
be uncertain whether we are not to be at last magnificently 

266 To Sir Horace Mann [i?62 

I believe I have made a great blunder. I told you the 
Duchess of Grafton said she had something for me from 
you, but would not deliver it till she saw me. You, 
I hooked into this, I do not know how. Lady Mary Coke 
arrived from Paris at the same time, and brought me 
a snuff-box, which she would not send, but give me herself. 
I had been inquiring about both, and interpreted of the 
Duchess what related to Lady Mary. So I have answered 
your surprise before I receive it. 

My nephew, Mr. Keppel 3 , is made Bishop of Exeter. 
How reverently ancient this makes me sound ! my nephew 
the bishop ! Would not one think I was fourscore ? Lady 
Albemarle ; there is a happy mother ! Honours military 
and ecclesiastic raining upon her children ! She owns she 
has felt intoxicated. The moment the King had com- 
plimented the Duke of Cumberland on Lord Albemarle's 
success 4 , the Duke stepped across the room to Lady 
Albemarle, and said, 'If it was not in the Drawing- 
room, I would kiss you.' He is full as transported as 
she is. 

Princess Augusta is certainly to marry the young hero 
of Brunswick 5 . In Portugal it goes wofully. Count la 
Lippe has been forced to cut the sash from the breast of 
a Portuguese general officer for cowardice. I suppose, 
however, that they will have honour enough left to stab 
him privately for it I Carvalho's 6 situation is beyond 
description ; when our generals go to confer with him, 

8 Frederick, the fourth son of afterwards Duke of Brunswick. Wai- 

William Anne, second Earl of Al- pole. 

bemarle, married Laura, eldest 6 The famous Prime Minister of 

daughter of Sir Edward Walpole. Portugal. Walpole. Sebastian Jo- 

Walpole. seph Carvalho (1699-1782), Count of 

4 George, Lord Albemarle, the con- Oeyras, Marquis of Ponabal. He re- 

qneror of the Havannah, was the mained in power until the death of 

chief favourite of William, Duke of Joseph I (1777), when he was dis- 

Cumberland. Walpole. graced. 

6 Charles, Hereditary Prince, and 

1762] To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway 267 

they find a guard at every door of every room in his 
house ; bolts and bars are unlocked before they can arrive 
at him ; he is forced to keep himself as he would secure 
the head of the Jesuits. I expect very soon to see the 
Portuguese royal family at Somerset House. Adieu ! 


Strawberry Hill, Oct. 29, 1762. 

You take my philosophy very kindly, as it was meant ; 
but I suppose you smile a little in your sleeve to hear 
me turn moralist. Yet why should not I? Must every 
absurd young man prove a foolish old one? Not that 
I intend, when the hitter term is quite arrived, to profess 
preaching ; nor should, I believe, have talked so gravely 
to you, if your situation had not made me grave. Till the 
campaign is ended, I shall be in no humour to smile. 
For the war, when it will be over, I have no idea. The 
Peace is a jack-o'-lanthorn that dances before one's eyes, 
is never approached, and at best seems ready to lead some 
folks into a woful quagmire. 

As your brother was in town, and I had my intelligence 
from him, I concluded you would have the same, and 
therefore did not tell you of this last revolution, which has 
brought Mr. Fox again upon the scene. I have been in 
town but once since; yet learned enough to confirm the 
opinion I had conceived, that the building totters, and 
that this last buttress will but push on its fall. Besides 
the clamorous opposition already encamped, the world 
talks of another, composed of names not so often found 
in a mutiny. What think you of the great Duke 1 , and 
the little Duke 8 , and the old Duke 8 , and the Derbyshire 

LKTTKB 851. * Of Cumberland. Walpole. * Of Bedford. Walpole. 
Of Newcastle. Walpole. 

268 To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway [i?62 

Duke*, banded together ' against the favourite 5 ? If so, 

it proves the court, as the late Lord G ' wrote to the 

Mayor of Litchfield, will have a majority in everything 
but numbers. However, my letter is a week old before 
I write it: things may have changed since last Tuesday. 
Then the prospect was des plus gloomy. Portugal at the 
eve of being conquered Spain preferring a diadem to the 
mural crown of the Havannah a squadron taking horse 
for Naples, to see whether King Carlos has any more 
private bowels than public, whether he is a better father 
than brother 7 . If what I heard yesterday be true, that the 
Parliament is to be put off till the 24th, it does not 
look as if they were ready in the green-room, and despised 

You bid me send you the flower of brimstone, the 
best things published in this season of outrage. I should 
not have waited for orders, if I had met with the least 
tolerable morsel. But this opposition ran stark mad at 
once, cursed, swore, called names, and has not been one 
minute cool enough to have a grain of wit. Their prints 
are gross, their papers scurrilous ; indeed the authors abuse 
one another more than anybody else. I have not seen 
a single ballad or epigram. They are as seriously dull 
as if the controversy was religious. I do not take in a 
paper of either side ; and being very indifferent, the only 
way of being impartial, they shall not make me pay till 
they make me laugh. I am here quite alone, and shall 
stay a fortnight longer, unless the Parliament prorogued 
lengthens my holidays. I do not pretend to be so in- 
different, to have so little curiosity, as not to go and see 
the Duke of Newcastle frightened for his country the 

4 Of Devonshire. WcUpole. Probably Lord Gower. 

5 John Stuart, Earl of Bute. Wai- 7 His son was King of Naples, his 
pole. sister Queen of Portugal. 

1762] To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway 269 

only thing that never yet gave him a panic. Then I am 
still such a schoolboy, that though I could guess half 
their orations, and know all their meaning, I must go 
and hear Caesar and Pompey scold in the Temple of 
Concord. As this age is to make such a figure hereafter, 
how the Gronoviuses and Warburtons would despise 
a senator that deserted the forum when the masters of 
the world harangued ! For, as this age is to be historic, 
so of course it will be a standard of virtue too ; and we, 
like our wicked predecessors the Komans, shall be quoted, 
till our very ghosts blush, as models of patriotism and 
magnanimity. What lectures will be read to poor children 
on this sera ! Europe taught to tremble, the great King 
humbled, the treasures of Peru diverted into the Thames, 
Asia subdued by the gigantic Clive ! for in that age men 
were near seven feet high ; France suing for peace at the 
gates of Buckingham House, the steady wisdom of the 
Duke of Bedford drawing a circle round the Gallic monarch, 
and forbidding him to pass it till he had signed the cession 
of America ; Pitt more eloquent than Demosthenes, and 
trampling on proffered pensions like I don't know who ; 
Lord Temple sacrificing a brother to the love of his country ; 
Wilkes as spotless as Sallust, and the Flamen Churchill 8 
knocking down the foes of Britain with statues of the 
gods ! Oh ! I am out of breath with eloquence and 
prophecy, and truth and lies : my narrow chest was not 
formed to hold inspiration ! I must return to piddling 
with my Painters: those lofty subjects are too much for 
me. Good night ! 

Yours ever, 


P.S. I forgot to tell you that Gideon, who is dead worth 

8 Charles Churchill the poet. Walpole. 

270 To Lady Hervey [i762 

more than the whole land of Canaan, has left the reversion 
of all his milk and honey, after his son and daughter and 
their children, to the Duke of Devonshire, without in- 
sisting on his taking the name, or even being circumcised. 
Lord Albemarle is expected home in December. My 
nephew Keppel is Bishop of Exeter, not of the Havannah, 
as you may imagine, for his mitre was promised the day 
before the news came. 


MADAM, Strawberry Hill, Oct. 81, 1762. 

It is too late, I fear, to attempt acknowledging the 
honour Madame de Chabot * does me ; and yet, if she is not 
gone, I would fain not appear ungrateful. I do not know 
where she lives, or I would not take the liberty again of 
making your Ladyship my penny-post. If she is gone, you 
will throw my note into the fire. 

Pray, Madam, blow your nose with a piece of flannel 
not that I believe it will do you the least good but, as all 
wise folks think it becomes them to recommend nursing 
and flannelling the gout, imitate them ; and I don't know 
any other way of lapping it up, when it appears in the 
person of a running cold. I will make it a visit on Tuesday 
next, and shall hope to find it tolerably vented. 

I am, Madam, 
Your Ladyship's most faithful humble servant, 


P.S. You must tell me all the news when I arrive, for 
I know nothing of what is passing. I have only seen in 
the papers, that the cock and hen doves * that went to Paris 

LETTER 852. 1 Lady Mary Chabot, 2 The Duke and Duchess of Bed- 
daughter of the Earl of Stafford. ford. Walpole. 

1762] To Sir Horace Mann 271 

not having been able to make peace, there is a third dove s 
just flown thither to help them. 


Arlington Street, Thursday, Nov. 4. 

THE events of these last eight days will make you stare. 
This day se'nnight the Duke of Devonshire came to town, 
was flatly refused an audience, and gave up his key 1 . 
Yesterday Lord Kockingham resigned, and your cousin 
Manchester was named to the Bedchamber. The King then 
in Council called for the book, and dashed out the Duke of 
Devonshire's name. If you like spirit, en voila ! 

Do you know, I am sorry for all this? You will not 
suspect me of tenderness for his Grace of Devon, nor, 
recollecting how the whole house of Cavendish treated me 
on my breach with my uncle, will any affronts that happen 
to them call forth my tears. But I think the act too 
violent and too serious, and dipped in a deeper dye than 
I like in politics. 

Squabbles, and speeches, and virtue, and prostitution, 
amuse one sometimes ; less and less indeed every day ; but 
measures, from which you must advance and cannot retreat, 
is a game too deep one neither knows who may be in- 
volved, nor where will be the end. It is not pleasant. 
Adieu ! Yours ever, 



Arlington Street, Nov. 9, 1762. 

I NOW pay my last debt to you, for I send you the Peace \ 
It arrived at three o'clock yesterday morning, and was 

* Mr. Hans Stanley. WalpoU. berlain. 

LETTER 853. 1 He was Lord Cham- LETTER 854. l The Peace of Paris. 

272 To Sir Horace Mann [i?62 

signed on the third ; includes Spain, saves Portugal, and 
leaves the hero and heroine 2 of Germany to scratch out one 
another's last eye. I do not pretend to minute the par- 
ticulars to you ; you will have heard them from France 
before you can have received them from me. Nay, I do not 
know them exactly. Florida for the Havannah is the chief 
thing mentioned ; so Spain pays a little for the family- 
compact, besides the loss of her ships, and disappointment 
of the crown of Portugal. I believe she relinquished her 
prospect of the latter to save that of Naples ; a bombarding 
fleet was destined thither. The ministry affect to talk 
highly of their peace, though I think they are not very 
proud of it. The City condemns it already by wholesale, 
and will by retail. Mr. Pitt says it is inadequate to our 
successes, and inglorious for our allies ; the gentlest words 
I suppose he will utter. For my part, who know nothing 
of the detail, I can but rejoice that peace is made. The 
miserable world will have some repose, and Mr. Conway is 
safe. I own I have lived in terror about him. 

Coupled with the consequences of the Peace will be two 
great events that have lately happened to one considerable 
person, and which have occasioned much surprise. The 
Duke of Devonshire, who has been fluctuating between his 
golden key and disgust, ever since the Duke of Newcastle's 
fall, came from the Bath last Thursday se'nnight ; prepared 
to resign, if ill received. He went directly to court, and 
bid the page in waiting tell the King he was there. A flat 
answer that the King would not see him was returned. He 
sent in again to know what he must do with his key and 
staff, reply : he should receive the King's orders about 
them. He went directly to Lord Egremont's s and left 
them there. On the following Wednesday the King in 

2 The King of Prussia and the Empress Queen. Walpole. 

3 Secretary of State. Walpole. 

1762] To Sir Horace Mann 273 

Council called for the Council book, and ordered the Duke's 
name to be struck out of it: a proceeding almost novel, 
having never happened but to Lord Bath * and Lord George 
Sackville. There are but faint reasons given for so igno- 
minious a treatment, as his not coming to Council when 
summoned, &c., but the political cause assigned is, to 
intimidate the great lords, and prevent more resignations, 
which were expected. Hitherto in that light it has suc- 
ceeded, for Lord Eockingham 5 alone has quitted. It is 
very amusing to me to see the House of Lords humbled. 
I have long beheld their increasing power with concern, and 
though not at all wishing to see the higher scale prepon- 
derating, I am convinced nothing but the crown can reduce 
the exorbitance of the peers, and perhaps it will be able ; 
for I believe half those who are proud of twenty thousand 
pounds a year, will bear anything for a thousand more. 

I forgot when I named only Lord Eockingham: the 
Duke's brother and brother-in-law, Lord George Cavendish 
and Lord Besborough 6 , resigned their places 7 immediately. 
None of them but the Marquis in the Bedchamber are yet 
filled up. 

I am an honester prophet than most of my profession. 
I record my blunders. I foretold that this ministry would 
not be able to open the Parliament. See how fair I am ; 
I do not pretend that I only meant on the eleventh it is 
put off to the twenty-fifth, and yet I do not brag of the 
event verifying my prediction. As the Peace is come, they 
must abide it ; and probably will be able to carry it through 
and yet they will have to fight their way. The Duke of 
Newcastle certainly by certainly I only mean to answer 

4 W. Pulteney, Earl of Bath. Wai- of Besborongh. Walpole. 

pole. 7 As Comptroller of the Honse- 

6 Charles Wentworth, second Mar- hold and Joint Postmaster-General 

quis of Rockingham. Walpole. respectively. 

6 William Ponsonby, second Earl 


274 To the Rev. William Cole [i?62 

for his resolution at this instant goes into opposition. 
Lord Hardwicke, it is said, will accompany him if he does, 
I shall not think Lord Bute's game so sure ; that is, I have 
no notion of Yorkes in opposition without a moral assurance 
of success. If the man Hardwicke comes out of the weather- 
house, it will certainly be a stormy season. 

I write shortly, for I am in a hurry ; but my letter, rolled 
out, would make a very large one. Your own comments 
will make it last you some time. In short, more than one 
die is cast. I am returning to Strawberry for some days, 
rejoiced that my friends are secure ; and for events, let 
them come as they may. I have nothing to do to be glad 
or sorry, whatever happens ministerially, and do not know 
why one may not see history with the same indifference 
that one reads it. Adieu ! 

P.S. I wish you would trouble yourself to inquire at 
Eome whether the mould of the Livia Mattei, made by 
Valory for my mother's 8 statue, exists. My cast is broken 
through and through, and the plaster too rotten to be 
repaired or to last. If existing, will you inform yourself to 
how much a cast in bronze would amount? If it would 
pass my pocket, I must be glad of another cast. 


DEAR SlR, Strawberry Hill, Nov. 13, 1762. 

You will easily guess that my delay in answering your 
obliging letter was solely owing to my not knowing whither 
to direct to you. I waited till I thought you may be 
returned home. Thank you for all the trouble you have 
given, and do give yourself for me ; it is vastly more than 
I deserve. 

8 On her monument in Westminster Abbey. Walpole. 

1762] To Henry Fox 275 

Duke Bichard's portrait I willingly waive, at least for the 
present, till one can find out who he is. I have more 
curiosity about the figures of Henry VII at Christ's College ; 
I shall be glad some time or other to visit them, to see how 
far either of them agree with his portrait in my picture of 
his marriage. St. Ethelreda was mighty welcome. 

We have had variety of weather since I saw you, but 
I fear none of the patterns made your journey more agree- 
able. I am, Sir, 

Your much obliged 

Humble servant, 


856. To H.ENBY Fox 1 . 
DEAR SIR, Nov. 21, 1762. 

After having done 2 what the world knows I have done, 
to try to retrieve the affairs of my family, and to save my 
nephew from ruin, I can have little hopes that any inter- 
position of mine will tend to an end I wish so much. 
I cannot even flatter myself with having the least weight 
with my Lord Orford. In the present case I can still less 
indulge myself in any such hopes. You remember in the 
case of the St. Michael election, how hardly he used me on 
your account. I know how much he resented last year his 

LETTER 856. l Fox had recently jected a match for Lord Orford with 
been made leader of the House of Miss Nicholl, an heiress worth one 
Commons in order to procure a hundred and fifty thousand pounds, 
majority in favour of the Peace. whom Lord Orford would not marry ; 
With the view of securing all possible and in the course of which negotia- 
parliamentary support, he offered to tion I had a great quarrel with my 
Lord Orford the Bangerships of St. uncle, old Horace Walpole, who en- 
James's and Hyde Parks through deavoured, though trusted with her 
Horace Walpole, hoping thus to by me, to marry her to one of his 
secure both uncle and nephew. For own younger sons. This quarrel had 
Fox's letter see Memoirs of George III, made a very great noise, and many 
ed. 1894, voL L pp. 168-9, whence persons were engaged in it. The 
Walpole's notes on his reply to Fox young lady afterwards married the 
are also taken. Marquis of Caernarvon. Walpole. 

8 This alludes to my having pro- 

T 2 

276 To Henry Fox [1762 

thinking you concerned in the contest about the borough 3 
where he set up Mr. Thomas Walpole ; as he has not even 
now deigned to answer Mr. Boone's letter 4 , I can little 
expect that he will behave with more politeness to me. 
Yet, I think it so much my duty to lay before him anything 
for his advantage, and what is by no means incompatible 
with his honour, that I certainly will acquaint him imme- 
diately with the offer you are so good as to make him. 

You see I write to you with my usual frankness and 
sincerity ; and you will, I am sure, be so good as to keep to 
yourself the freedom with which I mention very nice family 
affairs. You must excuse me if I add one word more on 
myself. My wish is, that Lord Orford should accept this 
offer ; yet, I tell you truly, I shall state it to him plainly 
and simply, without giving any advice, not only for the 
reasons I have expressed above, but because I do not mean 
to be involved in this affair any otherwise than as a 
messenger. A man who is so scrupulous as not to accept 
any obligation for himself, cannot be allowed to accept one 
for another without thinking himself bound in gratitude as 
much as if done to himself. The very little share I ever 
mean to take more in public affairs shall and must be 
dictated by disinterested motives. I have no one virtue to 
support me but that disinterestedness, and, if I act with 
you, no man living shall have it to say that it was not by 
choice and by principle. 

I am, dear Sir, 
Your obedient humble servant, 


s Mr. Fox had supported Mr. 4 Mr. Boone had acquainted me 

Sullivan at a borough in the west with this, and Mr. Fox thought I 

against Mr. T. Walpole. I forget did not know it, but I chose to let 

whether it was Callington or Ash- him see I did. Walpole. Fox had 

burton. Lord Orford was heir to sounded Lord Orford through Mr. 

estates in both by his mother. Wai- Boone on this matter of the Banger- 

pole. It was the borough of Ash- ships, 

1762] To the Earl of Orford 277 


MY DEAR LORD, Arlington Street, Nov. 22, 1762. 

I must preface what I am going to say, with desiring you 
to believe that I by no means take the liberty of giving 
you any advice, and should the proposal I have to make to 
you be disagreeable, I beg you to excuse it, as I thought it 
my duty to lay before you anything that is for your advan- 
tage, and as you would have reason to blame me if I de- 
clined communicating to you a lucrative offer. 

I last night received a letter from Mr. Fox, in which he 
tells me, that, hearing the Parks, vacant by Lord Ash- 
burnham's resignation, are worth 2,2001. a year, he will, 
if you desire to succeed him, do his best to procure that 
employment for you, if he can soon learn that it is your 

If you will be so good as to send me your answer, I will 
acquaint him with it, or if you think it more polite to 
thank Mr. Fox himself for his obliging offer, I shall be very 
well content to be, as I am in everything else, a cipher, 
except where I can show myself, 

My dear Lord, 

Your very affectionate humble servant, 

LETTER 857. 1 ' To this letter, nor him with the offer. Without preface 

to the offer, did Lord Orford give him- or apology, without recollecting his 

self the trouble of malting the least long enmity to Fox (it is true, he did 

reply ; but arriving in town on the not know why he was Fox's enemy), 

very day the Parliament met, he came and without a hint of reconciliation , 

to me, and asked what he was to do ? to Fox he went, accepted the place, 

I replied very coldly, I did not know and never gave that ministry one 

what he intended to do ; but if his vote afterwards ; continuing in the 

meaning was to accept, I supposed country, as he would have done if 

he ought to go to Mr. Fox, and tell they had given him nothing.' (Me- 

him so, I having nothing farther to moirs of George III, ed. 1894, voL i. 

do with it than barely to acquaint p. 172.) 

278 To Sir Horace Mann [i?62 


Arlington Street, Nov. 30, 1762. 

As the Parliament is met, you will naturally expect to 
hear much news ; but, whatever disposition there may be 
to create novelties, nothing has yet happened of any im- 
portance. One perceives that the chiefs of the opposition 
have not much young blood in their veins. The first day 
of the session was remarkable for nothing but the absence 
of the leaders ; Mr. Fox had vacated his seat, and Mr. Pitt 
was laid up with the gout, as he still continues. But, if 
the generals want fire, the troops do not : Lord Bute was in 
great danger from the mob, was hissed and pelted, and, if 
the guards had not been fetched, would probably have fared 
still worse. The majority is certainly with the court ; the 
nation against it. The Duke of Cumberland, who has en- 
tirely broken with Mr. Fox, has had a conference of four 
hours with Mr. Pitt. Hitherto it has produced nothing. 

As wishing well to Mr. Fox, I can but be sorry he has 
undertaken his new province, to which his health is by no 
means equal. I should think the probability of his death 
must alarm the court, who owe their present security 
entirely to him, and would not meet with much quarter 
from Mr. Pitt, the Duke of Devonshire, or the greater 
Duke 1 . The resentment of the last I guess to be the 
bitterest of all. For the Duke of Newcastle, he only makes 
one smile as usual ; to see him frisking while his grave 
is digging. Contests for power and struggles of faction 
have long served only to divert me. I wish I thought the 
present tempest would end like all others I have seen, in 
gratifying the dirty views of particulars ; they would have 
their pay, and we should be quiet for a season. I don't 
take that to be entirely the case at present. 

LKTTEE 858. 1 The Duke of Cumberland. WalpoU. 

1762] To Sir Horace Mann 279 

The Duke of Marlborough is Lord Chamberlain ; Lord 
Northumberland, Chamberlain to the Queen and Cabinet 
Counsellor. Other places vacated by resignations are not 
yet filled up ; but it is known that Mr. Morice, whom you 
have lately seen, is to be Comptroller of the Household. 
Your old friend, Lord Sandwich, goes ambassador to 
Spam 8 . Another of your friends is dead, Lord Corke 3 ; 
and another has desired me to say much to you from him 
Lord Stormont : he is a particular favourite with me. 

Mr. Conway stays to conduct home the troops : as it will 
be above six weeks before I see him, I should be sorry if 
I did not envy anybody that is at a distance from these 
bustles. I am particularly glad that he is so, for it is not 
every man that has resolution enough to meddle so little 
in them as I do. Lord Granby is impatiently expected: 
it is not certain what part he will take, and, with his un- 
bounded popularity, it cannot be indifferent. The most 
tempting honours have been offered to him ; but, however 
it is, even Lord Hardwicke has resisted temptations very 
lucrative temptations ! Yet I do not brag of the virtue of 
the age ; for, if there are two Fabricii, there are two 
hundred Esaus. 

There is come forth a new state coach, which has cost 
8,OOOZ. It is a beautiful object, though crowded with im- 
proprieties. Its support are tritons, not very well adapted 
to land-carriage ; and formed of palm-trees, which are as 
little aquatic as tritons are terrestrial. The crowd to see 
it on the opening of the Parliament was greater than at the 
Coronation, and much more mischief done. 

The Duchess of Grafton has given me the drawing of the 
Casino at Leghorn by Inigo Jones. It is very pretty : was 
not I to have a church by him too ? 

a Lord Sandwich did not go to * John Boyle, fifth Earl of Cork 
Spain ; he was appointed First Lord and Orrery, 
of the Admiralty in April, 1763. 

280 To George Montagu [1702 

The Duchess of Bedford has sent to Lady Bolingbroke * 
a remarkably fine enamelled watch, to be shown to the 
Queen. The Queen desired her to put it on, that she might 
see how it looked and then said it looked so well, it ought 
to remain by Lady Bolingbroke's side, and gave it her. 
Was not this done in a charming manner ? 

George Selwyn, of whom you have heard so much, but 
don't know, is returned from Paris, whither he went with 
the Duchess of Bedford. He says our passion for every- 
thing French is nothing to theirs for everything English. 
There is a book published called the Anglomanie. How 
much worse they understand us, even than we do them, 
you will see by this story. The old Marechale de Villars 
gave a vast dinner to the Duchess of Bedford. In the 
middle of the dessert, Madame de Villars called out, ' Oh, 
Jesus ! they have forgot ! yet I bespoke them, and I am 
sure they are ready ; you English love hot rolls bring the 
rolls.' There arrived a huge dish of hot rolls, and a sauce- 
boat of melted butter. Adieu ! 


Arlington Street, Dec. 20, 1762. 

As I am far from having been better since I wrote to you 
last, my postchaise points more and more to Naples. Yet 
Strawberry, like a mistress, 

As oft as I ascend the hill of health, 
Washes my hold away. 

Your company would have made me decide much faster, 
but I see I have little hopes of that, nor can I blame you ; 
I don't use so rough a word with regard to myself, but to 

4 Lady Diana Spencer, eldest Viscount Bolingbroke, and one of 
daughter of Charles, Duke of Marl- the Ladies of the Bedchamber to the 
borough, wife of Frederic St. John, Queen. Walpole, 

1762] To George Montagu 281 

your pursuing your amusement, which I am sure the 
journey would be. I never doubted your constant kindness 
to me one moment ; the affectionate manner in which you 
offered, three weeks ago, to accompany me to Bath, will 
never be forgotten. I do not think my complaint very 
serious, for how can it be so, when it has never confined 
me a whole day ? But my mornings are so bad, and I have 
had so much more pain this last week, with restless nights, 
that I am convinced it must not be trifled with. Yet 
I think Italy would be the last thing I would try, if 
it were not to avoid politics. Yet I hear nothing else. 
The court and opposition both grow more violent every day 
from the same cause, the victory of the former. Both sides 
torment me with their affairs, though it is so plain I do 
not care a straw about either. I wish I was great enough 
to say, as a French officer on the stage at Paris said to the 
pit, ' Accordez-vous, canaille!' Yet to a man without am- 
bition or interestedness, politicians are canaille. Nothing 
appears to me more ridiculous in my life than my having 
ever loved their squabbles, and that at an age when I loved 
better things too ! My poor neutrality, which thing I signed 
with all the world, subjects me, like other insignificant 
monarchs on parallel occasions, to affronts. On Thursday 
I was summoned to Princess Emily's loo. Loo she called 
it, politics it was. The second thing she said to me was, 
'How was you the two long days?' 'Madam, I was only 
there the first.' 'And how did you vote?' 'Madam, 
I went away.' ' Upon my word, that was carving well.' 
Not a very pleasant apostrophe to one who certainly never 
was a time-server ! Well, we sat down. She said, ' I hear 
Wilkinson 1 is turned out, and that Sir Edward Winnington 2 

LETTKK859. * Andrew Wilkinson, * Sir Edward Winnington, first 
M.P. for Aldborough, Store-Keeper Baronet, of Stanford Court, Worces- 
of the Ordnance. tershire, M.P. for Bewdley; d. 1791. 

282 To George Montagu [i?62 

is to have his place ; who is he ? ' addressing herself to me, 
who sat over against her. ' He is the late Mr. Winnington's 
heir, Madam.' ' Did you like that Winnington ? ' 'I can't 
but say I did, Madam.' She shrugged up her shoulders, 
and continued : ' Winnington originally was a great Tory ; 
what do you think he was when he died?' 'Madam, 
I believe what all people are in place.' Pray, Mr. Montagu, 
do you perceive anything rude or offensive in this ? Hear 
then she flew into the most outrageous passion, coloured 
like scarlet, and said, ' None of your wit ; I don't under- 
stand joking on those subjects ; what do you think your 
father would have said if he had heard you say so ? He 
would have murdered you, and you would have deserved 
it.' I was quite confounded and amazed it was impossible 
to explain myself 'cross a loo-table, as she is so deaf : there 
is no making a reply to a woman and a Princess, and par- 
ticularly for me, who have made it a rule, when I must 
converse with royalties, to treat them with the greatest 
respect, since it is all the court they will ever have from 
me. I said to those on each side of me, ' What can I do ? 
I cannot explain myself now.' Well, I held my peace 
and so did she for a quarter of an hour then she began 
with me again examined me on the whole debate, and at 
last asked me directly, which I thought the best speaker, 
my father or Mr. Pitt ? If possible, this was more dis- 
tressing than her anger. I replied, it was impossible to 
compare two men so different that I believed my father 
was more a man of business than Mr. Pitt 'Well, but 
Mr. Pitt's language?' 'Madam,' said I, 'I have always 
been remarkable for admiring Mr. Pitt's language.' At 
last, this unpleasant scene ended ; but as we were going 
away, I went close to her, and said, ' Madam, I must beg 
leave to explain myself ; your Eoyal Highness has seemed 
to be very angry with me, and I am sure I did not mean 

1762] To Sir Horace Mann 283 

to offend you : all I intended to say was, that I supposed 
Tories were Whigs when they got places!' 'Oh!' said 
she, ' I am very much obliged to you ; indeed, I was 
very angry.' Why she was angry, or what she thought 
I meant, I do not know to this moment, unless she sup- 
posed that I would have hinted that the Duke of Newcastle 
and the opposition were not men of consummate virtue, and 
had not lost their places out of principle. The very reverse 
was at that time in my head ; for I meant that the Tories 
would be just as loyal as the Whigs, when they got any- 
thing by it. 

You will laugh at my distresses, and in truth they are 
little serious ; yet they almost put me out of humour. If 
your cousin realizes his fair words to you, I shall be very 
good-humoured again. I am not so morose as to dislike 
my friends for being in place. Indeed, if they are in great 
place, my friendship goes to sleep like a paroli at pharaoh, 
and does not wake again till their deal is over. Good 
night ! 

Yours ever, 

H. W. 


Arlington Street, Dec. 20, 1762. 

I RECEIVED your letter for the Duchess of Grafton, and 
gave it to her last night. She was so pleased with your 
good-breeding and compliments, that she made me read it. 
Her Duke is appearing in a new light, and by the figure he 
makes will probably soon be the head of the opposition, 
if it continues; though the vast majority on the pre- 
liminaries will probably damp it extremely. In the Lords 
there was no division ; in the Commons, 319 to 65. Such 
a triumphancy in the court will not be easily mastered. 
To-day has been execution-day ; great havoc is made 

284 To Sir Horace Mann [i?62 

amongst the Duke of Newcastle's friends, who are turned 
out down to the lowest offices. 

This is a want of moderation after victory, which I, who 
never loved the house of Pelham, cannot commend. He 
cannot indemnify his friends ; and I am not apt to think 
he would if he could. Some of them, who had the same 
doubt, took care not to put this last ingratitude in his 
power, but abandoned him. I did miss a scene that would 
have pleased me. The Chancellor 1 abused the Duke of New- 
castle and Lord Hardwicke unmercifully, though the latter 
moves mighty slowly towards opposition, and counts his 
purse over at every step. So oft I have seen unbounded 
subservience to those two men in the House of Lords, that 
it would have pleased me to have been witness of their 
defeat on the same spot, and, there I have done with it. 
It is an angry opposition, but very dull ; does not produce 
a lively ballad or epigram. I have even heard but one 
bon mot of its manufacture, and that was very delicate and 
pretty. They were saying that everybody, without ex- 
ception, was to be turned out that the Duke of Newcastle 
had brought in ; somebody replied, ' Save the King.' 

For twenty years I have been looking at parties, factions, 
changes, and struggles ; do you wonder I am tired, when 
I have seen them so often acted over, and pretty much by 
the same dramatis personae ? Yet I wish I had no worse 
reason for not enjoying the repetition. I am not only 
grown old (though I find that is no reason with the 
generality, for I think all the chiefs are very Struldbrugs 
in politics), but my spirits are gone. 

It is always against my will when I talk of my health, 
and I have disguised its being out of order as long as I could ; 
but since the fit of the gout that I had in the spring, and 
whose departure I believe I precipitated too fast, I have had 

LETTER 860. l Lord Northington. Walpole. 

1762] To Sir Horace Mann 285 

a constant pain in my breast or stomach. It comes like a 
fever at six in the morning, proceeds to a pain by the time 
I rise, and lasts with a great lowness of spirits till after 
dinner. In most evenings I am quite well. I am teased 
about my management of myself. I abhor physicians, and 
have scarce asked a question of one ; my regimen is still 
more condemned ; but I act by what I find succeeds best 
with me. You will be surprised when I tell you, that 
though I think my complaint a flying gout, I treat it with 
water and the coldest things I can find, except hartshorn ; 
fifty drops of the latter and three pears are my constant 
supper, and my best nights are when I adhere to this method. 
I thought for three weeks I had cured myself, but for these 
last ten days I have been rather worse than before. In 
short, what I hope you will not dislike, though you will be 
sorry for the cause, I am thinking seriously of a journey to 
Italy in March. Much against my inclination, I own, except 
for the pleasure of seeing you. 

Strawberry, which I have almost finished to my mind, 
and where I mean to pass the greatest part of the remainder 
of my life, pulls hard. I shall decide in a few days whether 
I shall set out, or first try Bath or Bristol. The two latter, 
except for the shortness of the time, are much more against 
my inclination than going abroad ; but I have talked too 
much of myself ; let us come to you. I am heartily glad 
Mr. Mackenzie is your friend ; he is a man of strict honour, 
and will be so if he professes it. I do not know what to 
advise about Naples. You know I always repeat my father's 
maxim, Quieta non movere. Besides, should you like it? 
After so many years, would you care to tap a new world, 
a new set of acquaintance ? But I am a bad counsellor : my 
aversion to embarking in new scenes, not early in one's life, 
is, I find it, particular ; few think themselves so old as I do 
at five-and-forty ; nor would I give myself for a rule to any 

286 To the Eev. William Cole [1762 

man else. My bidding adieu to the world already (I do not 
mean by a formal retreat, of which one always grows tired, 
and which one makes a silly figure by quitting again) is not 
a part for everybody; for I never had any ambition, and 
though much love for fame, I very near despise that as much 
too now. Youth is the only real season for joy, but cannot, 
nor surely should be pushed a moment beyond its term 
but this is moralizing! If Mr. Mackenzie could send you 
to Naples, he can keep you at Florence. Continue to secure 
him. Try to be useful to the King in his love of virtu. 
I counselled this from the first minute of his reign. 

If you choose to try for Naples, I cannot dissuade it ; nor 
can the solicitation hurt you whether it succeed or not. 
Whatever you wish I wish heartily. I have long made 
myself of too little consequence to contribute anything to 
my friends but wishes. Adieu! my dear Sir. 

P.S. It is very true, I had the jesse of my mother's 
statue, but, as I told you, it is so rotten and crumbling that 
I want another. 


DEAR SiB, Arlington Street, Dec. 23, 1762. 

You are always abundantly kind to me, and pass my 
power of thanking you. You do nothing but give yourself 
trouble, and me presents. My cousin Calthorp is a great 
rarity, and I think I ought, therefore, to return him to you, 
but that would not be treating him like a relation, or you 
like a friend. My ancestor's epitaph, too, was very agreeable 
to me. 

I have not been at Strawberry Hill these three weeks. 
My maid is ill there, and I have not been well myself with 
the same flying gout in my stomach and breast, of which 

1763] To Sir Horace Mann 287 

you heard me complain a little in the summer. I am much 
persuaded to go to a warmer climate, which often disperses 
these unsettled complaints. I do not care for it, nor can 
determine till I see I grow worse : if I do go, I hope it will 
not be for long ; and you shall certainly hear again before 
I set out. 

Yours most sincerely, 



Arlington Street, Jan. 28, 1763. 

I AH a slatternly correspondent when I have nothing to 
say. When that is the case, I like you should understand it 
by my silence, rather than give a description of a vacuum. 

The Peace, which has hitched and hobbled, draws, they 
say, to a conclusion. The opposition died in the birth. All 
is quiet, but a little paper-war, which is pungent enough, 
but no citadel was ever taken by popguns. 

Shall you be glad or sorry that my postchaise is not at 
the door bound for Florence ? For me you will rejoice, as 
I trust you will be a little disappointed on your own account, 
though I have been so often bound for Italy, that perhaps 
you did not expect me even now. For this month we have 
had a most severe frost, which kills everybody else, and 
cures me. In short, I am so much better since the cold 
weather set in, that it has almost persuaded me that my 
complaint was nervous and not gouty ; and, consequently, 
if Greenland suits me, Naples would not: however, I am 
come to no decision. I await the thaw before I shall know 
what to think ; still extremely disposed to an Italian voyage, 
if Strawberry would give its consent. 

This winter has produced no ghost, no new madness. 
I fear Monsieur de Nivernois will think we have been 

288 To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway [i?63 

scandalized, and that we are quite a reasonable people ; but 
he, too, must wait for the thaw ! 

I have nothing to send you more but the enclosed lines 
on Lord Granville *, which I wrote last year. The picture 
is allowed to be so like, that you, who could scarcely be 
acquainted with him, will know it. Adieu ! I am sorry 
tranquillity and the post agree so ill together! 


Strawberry Hill, Feb. 28, 1763. 

YOUR letter of the 19th seems to postpone your arrival 
rather than advance it ; yet Lady Ailesbury tells me that to 
her you talk of being here in ten days. I wish devoutly to 
see you, though I am not departing myself; but I am im- 
patient to have your disagreeable function l at an end, and 
to know that you enjoy yourself after such fatigues, dangers, 
and ill-requited services. For any public satisfaction you 
will receive in being at home, you must not expect much. 
Your mind was not formed to float on the surface of a 
mercenary world. My prayer (and my belief) is, that you 
may always prefer what you always have preferred, your 
integrity, to success. You will then laugh, as I do, at the 
attacks and malice of faction or ministers. I taste of both ; 
but, as my health is recovered, and my mind does not 
reproach me, they will perhaps only give me an opportunity, 
which I should never have sought, of proving that I have 
some virtue and it will not be proved in the way they 
probably expect. I have better evidence than by hanging 
out the tattered ensigns of patriotism. But this and a 

LETTER862. J These lines on John, Jan. 2, 1763. 

Earl Granville, got into print, and, LETTER 863. l The re-embarka- 

therefore, are not repeated here. tion of the British troops from 

Wdlpole. See Lord Orford's Works, Flanders after the Peace. Walpole. 
vol. i. p. 81. Lord Granville died on 

1763] To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway 289 

thousand other things I shall reserve for our meeting. Your 
brother * has pressed me much to go with him, if he goes, 
to Paris s . I take it veiy kindly, but have excused myself, 
though I have promised either to accompany him for a short 
time at first, or to go to him if he should have any particular 
occasion for me : but my resolution against ever appearing 
in any public light is unalterable. When I wish to live less 
and less in the world here, I cannot think of mounting a 
new stage at Paris. At this moment I am alone here, while 
everybody is balloting in the House of Commons. Sir John 
Philips proposed a Commission of Accounts, which has been 
converted into a select committee of twenty-one, eligible by 
ballot. As the ministry is not predominant in the affections 
of mankind, some of them may find a jury elected that will 
not be quite so complaisant as the House is in general when 
their votes are given openly. As many may be glad of this 
opportunity, I shun it; for I should scorn to do anything 
in secret, though I have some enemies that are not quite so 

You say you have seen the North Briton, in which I make 
a capital figure. Wilkes, the author, I hear, says, that if he 
had thought I should have taken it so well, he would have 
been damned before he would have written it but I am not 
sore where I am not sore. 

The theatre at Covent Garden has suffered more by riots 4 
than even Drury Lane. A footman of Lord Dacre has been 
hanged for murdering the butler. George Selwyn had great 
hand in bringing him to confess it. That Selwyn should be 
a capital performer in a scene of that kind is not extra- 
ordinary : I tell it you for the strange coolness which the 
young fellow, who was but nineteen, expressed : as he was 

1 The Earl of Hertford. the managers to admit spectators at 

8 As Embassador. Walpole. half-price after the third act. 

* In consequence of the refusal of 


290 To Sir Horace Mann [1763 

writing his confession, ' I murd ' he stopped, and asked, 
' How do you spell murdered ? ' 

Mr. Fox is much better than at the beginning of the winter ; 
and both his health and power seem to promise a longer 
duration than people expected. Indeed, I think the latter is 
so established, that Lord Bute would find it more difficult 
to remove him, than he did his predecessors, and may even 
feel the effects of the weight he has made over to him ; for 
it is already obvious that Lord Bute's levee is not the present 
path to fortune. Permanence is not the complexion of these 
times a distressful circumstance to the votaries of a court, 
but amusing to us spectators. Adieu ! 

Yours ever, 



Arlington Street, March 4, 1763. 

IT is an age since I wrote to you, but I told you that the 
conclusion of the war would leave our correspondence a little 
dry. The Peace is now general 1 , and the King of Prussia, 
who has one life more than Rominagrobis the monarch of 
the cats had, lights upon all his legs. He has escaped an 
hundred battles, and what was more threatening, three angry 
Empresses a , of whom one 3 , at least, is not tender of sovereign 
lives. If he does not write his own history, I shall not 
rejoice much for him ; yet now he will have managements ; 
he will not be quite so frank, as in the middle of his career 
and anger. Besides, his objects will have shifted so often, 
that his Memoires, like the Duchess of Marlborough's, will 
vary continually from his first impressions. There is no 
change in the scene at home. The opposition has proved 

LETTER 864. * The Peace of Hu- 2 Elizabeth and Catherine of 

bertsburg (Feb. 16, 1763) had put an Russia, and Maria Theresa of Ger- 

and to the war of the King of Prussia many. Walpole. 

with Austria and Saxony. 3 The Czarina Catherine. Walpole, 

1763] To Sir Horace Mann 291 

the silliest that ever was, and has scarcely even pretensions 
to the title. There have been more hostilities at the play- 
houses, than between anything that calls itself party. Both 
theatres have been demolished on the inside. The cause 
was, the managers refusing to take half prices after the 
second act ; and with good reason ; considering how every- 
thing is advanced in dearness, it is hard on them to be 
stinted to primitive tolls. The managers have submitted ; 
but the King's Bench is not likely to be so acquiescent, 
where some of the rioters are to be tried. 

The Duchess of Hamilton, who was thought in a deep 
consumption like her sister Coventry, has produced a son 4 , 
and, according to the marvellous fortune attending those 
two beauties, will probably be mother of the two dukes 5 , 
whose rival houses so long divided Scotland. Lord Bath's 
history winds up in a more melancholy manner. After 
preserving his only son Lord Pulteney through the course 
of the war, he has just lost him by a putrid fever at Madrid, 
as he was returning from Portugal. That enormous wealth, 
heaped up with so little credit, is left without an heir ! 

I saw yesterday a magnificent service of Chelsea china, 
which the King and Queen are sending to the Duke of 
Mecklenburgh. There are dishes and plates without number, 
an epergne, candlesticks, salt-cellars, sauce-boats, tea and 
coffee equipages ; in short, it is complete ; and costs twelve 
hundred pounds ! I cannot boast of our taste ; the forms 
are neither new, beautiful, nor various. Yet Sprimont, the 
manufacturer, is a Frenchman 6 . It seems their taste will 
not bear transplanting. But I have done ; my letter has 
tumbled from the King of Prussia to a set of china ; encore 
passe, if I had begun with the King of Poland, ce Roy de 
Fayence 7 , as the other called him. Adieu ! 

4 George John Campbell; d. 1764. 7 From the manufacture of porce- 

6 Hamilton and Argyll. lain at Dresden. Walpole. 

6 He was a Fleming. 

U 2 

292 To the Earl of Bute [1763 



As it is now near five months since your Lordship signed 
my orders, I should be glad if your Lordship would please 
to direct the payment of the money '. 

I am, my Lord, 

Your Lordship's obedient humble servant, 
Arlington Street, March 14, 1763. HoR - WALPOLE. 



I am very sensible of your Lordship's obliging civility in 
immediately ordering my money on my application. It 
was by no means from want of respect to your Lordship 
that that application was not made sooner ; but for above 
twenty years that I have held the office, it has been the 
constant practice to write to the First Secretary to desire his 
letter, when the Lords have signed the orders, and the 
payment has seldom been delayed above a fortnight after. 

If your Lordship should approve of it, I had much rather, 
as my bills become due, apply to your Lordship, than to 
anybody else, unless your Lordship please to give any other 

I am, my Lord, 
Your Lordship's most obedient humble Servant, 

Arlington Street, March 16, 1763. HoR - WALPOLE. 

LETTER 865. Not in C. ; reprinted stopped for some months, nor made 

from Lord Orford's Works (1798), but on my writing to Lord Bute 

voL ii. p. 880. himself.' (Memoirs of George III, 

i Money due to Horace Walpole as ed. 1894, voL L p. 171.) 

Usher of the Exchequer. Walpole LETTER 866. Not in C. ; reprinted 

explains that he had disobliged Fox ; from Lord Orford's Works (1798), 

1 the consequence to me was that by voL ii. p. 380, after collation with 

his influence with Martin, Secretary original in possession of Maggs Bros., 

of the Treasury, my payments were Strand, W.C. 

1763] To George Montagu 293 


MY LORD, Arlington Street, March 16, 1763. 

I wish all words had not been so prostituted in compli- 
ments that some at least might be left to express real 
admiration. Your Lordship's etchings * deserve such sincere 
praises that I cannot bear you should think that mere civility 
or gratitude dictate what I would say of them, though I assure 
you the latter is what I feel to a great degree. I will even 
trust your Lordship with my vanity ; I think I understand 
your prints, and that mine is not random praise. If it has 
any worth it will encourage you to proceed, and yet you 
have already gone beyond what I have ever seen in etching. 
I must beg for the white paper edition too, as I shall frame 
the brown, and bind the rest of your Lordship's works 
together. I am, my Lord, 

Yr. Lordship's 
Most obliged 
Humble servant, 



Arlington Street, March 25, 1763. 

THOUGH you are a runaway, a fugitive, a thing without 
friendship or feeling, though you grow tired of your acquaint- 
ance in half the time you intended, I will not quite give you up. 
I will write to you once a quarter, just to keep up a connection 
that grace may catch at, if it ever proposes to visit you. 
This is my plan, for I have little or nothing to tell you. 

LETTER 867. Not in C. ; reprinted superior in boldness and freedom of 

from the Harccwrt Papers, edited by stroke to anything we have seen 

E. W. Harcourt, voL viii. pp. 91-2. from established artists.' (Horace 

1 Only son of first Earl Harcourt, Walpole, in Essay on Modern Gar- 

whom he succeeded in 1777. dening.) 

8 'Lord Nuneham'a etchings are 

294: To George Montagu [1763 

The ministers only cut one another's throats, instead of ours. 
They growl over their prey like two curs over a bone, which 
neither can determine to quit ; and the whelps in opposition 
are not strong enough to beat either away, though, like the 
species, they will probably hunt the one that shall be worsted. 
The saddest dog of all, Wilkes, shows most spirit. The last 
North Briton is a masterpiece of mischief. He has writ a 
dedication too to an old play, The Fall of Mortimer 1 , that is 
wormwood ; and he had the impudence t'other day to ask 
Dyson 9 if he was going to the Treasury, 'because,' said he, 
' a friend of mine has dedicated a play to Lord Bute, and it 
is usual to give dedicators something ; I wish you would put 
his Lordship in mind of it.' 

Lord and Lady Pembroke are reconciled, and live again 
together. Mr. Hunter would have taken his daughter 
too, but upon condition she should give back her settle- 
ment to Lord Pembroke and her child. She replied nobly, 
that she did not trouble herself about fortune, and would 
willingly depend on her father, but for her child, she had 
nothing right left to do but to take care of that, and 
would not part with it so she keeps both and I suppose 
will soon have her lover again too, for my Lady Pembroke's 
beauty is not glutinous. T'other sister 3 has been sitting to 
Reynolds, who by her husband's directions has made a 
speaking picture. Lord Bolinbroke said to him, ' You must 
give the eyes something of Nelly O'Brien, or it will not do.' 
As he has given Nelly something of his wife's, it was but 
fair to give her something of Nelly's and my Lady will not 
throw away the present ! 

LETTKK 868. 1 A completion of an the Treasury, 1768-74 ; Cofferer of the 

imperfect play by Ben Jonson, which r Household, 1774-76. He began life as 

was acted in 1781. "'an advanced Whig, but changed his 

2 JeremiahDyson(1722-1776), M.P. opinions on the accession of George 

for Yarmouth in the Isle of Wight ; III, and became one of the small 

Joint Secretary to the Treasury, 1762- body known as the ' King's friends." 

64 ; Lord of Trade, 1764-68 ; Lord of 3 Viscountess Bolingbroke. 

1763] To George Montagu 295 

I am going to Strawberry for a few days pour faire mes 
paques. The gallery advances rapidly. The ceiling is 
Harry the Seventh's Chapel in propria persona : the canopies 
are all placed. I think three months will quite complete it. 
I have bought at Lord Granville's sale the original picture 
of Charles Brandon 4 and his queen ; and have to-day received 
from France a copy of Madame Maintenon, which with my 
La Valiere, and copies of Madame Grammont, and of the 
charming portrait of the Mazarine at the Duke of St. Albans's, 
is to accompany Bianca Capello and Ninon L'Enclos in the 
round tower. I hope now there will never be another 
auction, for I* have not an inch of space, or a farthing left. 
As I have some remains of paper, I will fill it up with a song 
that I made t'other day in the postchaise, after a particular 
conversation that I had had with Miss Pelham the night 
before at the Duke of Kichmond's. 


The business of woman, dear Chloe, is pleasure, 

And by love ev'ry fair one her minutes should measure. 

'Oh! for love we're all ready,' you cry. Very true; 

Nor would I rob the gentle fond god of his due. 

Unless in the sentiments Cupid has part, 

And dips in the amorous transport his dart ; 

'Tis tumult, disorder, 'tis loathing and hate ; 

Caprice gives it birth, and contempt is its fate. 


True passion insensibly leads to the joy, 
And grateful esteem bids its pleasures ne'er cloy. 
Yet here you should stop but your whimsical sex 
Such romantic ideas to passion annex, 

* Charles Brandon (d. 1545), Duke wife, Mary Tudor, Queen Dowager of 
of Suffolk ; m. (1515), as his third France, daughter of Henry VIL 

296 To George Montagu [i?63 

That poor men, by your visions and jealousy worried, 
To nymphs less ecstatic, but kinder, are hurried. 
In your heart, I consent, let your wishes be bred ; 
Only take care your heart don't get into your head. 

Adieu, till Midsummer Day ! 

Yours ever, 

H. W. 


Arlington Street, April 6, 1768. 

You will pity my distress when I tell you that Lord 
Waldegrave has got the small-pox, and a bad sort. This 
day se'nnight, in the evening, I met him at Arthur's ; he 
complained to me of the headache, and a sickness in his 
stomach. I said, ' My dear Lord, why don't you go home, 
and take James's powder ? you will be well in the morning.' 
He thanked me, said he was glad I had put him in mind of 
it, and he would take my advice. I sent in the morning ; 
my niece said he had taken the powder, and that James 
thought he had no fever, but that she found him very low. 
As he had no fever, I had no apprehension. At eight o'clock 
on Friday night, I was told abruptly at Arthur's that Lord 
Waldegrave had the small-pox. I was excessively shocked, 
not knowing if the powder was good or bad for it. I 
instantly went to the house at the door I was met by 
a servant of Lady Ailesbury, sent to tell me that Mr. Conway 
was arrived. These two opposite strokes of terror and joy 
overcame me so much, that when I got to Mr. Conway's 
I could not speak to him, but burst into a flood of tears. 
The next morning, Lord Waldegrave hearing I was there, 
desired to speak to me alone I should tell you, that the 
moment he knew it was the small-pox he signed his will. 
This has been the unvaried tenor of his behaviour, doing 
just what is wise and necessary, and nothing more. He 

176s] To George Montagu 297 

told me, he knew how great the chance was against his 
living through that distemper at his age 1 . That, to be sure, 
he should like to have lived a few years longer, but if he 
did not, he should submit patiently. That all he had to 
desire was, that if he should fail, we would do our utmost 
to comfort his wife, who, he feared, was breeding, and who, 
he added, was the best woman in the world. I told him 
he could not doubt our attention to her, but that at present 
all our attention was fixed on him. That the great difference 
between having the small-pox young, or more advanced in 
years, consisted in the fears of the latter ; but that as I had 
so often heard him say, and now saw, that he had none of 
those fears, the danger of age was considerably lessened. 
Dr. Wilmot says, that if anything saves him, it will be this 
tranquillity. To my comfort I am told, that James's powder 
has probably been a material ingredient towards his recovery. 
In the meantime, the universal anxiety about him is 
incredible. Dr. Barnard, the master of Eton, who is in 
town for the holidays, says, that, from his situation, he is 
naturally invited to houses of all ranks and parties, and 
that the concern is general in all. I cannot say so much 
of my Lord, and not do a little justice to my niece too. Her 
tenderness, fondness, attention, and courage are surprising. 
She has no fears to become her, nor heroism for parade. 
I could not help saying to her, ' My dear child, there never 
was a nurse of your age had such attention' she replied, 
'There never was a nurse of my age had such an object.' 
It is this astonishes one, to see so much beauty sincerely 
devoted to a man so unlovely in his person ; but if Adonis 
was sick, she could not stir seldomer out of his bedchamber. 
The physicians seem to have little hopes, but, as their argu- 
ments are not near so strong as their alarms, I own I do not 
give it up and yet I look on it in a very dangerous light. 

LETTER 869. * He was forty-eight. 

298 To George Montagu [i?63 

I know nothing of news and the world, for I go to 
Albemarle Street early in the morning, and don't come 
home till late at night. Young Mr. Pitt has been dying 
of a fever in Bedfordshire. The Bishop of Carlisle 2 , whom 
I have appointed Visitor of Strawberry, is gone down to 
him. You will be much disappointed if you expect to find 
the gallery near finished. They threaten me with three 
months before the gilding can be begun. Twenty points 
are at a stand by my present confinement, and I have a 
melancholy prospect of being forced to carry my niece 
thither the next time I go. The Due de Nivernois, in 
return for a set of the Strawberry editions, has sent me 
four 'Seasons,' which, I conclude, he thought good, but they 
shall pass their whole round in London, for they have not 
even the merit of being badly old enough for Strawberry. 
Mr. Bentley's epistle to Lord Melcomb has been published 
in a magazine. It has less wit by far than I expected from 
him, and to the full as bad English. The thoughts are old 
Strawberry phrases so are not the panegyrics. Here are 
six lines written extempore by Lady Temple on Lady Mary 
Coke, easy and genteel, and almost true : 

She sometimes laughs, but never loud ; 
She 'B handsome too, but somewhat proud ; 
At court, she bears away the bell ; 
She dresses fine, and figures well: 
With decency she's gay and airy; 
Who can this be but Lady Mary? 

There have been tough doings in Parliament about the 
tax on cider 3 ; and in the western counties the discontent is 
so great, that if Mr. Wilkes will turn patriot-hero, or patriot- 
incendiary in earnest, and put himself at their head, he may 
obtain a rope of martyrdom before the summer is over. 

2 Charles Lyttelton ; d. 1768. 

3 A. bill for laying an additional duty on cider and perry. 

To George Montagu 299 

Adieu ! I tell you my sorrows, because, if I escape them, 
I am sure nobody will rejoice more. 

Yours ever, 

H. W. 

870. To . 


The medical people certainly give us little hopes of poor 
Lord Waldegrave, though they owned last night that all the 
symptoms were less unfavourable than in the morning. If 
I was not thoroughly persuaded of their ignorance, it would 
be very impertinent in me to form any opinion, not founded 
on theirs; yet till their arguments are clearer and more 
satisfactory, I shall not despair. His head is so perfectly 
unaffected by his disorder, that I cannot conceive how his 
danger should be so imminent ; as they affirm that the 
bodily symptoms are not of half the consequence in this 
disorder as are those of the head. His tranquillity they 
own is his best chance. It is unalterable ; his temper, 
goodness, reason, and patience double what one feels on 
the prospect of losing him. I am just going thither, and 
if I should find any material alteration, will let you know. 

Yours ever, 

H. W. 



Arlington Street, Friday night, late l . 

AMIDST all my own grief, and all the distress which 
I have this moment left, I cannot forget you, who have 
so long been my steady and invariable friend. I cannot 
leave it to newspapers and correspondents to tell you my 

LETTER 870. Not in C. ; now first Place, S.W. The name of the 
printed from original in possession addressee is unknown, 
of J. Pearson & Co., 5 Pall Mall LETTER 871. l April 8, 1763. 

300 To George Montagu [i?63 

loss. Lord Waldegrave died to-day. Last night he had 
some glimmerings of hope. The most desponding of the 
faculty flattered us a little. He himself joked with the 
physicians, and expressed himself in this engaging manner ; 
asking what day of the week it was; they told him 
Thursday: 'Sure,' said he, 'it is Friday' 'No, my Lord, 
indeed it is Thursday ' ' Well ! ' said he, ' see what a rogue 
this distemper makes one ; I want to steal nothing but 
a day.' By the help of opiates, with which, for these two 
or three days, they had numbed his sufferings, he rested 
well. This morning he had no worse symptoms. I told 
Lady Waldegrave, that as no material alteration was 
expected before Sunday, I would go and dine at Strawberry, 
and return in time to meet the physicians in the evening 
in truth, I was worn out with anxiety and attendance, and 
wanted an hour or two of fresh air. I left her at twelve, 
and had ordered dinner at three that I might be back early. 
I had not risen from table when I received an express from 
Lady Betty Waldegrave, to tell me that a sudden change 
had happened, that they had given him James's powder, 
but that they feared it was too late, and that he probably 
would be dead before I could come to my niece, for whose 
sake she begged I would return immediately. It was indeed 
too late ! too late for everything late as it was given, the 
powder vomited him even in the agonies had I had power 
to direct, he should never have quitted James but these 
are vain regrets ! vain to recollect how particularly kind he, 
who was kind to everybody, was to me ! I found Lady 
Waldegrave at my brother's ; she weeps without ceasing, 
and talks of his virtues and goodness to her in a manner 
that distracts one. My brother bears this mortification 
with more courage than I could have expected from his 
warm passions: but nothing struck me more than to see 
my rough savage Swiss, Louis, in tears, as he opened my 

1763] To George Montagu 301 

chaise. I have a bitter scene to come ; to-morrow morning 
I carry poor Lady Waldegrave to Strawberry. Her fall is 
great, from that adoration and attention that he paid her, 
from that splendour of fortune, so much of which dies with 
him, and from that consideration, which rebounded to her 
from the great deference which the world had for his 
character visions perhaps yet who could expect that they 
would have passed away even before that fleeting thing, her 
beauty ! 

If I had time or command enough of my thoughts, I could 
give you as long a detail of as unexpected a revolution in the 
political world. To-day has been as fatal to a whole nation, 
I mean to the Scotch, as to our family. Lord Bute resigned 
this morning. His intention was not even suspected till 
Wednesday, nor at all known a very few days before. In 
short, it is nothing, more or less, than a panic a fortnight's 
opposition has demolished that scandalous but vast majority, 
which a fortnight had purchased and in five months a plan 
of absolute power has been demolished by a panic ! He 
pleads to the world bad health ; to his friends, more truly, 
that the nation was set at him. He pretends to intend 
retiring absolutely, and giving no umbrage. In the mean- 
time he is packing up a sort of ministerial legacy, which 
cannot hold even till next session, and I should think 
would scarce take place at all. George Grenville is to be 
at the head of the Treasury and Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer ; Charles Townshend * to succeed him ; and Lord 
Shelburn, Charles. Sir Francis Dashwood to have his 
barony of Despencer 3 and the Great Wardrobe, in the 
room of Lord Gower, who takes the Privy Seal*, if the 

2 Charles Townshend had no place was terminated in favour of Sir 

in the ministry. Lord Shelburne Francis Dashwood, as son of the 

became First Lord of Trade. eldest daughter of the fourth Earl of 

* The barony of Despencer fell into Westmorland. 

abeyance on the death of the Earl of * Earl Glower became Lord Cham- 
Westmorland in 1762. The abeyance berlain. 

302 To Sir Horace Mann [i?63 

Duke of Bedford takes the Presidentship 5 but there are 
many ifs in this arrangement; the principal if is, if they 
dare stand a tempest which has so terrified the pilot. You 
ask what becomes of Mr. Fox ? Not at all pleased with this 
sudden determination, which has blown up many of his 
projects, and left him time to heat no more furnaces, he 
goes to France by the way of the House of Lords 8 but 
keeps his place and his tools till something else happens. 
The confusion I suppose will be enormous and the next 
act of the drama a quarrel among the opposition, who 
would be all-powerful if they could do, what they cannot, 
hold together and not squabble for the plunder. As I shall 
be at a distance for some days, I shall be able to send you 
no more particulars of this interlude, but you will like 
a pun my brother made when he was told of this explosion 
' Then, ' said he, ' they must turn the Jacks out of the 
drawing-room again, and again take them into the kitchen.' 
Adieu ! what a world to set one's heart on ! 

Yours ever, 

H. W. 


Strawberry Hill, April 10, 1763. 

AT a time when the political world is in strange and 
unexpected disorder, you would wonder that I should be 
here, and be so for some days ; but I am come on a very 
melancholy occasion. Lord Waldegrave 1 is just dead of the 
small-pox, and I have brought my poor unhappy niece 
hither till he is buried. He was taken ill on the Wednes- 

5 The Duke of Bedford became Governor of George III when Prince 
President of the Council. of Wales, Teller of the Exchequer 

6 Fox was created Baron Holland and Warden of the Stannaries, mar- 
of Foxley, Wiltshire, on April 17, ried Maria, second daughter of Sir 
1768. Edward Walpole, Knight of the 

LETTER 872. J James, second Earl Bath, Mr. Walpole's eldest brother, 
of Waldegrave, Knight of the Garter, Walpole. 

1763] To Sir Horace Mann 303 

day, the distemper showed itself on the Friday, a very bad 
sort, and carried him off that day se'nnight. His brother 
and sister were inoculated, but it was early in the practice 
of that great preservative, which was then devoutly opposed ; 
he was the eldest son, and weakly. He never had any fear 
of it, nor ever avoided it. We scarce feel this heavy loss 
more than it is felt universally. He was one of those few 
men whose good-nature silenced even ill-nature. His strict 
honour and consummate sense made him reverenced as 
much as beloved. He died as he lived, the physicians 
declaring that if anything saved him, it would be his 
tranquillity: I soon saw by their ignorance and contra- 
dictions that they would not. Yet I believe James's powder 
would have preserved him. He took it by my persuasion, 
before I knew what his disorder was. But James was soon 
chased away, to make room for regular assassins. In the 
course of the illness nobody would venture to take on them 
so important a hazard as giving the powder again ; yet in 
his agonies it was given, and even then had efficacy enough 
to vomit him ; but too late ! My niece has nothing left but 
a moderate jointure of a thousand pounds a year, three little 
girls, a pregnancy, her beauty, and the testimonial of the 
best of men, who expressed no concern but for her, and who 
has given her as much as he could, and ratified her character 
by making her sole executrix. Her tenderness, which could 
not be founded on any charms in his person, shows itself in 
floods of tears, in veneration for his memory, and by acting 
with just such reason and propriety as he would wish her 
to exert ; yet it is a terrible scene ! She loses in him a father, 
who formed her mind, and a lover whose profusion knew no 
bounds. From his places his fortune was very great that 
is gone ! From his rank and consideration with all parties, 
she was at the summit of worldly glory that is gone too ! 
Four short years were all their happiness. Since the death 

304 To Sir Horace Mann [1763 

of Lady Coventry, she is allowed the handsomest woman in 
England ; as she is so young, she may find as great a match 
and a younger lover but she never can find another Lord 
Waldegrave ! 

Yesterday, when her brother-in-law, the Bishop of Exeter, 
came hither to acquaint her with the will, and we were 
endeavouring to stop the torrent of her tears, by observing 
how satisfactory it must be to her to find what confidence 
her Lord had placed in her sense and conduct, she said, 
charmingly, ' Oh ! I wish he had ever done one thing 
I could find fault with ! ' The trial is great and dismal. 
She is not above three months gone with child, and is to 
pass seven more in melancholy anxiety, to have a labour 
without a father, perhaps another girl, or a son, whose 
chance of life will be a constant anxiety to her. 

The same day that put an end to Lord Waldegrave's life 
gave a period too to the administration of Lord Bute, his 
supplanter, whom he did not love, and yet whom he could 
hardly hate, for aversion was not in his nature; nor did 
ever any man who had undertaken such a post as governor 
to a Prince with the utmost reluctance, and who could not 
have been totally void of the ambition which must have 
attended such a charge when once accepted, feel less resent- 
ment at the disappointment ; but I will say no more on 
Lord Waldegrave, for I forget that you never knew him, 
and have kept you for above two pages in suspense. Ill 
health, antecedent determination of retirement, and national 
antipathy to him, are pleaded as the motives to Lord Bute's 
sudden resignation, which was not known, nay, not sus- 
pected, till two days before it happened. Leave out the two 
first causes, which are undoubtedly false, and call the third 
by its true name, panic, and you have the whole secret of 
this extraordinary revolution. It is plain, that if Mr. Pitt 
had headed the opposition sooner, or that the opposition 

1763] To Sir Horace Mann 305 

had had any brains without him, this event would have 
happened earlier. A single fortnight of clamour and debate 
on the cider tax, copied from the noise on the excise in 
my father's time, and adopted into petitions from the City, 
frightened this mighty favourite out of all his power and 
plans, and has reduced Mr. Fox to take almost the same 
steps, though he, too, has an intended project of retirement 
to plead ; but he keeps his place, takes a peerage, and goes 
to France. Lord Bute keeps nothing but the King's favour, 
and that, too, he is not to use. He will be wise to adhere 
to this measure, now he has taken the other, lest necessity 
should prescribe instead of option. 

I suppose you by this time conclude, that when Lord 
Bute quitted the King, he sent the keys of St. James's and 
Buckingham House to Mr. Pitt. Stay a little we are to 
have another episode of a summer administration first, for 
you find we do not wear the same suits in both seasons. 
Mr. Grenville is to be First Lord of the Treasury and 
Chancellor of the Exchequer ; Charles Townshend at the 
head of the Admiralty, and Lord Shelburne at the Board of 
Trade. Sir Francis Dashwood, in recompense for the woful 
incapacity he has shown, goes into the House of Lords, and 
is to succeed in the Great Wardrobe to Lord Gower, who 
again takes the Privy Seal, as the Duke of Bedford is to be 
President of the Council. Lord Hertford is named for Paris, 
and Lord Stormont for Vienna ; the Duke of Marlborough 
gets what he wished, the Master of the Horse 3 ; I suppose 
to leave the Chamberlain's office vacant for the last in- 
cumbent 3 . The Duke of Rutland to be contented with 
Lord Granby's being Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, where he 
will finish his life and fortune 4 . 

* The Duke of Marlborough be- * Lord Granby drank very hard, 
came Lord Privy Seal. and was profusely generous. Wal- 

* The Duke of Devonshire. Wai- pole, 


306 To George Montagu [1763 

In this state I left history. All this arrangement may be 
already overturned. No man, I suppose, is so unwise as to 
expect any duration to it. It can only mean, time to deal 
with the opposition, or to divide them ; and, considering 
what numbers and what great names are to be satisfied, it 
is a chaos into which one cannot foresee. I have seldom 
been a lucky prophet, and therefore shall not exercise my 
talent. The poor man who is gone 5 could have been of the 
utmost consequence at this moment to accomplish some 
establishment ; he had been offered, and had refused the 
greatest things no bad ingredient in reconciling others. 
In that or any other qualification I know few equal to him. 
Adieu ! 


Strawberry Hill, April 14, 1763. 

I HAVE received your two letters together, and foresaw 
that your friendly good heart would feel for us just as you 
do. The loss is irreparable, and my poor niece is sensible 
it is. She has such a veneration for her Lord's memory, 
that if her sisters and I make her cheerful for a moment, 
she accuses herself of it the next day to the Bishop of 
Exeter, as if he was her confessor, and that she had com- 
mitted a crime. She cried for two days to such a degree, 
that if she had been a fountain it must have stopped. Till 
yesterday she scarce eat enough to keep her alive, and looks 
accordingly but at her age she must be comforted : her 
esteem will last, but her spirits will return in spite of her- 
self. Her Lord has made her sole executrix, and added what 
little douceurs he could to her jointure, which is but a 
thousand pounds a year, the estate being but three-and- 
twenty hundred. The little girls will have about 8,OOOZ. 
apiece, for the Teller's J place was so great during the war, 

8 Lord Waldegrave. 

LETTER 873. 1 Lord Woldegravo was a Teller of the Exchequer. 

1763] To George Montagu 307 

that notwithstanding his temper was a sluice of generosity, 
he had saved 30,OOOZ. since his marriage. 

Her sisters have been here with us the whole time ; Lady 
Huntingtower is all mildness and tenderness ; and by dint 
of attention I have not displeased the other 2 . Lord Hunting- 
tower has been here once ; the Bishop most of the time : he 
is very reasonable and good-natured, and has been of great 
assistance and comfort to me in this melancholy office, 
which is to last here till Monday or Tuesday. We have got 
the eldest little girl too, Lady Laura 3 , who is just old 
enough to be amusing ; and last night my nephew arrived 
here from Portugal. It was a terrible meeting at first ; but 
as he is very soldierly and lively, he got into spirits, and 
diverted us much with his relations of the war and the 
country. He confirms all we have heard of the villainy, 
poltroonery, and ignorance of the Portuguese, and of their 
aversion to the English ; but I could perceive, even through 
his relation, that our flippancies and contempt of them must 
have given a good deal of play to their antipathy. 

You are admirably kind, as you always are, in inviting 
me to Greatworth, and proposing Bath ; but besides its 
being impossible for me to take any journey just at present, 
I am really very well in health, and the tranquillity and air 
of Strawberry have done much good. The hurry of London, 
where I shall be glad to be again just now, will dissipate 
the gloom that this unhappy loss has occasioned, though 
a deep loss I shall always think it. The time passes 
tolerably here ; I have my painters and gilders and constant 
packets of news from town, besides a thousand letters of 
condolence to answer ; for both my niece and I have 
received innumerable testimonies of the regard that was felt 

2 Mrs. Keppel. eldest son of third Earl Waldegrave, 

8 Lady Elizabeth Laura Walde- whom he succeeded in 1784. She 

grave ; m. (1782) her cousin, George died in 1816. 

Waldegrave, Viscount Chewton, 

X 2 

To George Montagu [ires 

for Lord Waldegrave I have heard of but one man * who 
ought to have known his worth, that has shown no concern 
but I suppose his childish mind is too much occupied 
with the loss of his last governor ! I have given up my 
own room to my niece, and have betaken myself to the 
Holbein chamber, where I am retired from the rest of the 
family when I choose it, and nearer to overlook my work- 
men. The chapel is quite finished, except the carpet. The 
sable mass of the altar gives it a very sober air ; for, not- 
withstanding the solemnity of the painted windows, it had 
a gaudiness that was a little profane. 

I can know no news here but by rebound, and yet, though 
they are to rebound again to you, they will be as fresh as 
any you can have at Greatworth. A kind of administration 
is botched up for the present, and even gave itself an air of 
that fierceness with which the winter set out. Lord Hard- 
wicke was told that his sons must vote with the court, or be 
turned out. He replied, as he meant to have them in place, 
he chose they should be removed now. It looks ill for the 
court when he is sturdy. They wished, too, to have Pitt, 
if they could have had him without consequences ; but they 
don't find any recruits repair to their standard. They brag 
that they should have had Lord Waldegrave; a most 
notorious falsehood, as he had refused every offer they could 
invent the day before he was taken ill. The Duke of 
Cumberland orders his servants to say, that so far from 
joining them, he believes if Lord Waldegrave could have 
been foretold of his death, he would have preferred it to an 
union with Bute and Fox. The former's was a decisive 
panic ; so sudden, that it is said Lord Egremont was sent to 
break his resolution of retiring to the King. The other, 
whose journey to France does not indicate much less appre- 
hension, affects to walk in the streets at the most public 

* George III. 

1763] To the Contessa Rena 309 

hours to mark his not trembling. In the meantime the 
two chiefs have paid their bravoes magnificently no less 
than fifty-two thousand pounds a year are granted in rever- 
sions! Young Martin 5 , who is older than I am, is named 
my successor but I intend he shall wait some years if 
they had a mind to serve me, they could not have selected 
a fitter tool to set my character in a fair light by the com- 
parison. Lord Bute's son 6 has the reversion of an Auditor 
of the Imprest this is all he has done ostensibly for his 
family, but the great things bestowed on the most insig- 
nificant objects make me suspect some private compacts 
yet I may wrong him, but I do not mean it. Lord Granby 
has refused Ireland, and the Northumberlands are to trans- 
port their jovial magnificence thither. I lament that you 
made so little of that voyage, but is this the season of 
rewarded merit ? One should blush to be preferred within 
the same year. Do but think that Calcraft is to be an Irish 
lord 7 ! Fox's millions, or Calcraft's tithes of millions, can- 
not purchase a grain of your virtue or character. Adieu ! 

Yours most truly, 

H. W. 


MONSIEUR WALPOLE est tres sensible aux bontes de 
Madame la Comtesse Rena, et la remercie infiniment de la 
peine qu'elle s'est bien voulu donner pour scavoir de ses 
nouvelles et de celles de Madame sa niece. La pauvre 
Milady Waldegrave est aussi touchee qu'elle doit 1'etre d'une 
perte si grander Elle pleure le meilleur mari, 1'amant le 

6 Samuel Martin, sometime Secre- Madrid, March-Dec. 1783, and 1795- 

tary to the Treasury. 96. 

6 John Stuart (1744-1814), Lord 7 This did not happen. 

Mountstuart ; succeeded his father LETTER 874. Not in C. ; now first 

as fourth Earl of Bute in 1792 ; cr. printed from, original in possession of 

Marquis of Bute in 1796. Envoy Mr. W. V. Daniell, Mortimer Street, 

to Turin, 1779-83 ; Ambassador at Cavendish Square, W. 

310 To George Montagu [1763 

plus tendre, et I'homme le plus respectable de son siecle. 
Monsieur Walpole, qui ne quitte pas une niece si veritable- 
ment afnigee, aura 1'honneur de remercier en personne 
Madame Rena quand il retournera a la ville. En attendant, 
il 1'assure de sa vive reconnoissance et de son respect. 


Arlington Street, April 22, 1763. 

I HAVE two letters from you, and shall take care to 
execute the commission in the second. The first diverted 
me much. 

I brought my poor niece from Strawberry on Monday. 
As executrix, her presence was quite necessary, and she has 
never refused to do anything reasonable that has been 
desired of her. But the house and the business have 
shocked her terribly; she still eats nothing, sleeps worse 
than she did, and looks dreadfully: I begin to think she 
will miscarry. She said to me t'other day, 'They tell me 
that if my Lord had lived, he might have done great service 
to his countiy at this juncture, by the respect all parties 
had for him this is very fine ; but as he did not live to do 
those services, it will never be mentioned in history!' 
I thought this solicitude for his honour charming but he 
will be known by history : he has left a small volume of 
Memoirs*, that are a chef-d'oeuvre. He twice showed them 
to me, but I kept his secret faithfully; now it is for his 
glory to divulge it. 

I am glad you are going to Dr. Lewis. After an Irish 
voyage I do not wonder you want careening. I have often 
preached to you, nay, and lived to you too but my sermons 
were flung away and my example. 

This ridiculous administration is patched up for the 

LETTER 875. ' Published by Murray in 1821. 

1763] To George Montagu 311 

present; the detail is delightful, but that I shall reserve 
for Strawberry-tide. 

Lord Bath has complained to Fanshaw 2 of Lord Pultney's 
extravagance, and added, 'if he had lived he would have 
spent my whole estate.' This almost comes up to Sir 
Robert Brown, who, when his eldest daughter was given 
over, but still alive, on that uncertainty sent for an under- 
taker, and bargained for her funeral in hopes of having it 
cheaper, as it was possible she might recover. Lord Bath 
has purchased the Hatton vault in Westminster Abbey, 
squeezed his wife, son, and daughter into it, reserved room 
for himself, and has set the rest to sale 3 come ; all this is 
not far short of Sir Robert Brown. 

To my great satisfaction, the new Lord Holland has not 
taken the least friendly, or even formal notice of me, on 
Lord Waldegrave's death. It dispenses me from the least 
farther connection with him, and saves explanations, which 
always entertain the world more than satisfy. 

Dr. Cumberland * is an Irish bishop ; I hope before the 
summer is over that some beam from your cousin's portion 
of the triumvirate 6 may light on poor Bentley. If he misses 
it till next winter, he will be forced to try still new sun- 

I have taken Mrs. Pritchard's * house for Lady Waldegrave ; 
1 offered her to live with me at Strawberry, but with her 
usual good sense she declined it, as she thought the children 
would be troublesome. 

Charles Townshend's episode 7 in this revolution passes 

8 Probably Simon Fanshaw, M.P. George Grenville and the Earls of 

for Grampotmd. Egremont and Halifax. 

* This last was not the case. See The actress. Her cottage at 

Gent. Mag. 1780, p. 231. Twickenham was called Bagman's 

4 Denison Cumberland, Bishop of Castle. 

Clonfert, 1763-72 ; Bishop of Kil- 7 Townshend ' accepted the post of 

more, 1772-74 ; brother-in-law of First Lord of the Admiralty, and 

Richard Bentley the younger. actually went to St. James's to kiss 

6 The triumvirate consisted of hands for it. Presuming that no- 

312 To Sir Horace Mann [1763 

belief, though he does not tell it himself. If I had a son 
born, and an old fairy was to appear and offer to endow him 
with her choicest gifts, I should cry out, ' Powerful Goody, 
give him anything but parts ! ' Adieu ! 

Yours ever, 

H. W. 


Strawberry Hill, April 30, 1763. 

I BEGIN with your own affairs, as what must naturally 
interest you the most. This morning before I came out of 
town I sent for your brother James, and made him sensible, 
by stating his conduct and dear Gal's, how much he is to 
blame towards you. However, I was not sorry to have out- 
gone my commission : he has so often been negligent to you, 
that I wished to reclaim him thoroughly ; and I trust I have, 
for he frankly owned he was in fault and seemed sorry that 
he had forced you to complain. I don't know whether I am 
not innocently accessory to his idleness, as he trusts to my 
constant writing but that ought not to excuse him. If he 
mends, you will easily forgive him. 

The papers have told you all the formal changes ; the real 
one consists solely in Lord Bute being out of office, for 
having recovered his fright he is still as much minister as 
ever, and consequently does not find his unpopularity de- 
crease. On the contrary, I think his situation more dangerous 
than ever : he has done enough to terrify his friends, and 
encourage his enemies, and has acquired no new strength ; 

thing would or could be refused to would not kiss the King's hand un- 

him ... he carried to court with less Bnrrel was admitted too. It 

him a Mr. Barrel, one of his fol- was flatly refused, and Townshend 

lowers, intending the latter should was told that the King had no further 

kiss hands along with himself as occasion for his service.' (Memoirs 

another Lord of the Admiralty. of George III, ed. 1894, vol. i. pp. 

Thinking his honour engaged to 209-10.) 
carry through this absurdity, he 

1763] To Sir Horace Mann 313 

rather has lost strength, by the disappearance of Mr. Fox 
from the scene. His deputies, too, will not long care to 
stand all the risk for him, when they perceive, as they must 
already, that they have neither credit nor confidence. Indeed 
the new administration is a general joke, and will scarce 
want a violent death to put an end to it. Lord Bute is very 
blamable for embarking the King so deep in measures that 
may have so serious a termination. The longer the court 
can stand its ground, the more firmly will the opposition be 
united, and the more inflamed. I have ever thought this 
would be a turbulent reign, and nothing has happened to 
make me alter my opinion. 

Mr. Fox's exit has been very unpleasant. He would not 
venture to accept the Treasury, which Lord Bute would have 
bequeathed to him ; and could not obtain an earldom, for 
which he thought he had stipulated ; but some of the 
negotiators asserting that he had engaged to resign the Pay- 
master's place, which he vehemently denies, he has been 
forced to take up with a barony, and has broken with his 
associates I do not say friends, for with the chief l of them 
he had quarrelled when he embarked in the new system. 
He meets with little pity, and yet has found as much in- 
gratitude as he had had power of doing service. 

1 am glad you are going to have a Great Duke * ; it will 
amuse you, and a new court will make Florence lively, the 
only beauty it wants. You divert me with my friend the 
Duke of Modena's conscientious match : if the Duchess 3 had 
outlived him, she would not have been so scrupulous. But, 
for Hymen's sake, who is that Madame Simonetti ? I trust, 

LETTER 876. 1 The Dukes of Cum- ceeded his father as Grand Duke in 
berland and. Devonshire. Walpole. 1765, and his brother as Emperor in 

2 Mann announced that the Em- 1790. 

peror's second son, Peter Leopold, 3 She was a daughter of the Eegent 
was to reside in Florence as his Duke of Orleans. Walpole. 
father's lieutenant. Leopold sue- 

314 To Sir Horace Mann [i?63 

not that old painted, gaining, debauched Countess 4 from 
Milan, whom I saw at the fair of Keggio ! 

I surprise myself with being able to write two pages of 
pure English ; I do nothing but deal in broken French. 
The two nations are crossing over and figuring-in. We have 
had a Count d'Usson 5 and his wife these six weeks ; and last 
Saturday arrived a Madame de Boufflers 6 , s$avante, galante, 
a great friend of the Prince of Conti, and a passionate ad- 
mirer de nous autres Anglois. I am forced to live much with 
tout fa, as they are perpetually at my Lady Hervey's ; and 
as my Lord Hertford goes Ambassador to Paris, where I 
shall certainly make him a visit next year don't you think 
I shall be computing how far it is to Florence ? There is 
coming, too, a Marquis de Fleury, who is to be consigned to 
me, as a political relation, vu Vamitie entre le Cardinal son 
oncle et feu monsieur mon pere. However, as my cousin 
Fleury is not above six-and-twenty, I had much rather be 
excused from such a commission as showing the tombs and 
the lions, and the King and Queen, and my Lord Bute, and 
the waxwork 7 , to a boy. All this breaks in upon my plan 
of withdrawing by little and little from the world, for I hate 
to tire it with an old lean face, and which promises to be an 
old lean face for thirty years longer, for I am as well again 
as ever. The Due de Nivernois called here the other day in 
his way from Hampton Court ; but, as the most sensible 
French never have eyes to see anything, unless they see it 
every day and see it in fashion, I cannot say he flattered me 
much, or was much struck with Strawberry. When I carried 
him into the cabinet, which I have told you is formed upon 
the idea of a Catholic chapel, he pulled off his hat, but per- 

* It was that Madame Simonetti. 6 Mademoiselle Sanjon, Marquise 

Walpole. de Boofflers, mistress of the Prince 

8 He was afterwards Envoy to de Conti, whom she hoped to marry. 

Sweden, where he died in 1781-2. Walpole. 

H e married a Dutchwoman. Walpole. 7 Rackstrow's waxworks ; see p. 31 7. 

1763] To Sir Horace Mann 315 

ceiving his error, he said, ' Ce n'est pas une chapelle pour- 
tant,' and seemed a little displeased. 

My poor niece does not forget her Lord, though by this 
time I suppose the world has. She has taken a house here, 
at Twickenham, to be near me. Madame de Boufflers has 
heard so much of her beauty, that she told me she should 
be glad to peep through a grate anywhere to get a glimpse 
of her, but at present it would not answer. I never saw 
so great an alteration in so short a period ; but she is too 
young not to recover her beauty, only dimmed by grief that 
must be temporary. Adieu ! my dear Sir. I wish to hear 
that you are content with your brother James : I think you 
will be. 

Monday, May 2nd, Arlington Street. 

The plot thickens : Mr. Wilkes is sent to the Tower for 
the last North Briton 8 ; a paper whose fame must have 
reached you. It said Lord Bute had made the King utter 
a gross falsehood in his last speech. This hero is as bad 
a fellow as ever hero was, abominable in private life, dull in 
Parliament, but, they say, very entertaining in a room, and 
certainly no bad writer, besides having had the honour of 
contributing a great deal to Lord Bute's fall. "Wilkes fought 
Lord Talbot in the autumn, whom he had abused ; and lately 
at Calais, when the Prince de Croy, the Governor, asked 
him how far the liberty of the press extended in England, 
replied, ' I cannot tell, but I am trying to know.' I don't 
believe this will be the only paragraph I shall send you on 
this affair. 

8 No. 45. ' This famous paper gave peace for the King of Prussia.' 

a fiat lie to the King himself, for (Memoirs of George III, cd. 1894, 

having, by the Favourite's sugges- vol. i. p. 217.) 
tion, assumed the honour of obtaining 

316 To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway [i7G3 

Strawberry Hill, May 1, 1763. 

I FEEL happy at hearing your happiness ; but, my dear 
Harry, your vision is much indebted to your long absence, 

Makes bleak rocks and barren mountains smile. 

I mean no offence to Park Place, but the bitterness of the 
weather makes me wonder how you can find the country 
tolerable now. This is a May-day for the latitude of Siberia 1 
The milkmaids should be wrapped in the motherly comforts 
of a swan-skin petticoat. In short, such hard words have 
passed between me and the north wind to-day, that, accord- 
ing to the language of the times, I was very near abusing it 
for coming from Scotland, and to imputing it to Lord Bute. 
I don't know whether I should not have written a North 
Briton against it, if the printers were not all sent to Newgate, 
and Mr. Wilkes to the Tower ay, to the Tower, tout de bon. 
The new ministry are trying to make up for their ridiculous 
insignificance by a coup d'eclat. As I came hither yesterday, 
I do not know whether the particulars I have heard are 
genuine but in the Tower he certainly is, taken up by 
Lord Halifax's warrant for treason ; vide the North Briton of 
Saturday was se'nnight. It is said he refused to obey the 
warrant, of which he asked and got a copy from the two 
messengers, telling them he did not mean to make his 
escape, but sending to demand his Habeas Corpus, which 
was refused. He then went to Lord Halifax, and thence to 
the Tower ; declaring they should get nothing out of him 
but what they knew. All his papers have been seized. 
Lord Chief Justice Pratt, I am told, finds great fault with 
the wording of the warrant. 

I don't know how to execute your commission for books 

1763] To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway 317 

of architecture, nor care to put you to expense, which I know 
will not answer. I have been consulting my neighbour, 
young Mr. Thomas Pitt *, my present architect : we have all 
books of that sort here, but cannot think of one which will 
help you to a cottage or a greenhouse. For the former you 
should send me your idea, your dimensions ; for the latter, 
don't you rebuild your old one, though in another place? 
A pretty greenhouse I never saw ; nor without immoderate 
expense can it well be an agreeable object. Mr. Pitt thinks 
a mere portico without a pediment, and windows removable 
in summer, would be the best plan you could have. If so, 
don't you remember something of that kind, which you 
liked, at Sir Charles dottrel's at Kousham? But a fine 
greenhouse must be on a more exalted plan. In short, you 
must be more particular, before I can be at all so. 

I called at Hammersmith yesterday about Lady Ailesbury's 
tubs ; one of them is nearly finished, but they will not both 
be completed these ten days. Shall they be sent to you by 
water? Good-night to her Ladyship and you, and the 
infanta *, whose progress in waxen statuary I hope advances 
so fast, that by next winter she may rival Kackstrow's old 
man. Do you know that, though apprised of what I was 
going to see, it deceived me, and made such impression on 
my mind, that, thinking on it as I came home in my chariot, 
and seeing a woman steadfastly at work in a window in 
Pall Mall, it made me start to see her move ? Adieu ! 

Yours ever, 


Arlington Street, Monday night. 

The mighty commitment set out with a blunder ; the 
warrant directed the printer, and all concerned (unnamed) 

LBTTKR877. l Afterwards created * Anne Conway, afterwards Mrs. 
Lord Camelford. Walpole. Darner. 

318 To Sir David Dalrymple [i763 

to be taken up. Consequently Wilkes had his Habeas 
Corpus of course, and was committed again ; moved for 
another in the Common Pleas, and is to appear there to- 
morrow morning. Lord Temple being, by another strain 
of power, refused admittance to him, said, 'I thought this 
was the Tower, but find it is the Bastille.' They found 
among Wilkes's papers an unpublished North Briton, designed 
for last Saturday. It contained advice to the King not to 
go to St. Paul's on the Thanksgiving, but to have a snug one 
in his own chapel ; and to let Lord George Sackville carry 
the sword. There was a dialogue in it too between Fox and 
Calcraft 3 : the former says to the latter, 'I did not think 
you would have served me so, Jemmy Twitcher.' 


SIR, Strawberry Hill, May 2, 1763. 

I forbore to answer your letter for a few days, till I knew 
whether it was in my power to give you satisfaction. Upon 
inquiry, and having conversed with some who could inform 
me, I find it would be very difficult to obtain so peremptory 
an order for dismissing fictitious invalids (as I think they 
may properly be called), as you seem to think the state of 
the case requires ; by any interposition of mine, quite im- 
possible. Very difficult I am told it would be to get them 
dismissed from our hospitals when once admitted, and 
subject to a clamour which, in the present unsettled state of 
government, nobody would care to risk. Indeed, I believe 
it could not be done by any single authority. The power of 
admission, and consequently of dismission, does not depend 

3 Calcraft had treated Fox with creature, his cousin, raised from ex- 
great ingratitude. ' In the discus- treme indigence and obscurity to 
sion and during the defending and enormous wealth . . . took part with 
proving what he [Fox] had or had Lord Shelburne, and witnessed to the 
not said relative to the cession of the latter's tale.' (Memoirs of George III, 
Paymaster's place, Calcraft, his own ed. 1694, yol. i. pp. 207-8.) 

1763] To Sir David Dalrymple 319 

on the minister, but on the Board who direct the affairs of 
the Hospital, at which Board preside the Paymaster, 
Secretary at War, Governor, &c. ; if I am not quite exact, 
I know it is so in general. I am advised to tell you, Sir, 
that if upon examination it should be thought right to take 
the step you counsel, still it could not be done without 
previous and deliberate discussion. As I should grudge no 
trouble, and am very desirous of executing any commission, 
Sir, you will honour me with, if you will draw up a memorial 
in form, stating the abuses which have come to your know- 
ledge, the advantages which would result to the community 
by more rigorous examination of candidates for admission, 
and the uses to which the overflowings of the military might 
be put, I will engage to put it into the hands of Mr. Grenville, 
the present head of the Treasury, and to employ all the little 
credit he is so good to let me have with him, in backing 
your request. I can answer for one thing and no more, that 
as long as he sits at that Board, which probably will not be 
long, he will give all due attention to any scheme of national 

It is seldom, Sir, that political revolutions bring any man 
upon the stage, with whom I have much connection. The 
great actors are not the class whom I much cultivate ; con- 
sequently I am neither elated with hopes on their advance- 
ment, nor mortified nor rejoiced at their fall. As the scene 
has shifted often of late, and is far from promising duration 
at present, one must, if one lives in the great world, have 
now and then an acquaintance concerned in the drama. 
Whenever I happen to have one, I hope I am ready and 
glad to make use of such (however substantial) interest to 
do good or to oblige ; and this being the case at present, 
and truly I cannot call Mr. Grenville much more than an 
acquaintance, I shall be happy, Sir, if I can contribute to 
your views, which I have reason to believe are those of a 

320 To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway [i7S3 

benevolent man and good citizen ; but I advertise you truly, 
that my interest depends more on Mr. Grenville's goodness 
and civility, than on any great connection between us, and 
still less on any political connection. I think he would like 
to do public good, I know I should like to contribute to it 
but if it is to be done by this channel, I apprehend there is 
not much time to be lost you see, Sir, what I think of the 
permanence of the present system ! Your ideas, Sir, on the 
hard fate of our brave soldiers concur with mine ; I lamented 
their sufferings, and have tried in vain to suggest some little 
plans for their relief. I only mention this, to prove to you 
that I am not indifferent to the subject, nor undertake your 
commission from mere complaisance. You understand the 
matter better than I do, but you cannot engage in it with 
more zeal. Methodize, if you please, your plan, and com- 
municate it to me, and it shall not be lost for want of 
solicitation. We swarm with highwaymen, who have been 
heroes. We owe our safety to them, consequently we owe 
a return of preservation to them, if we can find out methods 
of employing them honestly. Extend your views, Sir, for 
them, and let me be solicitor to the cause. 


Arlington Street, May 6, very late, 1763. 

THE complexion of the times is a little altered since the 
beginning of this last winter. Prerogative, that gave itself 
such airs in November, and would speak to nothing but 
a Tory, has had a rap this morning that will do it some 
good, unless it is weak enough to do itself more harm. 
The judges of the Common Pleas have unanimously dis- 
missed Wilkes from his imprisonment, as a breach of 
privilege ; his offence not being a breach of the peace, only 
tending to it. The people are in transports; and it will 

1763] To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway 321 

require all the vanity and confidence of those able ministers, 

Lord Sandwich and Mr. C , to keep up the spirits of the 


I must change this tone, to tell you of the most dismal 
calamity that ever happened. Lady Molesworth's 1 house, 
in Upper Brook Street, was burned to the ground between 
four and five this morning. She herself, two of her 
daughters, her brother*, and six servants, perished. Two 
other of the young ladies jumped out of the two pair of 
stairs and garret windows : one broke her thigh, the other 
(the eldest of all) broke hers too, and has had it cut off. 
The fifth daughter is much burnt. The French governess 
leaped from the garret, and was dashed to pieces. Dr. Moles- 
worth and his wife, who were there on a visit, escaped ; 
the wife by jumping from the two pair of stairs, and saving 
herself by a rail ; he by hanging by his hands till a second 
ladder was brought, after a first had proved too short. 
Nobody knows how or where the fire began ; the cata- 
strophe is shocking beyond what one ever heard : and poor 
Lady Molesworth, whose character and conduct were the 
most amiable in the world, is universally lamented. Your 
good hearts will feel this in the most lively manner. 

I go early to Strawberry to-morrow, giving up the new opera, 
Madame de Boumers, and Mr. Wilkes, and all the present 
topics. Wilkes, whose case has taken its place by the side of 
the seven Bishops, calls himself the eighth not quite im- 
properly, when one remembers that Sir Jonathan Trelawney 8 , 
who swore like a trooper, was one of those confessors. 

There is a good letter in the Gazetteer on the other side, 
pretending to be written by Lord Temple, and advising 

LKTTKK 879. 1 Mary, daughter of * Sir Jonathan Trelawney, third 
Archdeacon Usher ; m. (1743), as his Baronet (d. 1721), Bishop succes- 
second wife, Richard Molesworth, sively of Bristol, Exeter, and Win- 
third Viscount Molesworth. Chester. 

Captain Usher. 


322 To Sir Horace Mann [i?63 

Wilkes to cut his throat, like Lord E 4 , as it would be 

of infinite service to their cause. There are published, too, 
three volumes of Lady Mary Wortley's Letters, which I be- 
lieve are genuine, and are not unentertaining. But have 
you read Tom Hervey's letter to the late King? That 
beats everything for madness, horrid indecency, and folly, 
and yet has some charming and striking passages. 

I have advised Mrs. Harris to inform against Jack, as 
writing in the North Briton ; he will then be shut up in the 
Tower, and may be shown for old Nero 8 . Adieu ! 

Yours ever, 



Arlington Street, May 10, 17G3. 

You will be impatient to hear the event of last Friday. 
Mr. Wilkes was delivered by the Court of Common Pleas, 
unanimously : not, said they, on a defect of affidavit in the 
warrant ; not on defect of specification of libellous matter 
in the warrant (two objections that had been made by his 
counsel to the legality of the commitment) ; but on a breach 
of privilege, the libel in question not being a breach of the 
peace, but only tending to it. 

The triumph of the opposition, you may be sure, is great. 
Though he is still liable to be prosecuted in the Bong's 
Bench, a step gained against the court gives confidence and 
encouragement. It has given so much to Mr. Wilkes and 
the warmest of his friends, that I think their indiscretion 
and indecency will revolt the gravest of their well-wishers. 
He keeps no bounds ; wrote immediately to the Secretaries 
of State that his house had been robbed, and that he sup- 

4 Probably Arthur Capel (1631- prisoner. 

1683), Earl of Essex, who is supposed 5 An old lion there, so called, 

to have committed suicide in the Walpole. 
Tower of London, where he was a 

1763] To Sir Horace Mann 323 

posed they had his goods nay, he went to a justice of 
peace to demand a warrant for searching their houses, 
which, you may imagine, he did not obtain. The King 
ordered Lord Temple, Lord-Lieutenant of Buckinghamshire, 
to remove him from the militia of that county. The Earl 
acquainted him with that dismission, in terms of condo- 
lence ; for which his Lordship has since been displaced 
himself. In short, the scene grows every day more serious 
violence on one side, and incapacity on the other. 

I quit politics, to tell you the most melancholy cata- 
strophe that one almost ever heard or read of. The house 
of Lady Molesworth, in Upper Brook Street, was suddenly 
burnt to the ground last Friday, between four and five in 
the morning. Herself, two of her daughters, her brother, 
and three servants perished, with all the circumstances of 
horror imaginable ! The house, which was small, hap- 
pened to be crowded, by the arrival of her brother, Captain 
Usher, from Jamaica, who lay there but that night for the 
first time, and by a visit from Dr. Molesworth (her brother- 
in-law) and his wife. The doctor waked, hearing what he 
thought haiL He rose, opened the window and saw no- 
thing. The noise increased, he opened the door, and found 
the whole staircase in flames and smoke. Seeing no retreat, 
he would have persuaded his wife to rush with him into 
the smoke, and perish at once, as the quickest death. She 
had not resolution enough. He then flung out a mattress 
for her to jump on (it was two pair of stairs backwards) : 
while he was doing this he saw from the garret above one 
of the young ladies leap into the back court. Mrs. Moles- 
worth then jumped out of the window, and was scarce 
hurt ; he clambered out too, and hung by a hook : a man 
from the back of another house saw him, and called to him 
that he would bring a ladder ; he did, but it was too short. 
However, he begged the doctor, if possible, to hang there 

Y 2 

324 To Sir Horace Mann [1763 

still, which, though his strength, for he is a very old man, 
almost failed him, he did and was saved ; but he is since 
grown so disordered with the terror and calamity, that they 
doubt if he will live. Lady Molesworth, who lay two pair 
of stairs forwards, and who, to make room, had taken her 
eldest daughter, of seventeen, to lie with her, was seen by 
persons in the street at the window : the daughter jumped 
into the street, fell on the iron spikes, and from thence into 
the area. Lady Molesworth was at the other window in 
her shift, and lifted up her hands, either to open the sash, 
or in agonies for her daughter, but suddenly disappeared. 
Some think that the floor at that instant fell with her; 
I rather conclude that she swooned when her daughter 
leaped, and never recovered. 

The young lady has had her leg cut off, and has not been 
in her senses since. The youngest daughter, about nine or 
ten, had the quickness to get out at window on the top of 
the house, but from spikes and chimneys could get no 
farther. She went back to her room where her governess 
was, who jumped first, and was dashed to pieces. The 
child then jumped, and was little hurt, though burnt, and 
almost stifled by the bed-clothes which Dr. Molesworth 
flung out, for this was her that he saw. They told her her 
governess was safe ; she replied, ' Don't pretend to make 
me believe that, for I saw her dead on the pavement, and 
her brains scattered about.' 

Another of the sisters jumped too, and escaped with a 
fractured thigh. A footman, who lay below, and could 
have saved himself easily, ran up to try to save some of 
the family, but being involved in flames and much burnt, 
was forced to try the window, fell on the spikes like Miss 
Molesworth, but they think will live. Lord Molesworth *, 

LETTER 880. * Richard Nassau Molesworth (1748-1793), fourth Viscount 

1763] To Sir Horace Mann 325 

the only son, a boy at Westminster, was at home that day, 
and was to have lain there, but not having done his task, 
was obliged to go back to school, and was thus fortunately 
preserved. * 

The general compassion on this dreadful tragedy is much 
heightened by the very amiable character of Lady Moles- 
worth. She had been a very great beauty, and was still 
a most pleasing woman, not above forty. Lord Moles- 
worth 2 , then very aged, married her, and had several 
children by her ; her character and virtue beyond all sus- 
picion, untainted and irreproachable. Her care of her 
children was most meritorious, and her general behaviour 
to the greatest degree engaging. Dr. Molesworth had been 
much her enemy, yet, while her husband lived, she had 
persuaded him to give the doctor an annuity, and since his 
death has treated him with the utmost friendship. 

It is not yet known how this terrible accident happened. 
Many suspect two blacks belonging to Captain Usher, but 
I believe merely from not knowing how to account for it, 
nor where it began. 

We have just got three volumes of Lady Mary Wortley's 
Letters ; of which she had given copies at Venice. They 
are entertaining, though perhaps the least of all her works, 
for these were written during her first travels, and have no 
personal history. All relating to that is in the hands of 
Lady Bute, and I suppose will never see the light. These 
letters, though pretty well guarded,* have certain marks of 
originality not bating freedoms, both of opinion, and with 
regard to truth, for which you know she had little par- 
tiality. Adieu ! 

P.S. Apropos to letters, I have never received mine, 
which you told me you had sent so long ago. 

2 Eichard Molesworth (d. 1758), third Viscount Molesworth. 

326 To George Montagu [1753 


DEAR SlR, Strawberry Hill, May 16, 1763. 

I promised you should hear from me if I did not go 
abroad, and I flatter myself that you will not be sorry to 
know that I am much better in health than I was at the 
beginning of the winter. My journey is quite laid aside, 
at least for this year ; though, as Lord Hertford goes Em- 
bassador to Paris, I propose to make him a visit there early 
next spring. 

As I shall be a good deal here this summer, I hope you 
did not take a surfeit of Strawberry Hill, but will bestow 
a visit on it while its beauty lasts ; the gallery advances 
fast now, and I think in a few weeks will make a figure 
worth your looking at. 

I am, dear Sir, 
Your obedient humble servant, 



Strawberry Hill, May 17, 1763. 

' ON vient de nous donner une tres jolie fete au chateau de 
Straberri : tout etoit tapiss6 de narcisses, de tulipes, et de 
lilacs ; des cors de chasse, des clarionettes, des petits vers 
galants faits par des fees, et qui se trouvoient sous la presse, 
des fruits a la glace, du th6, du cafe, des biscuits, et force 
hot-rolls.' This is not the beginning of a letter to you, but 
of one that I might suppose sets out to-night for Paris, or 
rather, which I do not suppose will set out thither, for though 
the narrative is circumstantially true, I don't believe the 
actors were pleased enough with the scene, to give so 
favourable an account of it. The French do not come 
hither to see. A I'angloise happened to be the word in 
fashion ; and half a dozen of the most fashionable people 

1763] To George Montagu 327 

have been the dupes of it. I take for granted that their 
next mode will be a I'iroquoise, that they may be under 
no obligation of realizing their pretensions. Madame de 
Boufflers I think will die a martyr to a taste, which she 
fancied she had, and finds she has not. Never having 
stirred ten miles from Paris, and having only rolled in an 
easy coach from one hotel to another on a gliding pave- 
ment, she is already worn out with being hurried from 
morning till night from one sight to another. She rises 
every morning so fatigued with the toils of the preceding 
day, that she has not strength, if she had inclination, to 
observe the least, or the finest thing she sees ! She came 
hither to-day to a great breakfast I made for her, with her 
eyes a foot deep in her head, her hands dangling, and 
scarce able to support her knotting-bag. She had been 
yesterday to see a ship launched, and went from Greenwich 
by water to Kanelagh. Madame Dusson, who is Dutch- 
built, and whose muscles are more pleasure-proof, came 
with her ; there were besides, Lady Mary Coke, Lord and 
Lady Holderness, the Duke and Duchess of Grafton, Lord 
Hertford, Lord Villiers, Offley, Messieurs de Fleury, Deon *, 
et Duclos 2 . The latter is author of the Life of Louis 
Onze ; dresses like a dissenting minister, which I suppose 
is the livery of a bel esprit, and is much more impetuous 
than agreeable. We breakfasted in the great parlour, and 
I had filled the hall and large cloister by turns with French 
horns and clarionets. As the French ladies had never 
seen a printing-house, I carried them into mine ; they found 
something ready set, and desiring to see what it was, it 
proved as follows : 

LETTER 882. 1 Charles Genevieve sequently masqueraded for many 

de Beaumont d'Eon (1728-1810), at years in woman's dress, both in Eng- 

tbis time secretary to the Due de land and France. 

Nivernais, on whose return to France 2 Charles Pinot Duclos (1704- 

hu was for a short period Minister 1774). 
Plenipotentiary in London. He sub- 

328 To George Montagu [1763 

The Press speaks 


The graceful fair, who loves to know, 
Nor dreads the north's inclement snow ; 
Who bids her polish'd accent wear 
The British diction's harsher air ; 
Shall read her praise in every clime 
Where types can speak or poets rhyme. 


Feign not an ignorance of what I speak ; 

You could not miss my meaning, were it Greek. 

'Tis the same language Belgium utter'd first, 

The same which from admiring Gallia burst. 

True sentiment a like expression pours ; 

Each country says the same to eyes like yours. 

You will comprehend that the first speaks English, and 
that the second does not ; that the second is handsome, 
and the first not ; and that the second was born in Holland. 
This little gentillesse pleased, and atoned for the popery 
of my house, which was not serious enough for Madame 
de Boufflers, who is Montmorency, et du sang du premier 
Chretien ; and too serious for Madame Dusson, who is a 
Dutch Calvinist. The latter's husband was not here, nor 
Drumgold 8 , who have both got fevers, nor the Due de 
Nivernois, who dined at Claremont. The gallery is not 
advanced enough to give them any idea at all, as they 
are not apt to go out of their way for one ; but the cabinet, 
and the glory of yellow glass at top, which had a charming 
sun for a foil, did surmount their indifference, especially 

3 Properly written Dromgoole. Johnaon visited Paris in 1775 he was 

The Colonel belonged to an Irish entertained by Dromgoole, who was 

family of Danish extraction. He was then at the head of the IScole MiLU 

at this time acting as secretary to taire. 
the Due de Nivernais. When Dr. 

1763] To George Montagu 329 

as they were animated by the Duchess of Grafton, who 
had never happened to be here before, and who perfectly 
entered into the air of enchantment and fairyism, which 
is the tone of the place, and was peculiarly so to-day 
apropos, when do you design to come hither? Let me 
know, that I may have no measures to interfere with 
receiving you and your Grandisons 4 . 

Before Lord Bute ran away, he made Mr. Bentley a 
Commissioner of the Lottery ; I don't know whether a single 
or double one : the latter, which I hope it is, is two hundred 
a year. 

Thursday, 19th. 

I am ashamed of myself to have nothing but a journal 
of pleasures to send you ! I never passed a more agreeable 
day than yesterday. Miss Pelham gave the French an 
entertainment at Esher, but they have been so feasted 
and amused, that none of them were well enough, or 
reposed enough, to come, but Nivernois and Madame 
Dusson. The rest of the company were, the Graftons, 
Lady Kockingham 5 , Lord and Lady Pembroke, Lord and 
Lady Holderness, Lord Villiers, Count Woronzow the Eussian 
minister, Lady Sondes, Mr. and Mrs. Pelham, Miss Mary 
Pelham, Lady Mary Coke, Mrs. Pitt, Mrs. Anne Pitt, and 
Mr. Shelley. The day was delightful, the scene trans- 
porting, the trees, lawns, concaves, all in the perfection 
in which the ghost of Kent would joy to see them. At 
twelve we made the tour of the farm in eight chaises and 
calashes, horsemen, and footmen, setting out like a picture 
of Wouverman. My lot fell in the lap of Mrs. Anne Pitt, 
which I could have excused, as she was not at all in the 
style of the day, romantic, but political. We had a mag- 

* Montagu's brother, General heiress of Thomas Bright, of Bads- 
Charles Montagu, had recently mar- worth, Yorkshire ; m. (1752) Charles 
ried Countess Grandison. Watson- Wentworth, second Marquis 

6 Mary (d. 1804), daughter and of Kockingham. 

330 To George Montagu [1753 

nificent dinner, cloaked in the modesty of earthenware : 
French horns and hautboys on the lawn. We walked to 
the belvedere on the summit of the hill, where a threatened 
storm only served to heighten the beauty of the landscape, 
a rainbow on a dark cloud falling precisely behind the 
tower of a neighbouring church, between another tower 
and the building at Claremont. Monsieur de Nivernois, 
who had been absorbed all day, and lagging behind, trans- 
lating my verses, was delivered of his version, and of some 
more lines which he wrote on Miss Pelham in the belvedere, 
while we drank tea and coffee. From thence we passed 
into the wood, and the ladies formed a circle on chairs 
before the mouth of the cave, which was overhung to 
a vast height with woodbines, lilacs, and laburnums, and 
dignified by those tall shapely cypresses. On the descent 
of the hill were placed the French horns ; the abigails, 
servants, and neighbours wandering below by the river 
in short, it was Parnassus, as Watteau would have painted 
it Here we had a rural syllabub, and part of the company 
returned to town ; but were replaced by Giardini ' and 
Onofrio, who with Nivernois on the violin, and Lord 
Pembroke on the bass, accompanied Miss Pelham, Lady 
Rockingham, and the Duchess of Grafton, who sang. This 
little concert lasted till past ten ; then there were minuets, 
and as we had seven couple left, it concluded with a country 
dance I blush again, for I danced, but was kept in counte- 
nance by Nivernois, who has one wrinkle more than I have. 
A quarter after twelve they sat down to supper, and I came 
home by a charming moonlight. I am going to dine in 
town, and to a great ball with fireworks at Miss Chudleigh's 
but I return hither on Sunday, to bid adieu to this 
abominable Arcadian life, for really when one is not young, 

6 Felice de' Giardini (171&-1796),a celebrated violinist. 

1763] To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway 331 

one ought to do nothing but s'ennuyer I will try, but 
I always go about it awkwardly. Adieu ! 

Yours ever, 

H. W. 

P.S. I enclose a copy of both the English and French 

Boufflers, qu'embellissent les graces, 
Et qui plairoit sans le vouloir, 
Elle a qui I'amour du scavoir 
Fit braver le Nord et les glaces ; 
Boufflers se plait en nos vergers, 
Et veut a nos sons etrangers 
Flier so, voix enchanteresse. 
Repetons son nom mule fois, 
Sur tous les cceurs Boufflers aura des droits, 
Partout ou la rime et la Presse 
A Vamour preteront leur voix. 


Ne feignez point, Iris, de ne pas nous entendre ; 
Ce que vous inspires, en grec doit se comprendre. 

On vous Ta dit d'abord en hoUandois, 

Et dans un langage plus tendre 

Paris vous Va repete mitte fois. 

C'est de nos cceurs I'expression sincere; 
En tout climat, Iris, a toute heure, en tous licux. 

Partout ou britteront vos yeux, 
Vous apprendrez combien ils scavent plaire. 


Arlington Street, May 21, 1768. 

You have now seen the celebrated Madame de Boufflers *. 
I dare say you could in that short time perceive that she 

7 The French translation ia not at LETTER 683. * The Comtesse de 
present amongst the Kimbolton MSS. Boufflers, who since the lie volution 

332 To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway [i763 

is agreeable, but I dare say too that you will agree with 
me that vivacity is by no means the partage of the French 
bating the etourderie of the mousquetaires and of a high-dried 
petit maltre or two, they appear to me more lifeless than 
Germans. I cannot comprehend how they came by the 
character of a lively people. Charles Townshend has more 
sal volatile in him than the whole nation. Their King is 
taciturnity itself, Mirepoix was a walking mummy, Nivernois 
has about as much life as a sick favourite child, and 
M. Dusson is a good-humoured country gentleman, who 
has been drunk the day before, and is upon his good 
behaviour. If I have the gout next year, and am thoroughly 
humbled by it again, I will go to Paris, that I may be upon 
a level with them : at present, I am trop fou to keep them 
company. Mind, I do not insist that, to have spirits, 
a nation should be as frantic as poor Fanny Pelham, as 
absurd as the Duchess of Queensbury, or as dashing as the 
Virgin Chudleigh. Oh that you had been at her ball 
t'other night ! History could never describe it and keep 
its countenance. The Queen's real birthday, you know, 
is not kept : this Maid of Honour kept it nay, while the 
court is in mourning, expected people to be out of mourning ; 
the Queen's family really was so, Lady Northumberland 
having desired leave for them. A scaffold was erected in 
Hyde Park for fireworks. To show the illuminations with- 
out to more advantage, the company were received in an 
apartment totally dark, where they remained for two hours. 
If they gave rise to any more birthdays, who could help 
it? The fireworks were fine, and succeeded well. On 
each side of the court were two large scaffolds for the 
Virgin's tradespeople. When the fireworks ceased, a large 
scene was lighted in the court, representing their Majesties ; 

in France of the year 1789, resided with her daughter-in-law the Com- 
in England for two or three years tesse fimilie de Boufflers. Walpole. 

176s] To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway 333 

on each side of which were six obelisks, painted with 
emblems, and illuminated ; mottoes beneath in Latin and 
English : 1. For the Prince of Wales, a ship, Multorum spes. 
2. For the Princess Dowager, a bird of paradise, and two 
little ones, Meos ad sidera toUo. People smiled. 3. Duke 
of York, a temple, Virtuti et lionori. 4. Princess Augusta, 
a bird of paradise, Non hdbet parem unluckily this was 
translated, I have no peer. People laughed out, considering 
where this was exhibited. 5. The three younger Princes, 
an orange-tree, Promittit et dat. 6. The two younger 
Princesses, the flower crown-imperial. I forget the Latin : 
the translation was silly enough, Bashful in youth, graceful 
in age. The lady of the house made many apologies for 
the poorness of the performance, which she said was only 
oil-paper, painted by one of her servants ; but it really 
was fine and pretty. The Duke of Kingston was in a frock, 
comme chez lui. Behind the house was a cenotaph for the 
Princess Elizabeth, a kind of illuminated cradle ; the motto, 
All the honours the dead can receive. This burying-ground 
was a strange codicil to a festival ; and, what was more 
strange, about one in the morning, this sarcophagus burst 
out into crackers and guns. The Margrave of Anspach 8 
began the ball with the Virgin. The supper was most 

You ask, when I propose to be at Park Place. I ask, 
shall not you come to the Duke of Kichmond's masquerade, 
which is the 6th of June ? I cannot well be with you till 
towards the end of that month. 

The enclosed is a letter which I wish you to read 
attentively, to give me your opinion upon it, and return 
it. It is from a sensible friend of mine in Scotland s , who 

2 Christian Charles, Margrave of 3 Sir David Dalrymple. See Horace 
Anspach. He sold his territories to Walpole's letter to him of May 2, 
Prussia in 1791, and died in 1806. 1763. 

334 To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway [i?63 

has lately corresponded with me on the enclosed subjects, 
which I little understand ; but I promised to communicate 
his ideas to George Grenville, if he would state them 
are they practicable ? I wish much that something could 
be done for those brave soldiers and sailors, who will all 
come to the gallows, unless some timely provision can be 
made for them. The former part of his letter relates to 
a grievance he complains of, that men who have not served 
are admitted into garrisons, and then into our hospitals, 
which were designed for meritorious sufferers. Adieu ! 

Yours ever, 



Arlington Street, Saturday evening [May 28, 1763]. 

No, indeed I cannot consent to your being a dirty Phi- 
lander *. Pink and white, and white and pink ! and both 
as greasy as if you had gnawed a leg of a fowl on the stairs 
of the Haymarket with a bunter from the Cardigan's Head ! 
For Heaven's sake don't produce a tight rose-coloured 
thigh, unless you intend to prevent my Lord Bute's return 
from Harrowgate. Write, the moment you receive this, 
to your tailor to get you a sober purple domino as I 
have done, and it will make you a couple of summer 

In the next place, have your ideas a little more correct 
about us of times past. We did not furnish our cottages 2 
with chairs of ten guineas apiece. Ebony for a farm-house ! 
So, two hundred years hence some man of taste will build 
a hamlet in the style of George the Third, and beg his 

LETTER 884. * At the masquerade Privy Garden. Walpole. 
given by the Duke of Richmond on 2 General Conway was fitting np 

the 6th of June, 1763, at his house in a little rustic building in his grounds. 

1763] To George Montagu 335 

cousin Tom Hearne to get him some chairs for it of mahogany 
gilt, and covered with blue damask. Adieu ! I have not 
a minute's time more. 

Yours, &c., 



Huntingdon, May 30, 1763. 

As you interest yourself about Kimbolton, I begin my 
journal of two days here. But I must set out with owning 
that I believe I am the first man that ever went sixty miles 
to an auction. As I came for ebony, I have been up to 
my chin in ebony ; there is literally nothing but ebony 
in the house ; all the other goods, if there were any, and 
I trust my Lady Conyers l did not sleep upon ebony mat- 
tresses, are taken away. There are two tables and eighteen 
chairs, all made by the Hallet of two hundred years ago. 
These I intend to have; for mind, the auction does not 
begin till Thursday. There are more plebeian chairs of 
the same materials, but I have left commission for only 
the true black blood. Thence I went to Kimbolton and 
asked to see the house. A kind footman, who in his zeal 
to open the chaise pinched half my finger off, said he would 
call the housekeeper : but a groom of the chambers insisted 
on my visiting their Graces ; and as I vowed I did not 
know them, he said they were in the great apartment, 
that all the rest was in disorder and altering, and would 
let me see nothing. This was the reward of my first lie. 
I returned to my inn or alehouse, and instantly received 
a message from the Duke* to invite me to the Castle. 

LETTER 885. l The Conyers' were Manchester ; his wife was Elizabeth, 
of Great Stoughton, in Huntingdon- eldest daughter of Sir James Dash- 
shire, wood, second Baronet. 

2 George Montagu, fourth Duke of 

336 To George Montagu [i?63 

I was quite undressed, and dirty with my journey, and 
unacquainted with the Duchess yet was forced to go 
thank the god of dust, his Grace was dirtier than me. 
He was extremely civil, and detected me to the groom of 
the chambers asked me if I had dined. I said yes lie 
the second. He pressed me to take a bed there. I hate 
to be criticized at a formal supper by a circle of stranger- 
footmen, and protested I was to meet a gentleman at 
Huntingdon to-night. The Duchess and Lady Caroline* 
came in from walking; and to disguise my not having 
dined, for it was past six, I drank tea with them. The 
Duchess is much altered, and has a bad short cough. I pity 
Catherine of Arragon for living at Kimbolton : I never saw 
an uglier spot. The fronts are not so bad as I expected, 
by not being so French as I expected ; but have no pre- 
tensions to beauty, nor even to comely ancient ugliness. 
The great apartment is truly noble, and almost all the 
portraits good, of what I saw ; for many are not hung up, 
and half of those that are, my Lord Duke does not know. 
The Earl of Warwick 4 is delightful ; the Lady Mandeville*, 
attiring herself in her wedding garb, delicious. The Pro- 
metheus is a glorious picture, the eagle as fine as my 
statue. Is not it by Vandyck? The Duke told me that 
Mr. Spence found out it was by Titian but critics in 
poetry I see are none in painting. This was all I was 
shown, for I was not even carried into the chapel. The 
walls round the house are levelling, and I saw nothing 
without doors that tempted me to taste. So I made my 
bow, hurried to my inn, snapped up my dinner, lest I 
should again be detected, and came hither, where I am 
writing by a great fire, and give up my friend the east 

s Lady Caroline Montagu. 6 According to Cunningham, Anne 

4 According to Cunningham, Eo- Rich (d. 1641), Viscountess Mande- 

bert Rich (1587-1658), second Earl of ville. 

Warwick, by Mytens. 

1763] To George Montagu 837 

wind, which I have long been partial to for the south-east's 
sake, and in contradiction to the west, for blowing per- 
petually and bending all one's plantations. To-morrow 
I see Hinchinbrook and London. Memento, I promised 
the Duke that you should come and write on all his 
portraits. Do, as you honour the blood of Montagu ! Who 
is the man * in the picture with Sir Charles Goring, where 
a page is tying the latter's scarf? And who are the ladies 
in the double half-lengths ? 

Arlington Street, May 31. 

Well ! I saw Hinchinbrook this morning. Considering 
it is in Huntingdonshire, the situation is not so ugly nor 
melancholy as I expected ; but I do not conceive what 
provoked so many of your ancestors to pitch their tents in 
that triste country, unless the Capulets 7 loved fine prospects. 
The house of Hinchinbrook is most comfortable, and just 
what I like ; old, spacious, irregular, yet not vast or forlorn. 
I believe much has been done since you saw it it now only 
wants an apartment, for in no part of it are there above two 
chambers together. The furniture has much simplicity, not 
to say too much ; some portraits tolerable, none I think fine. 
When this lord gave Blackwood the head of the Admiral 8 
that I have now, he left himself not one so good. The head 
he kept is very bad : the whole-length is fine, except the face 
of it. There is another of the Duke of Cumberland by 
Reynolds, the colours of which are as much changed as the 
original is to the proprietor. The garden is wondrous small, 
the park almost smaller, and no appearance of territory. 
The whole has a quiet decency that seems adapted to the 
Admiral after his retirement, or to Cromwell before his 

8 According to Cunningham, 7 As opposing in everything the 

Monntjoy Blount (d. 1666), first Earl Montagus. Walpole. 

of Newport, with George Goring 8 Admiral Montagu, Earl of Sand- 

(d. 1663), first Earl of Norwich, and wich, by Sir P. Lely, now in the 

one of the latter's sons. gallery at Strawberry HilL Walpole. 


338 To Sir Horace Mann [i?63 

exaltation. I returned time enough for the Opera ; observing 
all the way I came the proof of the duration of this east wind, 
for on the west side the blossoms were so covered with dust 
one could not distinguish them ; on the eastern hand the 
hedges were white in all the pride of May. Good-night ! 

Wednesday, June 1. 

My letter is a perfect diary. There has been a sad alarm 
in the kingdom of white satin and muslin. The Duke of 
Richmond was seized last night with a sore throat and fever ; 
and though he is much better to-day, the masquerade 9 of 
to-morrow night is put off till Monday. Many a Queen of 
Scots, from sixty to sixteen, has been ready to die of the 
fright. Adieu once more ! I think I can have nothing more 
to say before the post goes out to-morrow. 

Yours ever, 



Strawberry Hill, June 5, 1763. 

I AM much concerned at the melancholy accounts you give 
me of both Lord and Lady Northampton l . They are young, 
handsome, and happy, and life was very valuable to them. 
She has been consumptive some time ; but he seemed healthy 
and strong. 

The misery in the family of Molesworth is not yet closed. 
The eldest young lady, who has had her leg cut off, does not 
yet know of the loss of her mother and sisters, but believes 
them much hurt, and not able even to write to her ; by 

9 The masked ball given by the Noel, Duke of Somerset. Walpole. 

Duke of llichmond at his house in The husband and wife died this year 

Privy Garden. Walpole. (1763) within a few months of each 

LETTER 886. 1 Charles Compton, other, the one at Lyons, the other at 

Earl of Northampton, married Lady Naples. 
Anne Somerset, eldest daughter of 

1763] To Sir Horace Mann 339 

degrees they intend to tell her that her mother grows worse 
and then dies. Till this week she did not know she had 
lost a limb herself, they keeping the mangled part in a frame. 
One of her sisters, she of eleven, who is still lame with her 
bruises, was lately brought to her. They had not prepared 
the child, thinking she knew nothing of what had happened 
to Miss Molesworth. The moment the girl came in, she 
said, ' Oh ! poor Harriet ! they tell me your leg is cut off ! ' 
Still this did not undeceive her. She replied, ' No, it is not.' 
The method they have since taken to acquaint her with it 
was very artful : they told her her leg must be taken off, 
and then softened the shock by letting her know the truth. 
She wept much, but soon comforted herself, saying, ' Thank 
God, it is not my arm, for now I can still amuse myself.' 
It would surprise one that at her age so many indications 
should not lead her to the full extent of her calamity ; but 
they keep her in a manner intoxicated with laudanum. She 
is in the widow Lady Grosvenor's 8 house, and the humanity, 
tenderness, and attention of Lord Grosvenor to her is not to 
be described. The youngest girl overheard the servants in 
the next room talking of her mother's death, and would not 
eat anything for two days. 

Lord Bath's extravagant avarice and unfeelingness on his 
son's death rather increases. Lord Pulteney left a kind of 
will, saying he had nothing to give, but made it his request 
to his father to give his postchaise and one hundred pounds 
to his cousin Colman 3 ; the same sum and his pictures to 
another cousin, and recommended the Lakes, his other 
cousins, to him. Lord Bath sent Colman and Lockman 
word they might get their hundred pounds as they could, 
and for the chaise and pictures they might buy them if they 

2 Jane, daughter and heiress of Bath's sister, author of several 
Thomas Warre, and widow of Sir dramatic works, and afterwards 
Robert Grosvenor, sixth Baronet. manager of the Little Theatre in the 

3 George Colman, son of Lady Haymarket, Walpole, 

Z 2 

340 To Sir Horace Mann [1763 

pleased, for they would be sold for his son's debts ; and he 
expressed great anger at the last article, saying that he did 
not know what business it was of his son to recommend 
heirs to him. 

I have told you of our French: we have got another 
curious one, La Condamine *, qui se donne pour philosophe. 
He walks about the streets, with his trumpet and a map, 
his spectacles on, and hat under his arm. He lodged in 
Suffolk Street ; his servants bawling to him disturbed the 
lodgers ; the landlady sent two men as bailiffs to turn him 
out. On this he has printed in the public newspapers 
a letter to the people of England, telling them that he has 
travelled in the most barbarous countries, and never met 
with such savages as we are pretty near truth ; and yet 
I would never have abused the Iroquois to their faces in 
one of their own gazettes. 

But, to give you some idea of his philosophy, he was on 
the scaffold to see Damien executed. His deafness was very 
inconvenient to his curiosity ; he pestered the confessor with 
questions to know what Damien said: 'Monsieur, il jure 
horriblement.' La Condamine replied, 'Ma foi, il n'a pas 
tort ' ; not approving it, but as sensible of what he suffered. 
Can one bear such want of feeling 5 ? Oh ! but as a philo- 
sopher he studied the nature of man in torments ; pray, for 
what ? One who can so far divest himself of humanity as to 
be, uncalled, a spectator of agony, is not likely to employ 
much of his time in alleviating it. We have lately had an 
instance that would set his philosophy to work. A young 
highwayman was offered his life after condemnation, if he 
would consent to have his leg cut off, that a new styptic 

4 Charles Marie de la Condamine to another, ' Est-il des ndtres ? ' 

(1701-1774), traveller, mathema- ' Non,' replied he, ' Monsieur n'est 

tician, and member of the French qu'amateur.' Yet, La Condamine 

Academy. was a very humane and good man. 

6 As La Condamine was on the Walpole. 
scaffold, one of the executioners said 

1763] To Sir Horace Mann 341 

might be tried. ' What ! ' replied he, ' and go limping to 
the devil at last? no, I'll be damned first' and was 
hanged ! 

Mr. Crawford has given me the second plan ; Inigo Jones's 
church at Leghorn, for which I thank you. I am happy 
that you are easy about your brother James : I had told you 
he would write ; have not you received that letter ? 

No public news. Parliamentary and political campaigns 
end when the military used to begin, and, thank God, we 
have now not them ! 

Did I, or did I not, tell you how much I am diverted with 
his Serenity of Modena's match with that old, battered, 
painted, debauched Simonetta ? An antiquated bagnio is an 
odd place for conscience to steal a wedding in ! Two-and- 
twenty years ago she was as much repaired as Lady Mary 
Wortley, or as her own new spouse. Why, if they were 
not past approaching them, their faces must run together 
like a palette of colours, and they would be disputing to 
which such an eyebrow or such a cheek belonged. The 
first time I saw her, at the fair of Keggio, in 1741, I was to 
dine with her ; and going at three o'clock, found her in a 
loose linen gown, with no other woman, playing at faro 
with eleven men in white waistcoats and nightcaps. Such 
a scene was very new to me at that age ! I did not expect 
that twenty years afterwards she would become mistress of 
the duchy, or be a ladder to help the Duke to heaven. 

June 7th. 

Last night we had a magnificent entertainment at Eich- 
mond House, a masquerade and fireworks. As we have 
consciences no wiser than his Modenese Highness's, a 
masquerade was a new sight to the young people, who had 
dressed themselves charmingly, without having the fear of 
an earthquake before their eyes, though Prince William and 

342 To George Montagu [1763 

Prince Henry 6 were not suffered to be there. The Duchesses 
of Kichmond 7 and Graf ton, the first as a Persian Sultana, the 
latter as Cleopatra, and such a Cleopatra ! were glorious 
figures, in very different styles. Mrs. Fitzroy 8 in a Turkish 
dress, Lady George Lenox 9 and Lady Bolingbroke in Grecian 
girls, Lady Mary Coke as Imoinda, and Lady Pembroke as 
a pilgrim, were the principal beauties of the night. The 
whole garden was illuminated, and the apartments. An 
encampment of barges decked with streamers in the middle 
of the Thames, kept the people from danger, and formed 
a stage for the fireworks, which were placed, too, along the 
rails of the garden. The ground rooms lighted, with suppers 
spread, the houses covered and filled with people, the bridge, 
the garden full of masks, Whitehall crowded with spectators 
to see the dresses pass, and the multitude of heads on the 
river who came to light by the splendour of the fire-wheels, 
composed the gayest and richest scene imaginable, not to 
mention the diamonds and sumptuousness of the habits. 
The Dukes of York and Cumberland, and the Margrave of 
Anspach, were there, and about six hundred masks. Adieu ! 


Strawberry Hill, June 16, 1763. 

I DO not like your putting off your visit hither for so long. 
Indeed, by September the gallery will probably have all its 
fine clothes on, and by what have been tried, I think it will 
look very well. The fashion of the garments to be sure will 
be ancient, but I have given them an air that is very 
becoming. Princess Amelia was here last night while I was 

6 Afterwards Dukes of Gloucester 9 Lady Louisa Kerr, eldest daughter 
and Cumberland. Walpole. of the Marquis of Lothian, and wife 

7 Lady Mary Bruce. Walpole. of Lord George Lenox, second son 

8 Eldest daughter of Sir Peter of Charles, second Duke of Kich- 
Warren. Walpole. mond. Walpole. 

1763] To George Montagu 343 

abroad, and if Margaret is not too much prejudiced by 
the guinea left, or by natural partiality to what servants 
call our house, I think was pleased, particularly with the 

As Mountain-George will not come to Mahomet-me, 
Mahomet-I must come to Greatworth. Mr. Chute and I 
think of visiting you about the seventeenth of July, if you 
shall be at home, and nothing happens to derange our 
scheme. Possibly we may call at Horton * ; we certainly 
shall proceed to Drayton, Burleigh, Fotheringay, Peter- 
borough, and Ely; and shall like much of your company, 
all, or part of the tour. The only present proviso I have to 
make is the health of my niece 2 , who is at present much out 
of order, we think not breeding, and who was taken so ill on 
Monday, that I was forced to carry her suddenly to town, 
where I yesterday left her better at her father's. 

There has been a report that the new Lord Holland was 
dead at Paris, but I believe it is not true. I was very 
indifferent about it: eight months ago it had been lucky. 
I saw his jackal t'other night in the meadows, the Secretary 
at War 3 , so emptily important and distilling paragraphs of 
old news with such solemnity, that I did not know whether 
it was a man or the Utrecht Gazette, Good-night. 

Yours ever, 


P.S. Since I wrote this I have received yours, and will 
take care of your pictures, as soon as they are notified 
to me. 

LETTER 887. * The seat of the 3 Welbore Ellis, afterwards Lord 
Earl of Halifax, near Northampton. Mendip. 
a Countess Waldegrave. 

344 To Sir Horace Mann [1763 


Arlington Street, June 80, 1763. 

MOKSIEUR DE LA CoNDAMiNE will certainly have his letter ; 
but, my dear Sir, it is as sure that I shall not deliver it 
myself. I have given it to my Lord Hertford for him, 
while I act being in the country. To tell you the truth, 
La Condamine is absurdity itself. He has had a quarrel 
with his landlady, whose lodgers being disturbed by La 
Condamine's servant being obliged to bawl to him, as he 
is deaf, wanted to get rid of him. He would not budge: 
she dressed two chairmen for bailiffs to force him out. The 
next day he published an address to the people of England, 
in the newspaper, informing them that they are the most 
savage nation in or out of Europe. I honour his zeal for 
inoculation, which* is combated by his countrymen. Even 
here, nonsense attacks it ; that is of course, for the practice 
is sense; but I wish humane men, or men of reflection, 
would be content to feel and to think, without advertising 
themselves by a particular denomination. But they will 
call themselves philosophers, and the instant they have 
created themselves a character, they think they must distin- 
guish themselves by it, and run into all kind of absurdities. 
I wish they would consider that the most desirable kind of 
understanding is the only kind that never aims at any parti- 
cularity ; I mean common sense. This is not Monsieur de la 
Condamine's kind ; and Count Lorenzi must excuse me if 
I avoid the acquaintance. I think I said something of him 
in a former letter. 

Lord Strathmore is arrived, and has brought the parcel. 
He has been twice at Palazzo Pitti 1 . I prefer the master of 
the latter. The Lord is too doucereux and Celadonian *. 

LETTER 888. l The house of Mr. 2 Too much of a swain, a Celadon. 
Thomas Pitt, at Twickenham. Wai- WaJpole. 

1763] To George Montagu 345 

You say I am patron of the French ; I fear they do not 
think so. Very, very few of them have struck me. Then 
the trouble of conversing in a language not one's own, and 
the difficulty of expressing one's ideas as one would, dis- 
heartens me. Madame de Boufflers has pleased me most, 
and conceives us the best ; though I doubt whether she will 
return so partial to us as she came. She told me one day, 
' Dans ce pays-ci c'est un effort perpetuel pour se divertir ' ; 
and she did not seem to think we succeed. However, next 
spring I must go to Paris, which at present, like the de- 
scription of the grave, is the way of all flesh. Foley, the 
banker at Paris, told Lord Strathmore that thirty thousand 
pounds have been remitted from hence every month since 
the Peace, for the English that flock thither. 

Your account of Lord Northampton is moving. He will, 
I fear, be little better for Tronchin 8 , who, I am assured, 
from very good judges at Paris, is little better than a 

I have nothing to tell you, and I am glad of it ; we have 
a long repose from politics; and it is comfortable when 
folks can be brought to think or talk of something else, 
which they seldom will in winter. My gallery occupies me 
entirely, but grows rather too magnificent for my humility ; 
however, having at no time created myself a philosopher, 
I am at liberty to please myself, without minding a contra- 
diction or two. Adieu ! 


Strawberry Hill, July 1, 1763. 

MR. CHUTE and I intend to be with you on the seventeenth 
or eighteenth, but as we are wandering swains, we do not 
drive our nail into one day of the almanac irremovably. 
8 Louis Tronchin (1709-1781), a celebrated Swiss physician. 

34:6 To George Montagu [ires 

Our first stage is to Blecheley 1 , the parsonage of venerable 
Cole, the antiquarian of Cambridge. Blecheley lies by 
Fenny Stratford ; now can you direct us how to make 
Horton in our way from Stratford to Greatworth ? If this 
meander engrosses more time than we propose, do not be 
disappointed, and think we shall not come, for we shall. 
The journey you must accept as a great sacrifice either to 
you or to my promise, for I quit the gallery almost in the 
critical minute of consummation. Gilders, carvers, up- 
holsters, and picture-cleaners are labouring at their several 
forges, and I do not love to trust a hammer or a brush 
without my own supervisal. This will make my stay very 
short, but it is a greater compliment than a month would 
be at another season ; and yet I am not profuse of months. 
Well ! but I begin to be ashamed of my magnificence ; 
Strawberry is growing sumptuous in its latter day ; it will 
scarce be any longer like the fruit of its name, or the 
modesty of its ancient demeanour, both which seem to have 
been in Spenser's prophetic eye, when he sung of 

the blushing strawberries 

Which lurk, close-shrouded from high-looking eyes, 
Showing that sweetness low and hidden lies. 

In truth, my collection was too great already to be lodged 
humbly ; it has extended my walls, and pomp followed. It 
was a neat little house, it now will be a comfortable one, 
and, except one fine apartment, does not deviate from its 
simplicity. Adieu ! I know nothing about the world, care 
nothing about the world, and am only Strawberry's and 

Yours sincerely, 


LETTER 889. 1 Bletchley. 

1763] To Sir David Dalrymple 347 


Strawberry Hill, July 1, 1763. 

PERHAPS, Sir, you have wondered that I have been so 
long silent about a scheme that called for dispatch. The 
truth is, I have had no success. Your whole plan has been 
communicated to Mr. Grenville by one 1 whose heart went 
with it, going always with what is humane. Mr. Grenville 
mentions two objections ; one, insuperable as to expedition ; 
the other, totally so. No crown or public lands could be 
so disposed of without an Act of Parliament. In that case 
the scheme should be digested during a war, to take place 
at the conclusion, and cannot be adjusted in time for 
receiving the disbanded. But what is worse, he hints, Sir, 
that your good heart has only considered the practicability 
with regard to Scotland, where there are no poor's rates. 
Here every parish would object to such settlers. This is 
the sum of his reply; I am not master enough of the 
subject or the nature of it, to answer either difficulty. If 
you can, Sir, I am ready to continue the intermediate 
negotiator; but you must furnish me with answers to 
these obstacles, before I could hope to make any way even 
with any private person. In truth, I am little versed in 
the subject; which I own, not to excuse myself from 
pursuing it if it can be made feasible, but to prompt you, 
Sir, to instruct me. Except at this place, which cannot be 
called the country, I have scarce ever lived in the country, 
and am shamefully ignorant of the police and domestic 
laws of my own country. Zeal to do any good, I have ; 
but I want to be tutored when the operation is at all 
complicated. Your knowledge, Sir, may supply my de- 
ficiencies ; at least you are sure of a solicitor for your good 
intentions in your, &c. 

LETTEK 890. 1 Probably General Conway. See letter to him of May 21, 1763. 

348 To Charles Lyttelton, Bishop of Carlisle [i?63 


DEAR SlR, Strawberry Hill, July 1, 1763. 

As you have given me leave, I propose to pass a day with 
you, on my way to Mr. Montagu's. If you have no engage- 
ment, I will be with you on the 1 6th of this month, and if 
it is not inconvenient, and you will tell me truly whether it 
is or not, I shall bring my friend Mr. Chute with me, who 
is destined to the same place. I will beg you too to let me 
know how far it is to Blecheley, and what road I must 
take. That is, how far from London, or how far from 
Twickenham, and the road from each, as I am uncertain 
yet from which I shall set out. If any part of this proposal 
does not suit you, I trust you will own it, and I will take 
some other opportunity of calling on you, being most truly, 
dear Sir, 

Your much obliged and obedient servant, 



MY GOOD LORD, Strawberry Hill, July 10, 1763. 

You are ever kind and obliging to me, and indulge my 
virtuoso humour with as much charity as if a passion for 
collecting were a Christian want. I thank you much for 
the letter on King James's death: it shall certainly make 
its appearance with the rest of your bounties. At present 
that volume is postponed ; I have got a most delectable 
work to print, which I had great difficulty to obtain, and 
which I must use while I can have it. It is the life of the 
famous Lord Herbert of Cherbury, written by himself one 

LETTER 892. Not in C. ; now printed from original in possession of 
Viscount Cobham. 

1763] To Charles Lyttelton, Bishop of Carlisle 349 

of the most curious pieces my eyes ever beheld but I will 
not forestall the amusement it will give you. 

Do I confound it, or is the print of Master Prideaux the 
same with that of Master Basset ? I have some such notion : 
if it is, I have it. If not, I will inquire of Kamsay. As to 
your nephew 1 , he is a lost thing; I have not set eyes on him 
this fortnight; he has deserted Palazzo Pitti, at least has 
abandoned me. Nay, I do not guess when we shall meet, 
for this day se'nnight I begin a ramble to George Montagu's, 
Drayton, Burleigh, Ely, Peterborough, and I don't know 
where. This is to occupy the time, while they finish what 
remains to paint and gild of the gallery. This is very 
necessary, for with impatience I have spoiled half the 
frames that are new gilt, and do ten times more harm than 
I mean to do good. However, I see shore ; three weeks will 
terminate all the workmen have to do I shall long to have 
your Lordship see it, though I shall blush, for it is much 
more splendid than I intended, and too magnificent for me. 

Mr. Borlase 2 , I believe, knows your Lordship has some 
partiality for me. He honours me far beyond my deserts ; 
and forgets how little share I can claim in the Anecdotes, as 
greatly the largest part was owing to Vertue. 

If I have any time towards the end of the summer, I will 
certainly visit the Museum ; I have much business there ; 
but you will allow, my good Lord, that it is not from 
idleness that I have neglected going thither. I am not apt 
to be idle ; few people have done so much of nothing, or 
have been so constantly employed, though indeed about 
trifles. I have almost tired myself, it is true, and yet I do 
not hitherto find my activity much relaxed. 

You do not mention Kose Castle 8 : is it in disgrace? 

1 Thomas Pitt, afterwards Lord on Cornish antiquities, and a friend 

Camelford. and correspondent of Bishop Lyttel- 

8 Dr. William Borlase (1695-1772), ton. 

Rector of Ludgvan, Cornwall, a writer 3 Lyttelton's episcopal residence 

350 To the Rev. William Cole [ires 

well, be it so. Change it for Hartlebury or Farnham 
Castles to these Pitt and I can come with our Gothic 

News I can send you none, for none I know. I seldom 
in summer do know an event that has happened since 1600. 
It is one of those ancient truths that 
I am your Lordship's 

Most bounden Servant and poor 



DEAR SlR, Strawberry Hill, July 12, 1763. 

Upon consulting maps and roads and the knowing, I find 
it will be my best way to call on Mr. Montagu first, before 
I come to you, or I must go the same road twice. This 
will make it a few days later than I intended before I wait 
on you, and will leave you time to complete your hay- 
harvest, as I gladly embrace your offer of bearing me 
company on the tour I meditate to Burleigh, Drayton, 
Peterborough, Ely, and twenty other places, of all which 
you shall take as much or as little as you please. It will 
I think be Wednesday or Thursday se'nnight before I wait 
on you, that is the 20th or 21st, and I fear I shall come 
alone, for Mr. Chute is confined with the gout: but you 
shall hear again before I set out. Kemember I am to see 
Sir Kenelm Digby's. 

Thank you much for your informations ; the Countess of 
Cumberland is an acquisition, and quite new to me. With 
the Countess of Kent I am acquainted since my last edition. 

Addison certainly changed sties in the epitaph to indicabit 

near Carlisle ; Hartlebury and Farn- the Bishops of Worcester and Win- 
ham Castles are the residences of Chester. 

1763] To George Montagu 351 

to avoid the jingle with dies : though it is possible that the 
thought may have been borrowed elsewhere. Adieu, Sir ! 

Yours ever, 




Wednesday is the day I propose waiting on you ; what 
time of it the Lord and the roads know ; so don't wait for 
me any part of it. If I should be violently pressed to stay 
a day longer at Mr. Montagu's, I hope it will be no dis- 
appointment to you ; but I love to be uncertain, rather than 
make myself expected and fail. 

Yours ever, 



Stanford, Saturday night, July 23, 1763. 

' THUS far our arms have with success been crowned ' 
bating a few mishaps, which will attend long marches like 
ours. We have conquered as many towns as Louis Quatorze 
in the campaign of seventy -two ; that is, seen them, for he 
did little more, and into the bargain he had much better 
roads, and a drier summer. It has rained perpetually till 
to-day, and made us experience the rich soil of North- 
amptonshire, which is a clay-pudding, stuck full of villages. 
After we parted with you on Thursday, we saw Castle 
Ashby l and Easton Mauduit s . The former is most magni- 
ficently trist, and has all the formality of the Comptons. 
I should admire it if I could see out of it, or anything in it, 

LETTER 895. * A seat of the Earl borough, 
of Northampton, near Welling- 2 A seat of the Earl of Sussex. 

352 To George Montagu [i763 

but there is scarce any furniture, and the bad little panes of 
glass exclude all objects. 

Easton is miserable enough ; there are many modern 
portraits, and one I was glad to see of the Duchess of 
Shrewsbury 3 . We lay at Wellinborough pray never lie 
there the beastliest inn upon earth is there! We were 
carried into a vast bedchamber, which I suppose is the 
club-room, for it stunk of tobacco like a justice of peace. 
I desired some boiling water for tea ; they brought me a 
sugar-dish of hot water in a pewter plate ! 

Yesterday morning we went to Boughton 4 , where we 
were scarce landed, before the Cardigans, in coach and six 
and three chaises, arrived with a cold dinner in their 
pockets, on their way to Deane, for as it is in dispute, they 
never reside at Boughton. This was most unlucky, that 
we should pitch on the only hour in the year in which they 
are there. I was so disconcerted, and so afraid of falling 
foul of the Countess and her caprices, that I hurried from 
chamber to chamber, and scarce knew what I saw, but that 
the house is in the grand old French style, that gods and 
goddesses lived over my head in every room, and that there 
was nothing but pedigrees all round me and under my feet, 
for there is literally a coat of arms at the end of every step 
of the stairs did the Duke mean to pun, and intend this 
for the descent of the Montagus ? Well ! we hurried away 
and got to Drayton an hour before dinner. Oh ! the dear 
old place ! you would be transported with it. In the first 
place, it stands in as ugly a hole as Boughton well ! that 
is not its beauty. The front is a brave strong castle wall, 
embattled and loopholed for defence. Passing the great 
gate, you come to a sumptuous but narrow modern court, 

3 Adelaida Paleotti (d. 1726), dispute between his daughters, Lady 
Duchess of Shrewsbury. Beaulieu and the Countess of Car- 

4 A seat of the late Duke of Mon- digan. 
tagu, near Kettering. It was in 

1763] To George Montagu 353 

behind which rises the old mansion, all towers and turrets. 
The house is excellent ; has a vast hall, ditto dining-room, 
king's chamber, trunk gallery at the top of the house, hand- 
some chapel, and seven or eight distinct apartments, besides 
closets and conveniences without end. Then it is covered 
with portraits, crammed with old china, furnished richly, 
and not a rag in it under forty, fifty, or a thousand years 
old ; but not a bed or chair that has lost a tooth, or got 
a grey hair, so well are they preserved. I rummaged it 
from head to foot, examined every spangled bed, and 
enamelled pair of bellows, for such there are ; in short, 
I do not believe the old mansion was ever better pleased 
with an inhabitant, since the days of Walter de Drayton, 
except when it has received its divine old mistress. If one 
could honour her more than one did before, it would be to 
see with what religion she keeps up the old dwelling and 
customs, as well as old servants, who you may imagine do 
not love her less than other people do. The garden is just 
as Sir John Germain brought it from Holland ; pyramidal 
yews, treittages, and square cradle walks, with windows 
clipped in them. Nobody was there, but Mr. Beauclerc 
and Lady Catherine 5 , and two parsons: the two first 
suffered us to ransack and do as we would, and the two 
last assisted us, informed us, and carried us to every tomb 
in the neighbourhood. I have got every circumstance by 
heart, and was pleased beyond my expectation, both with 
the place and the comfortable manner of seeing it. We 
stayed there till after dinner to-day, and saw Fotheringam 8 
in our way hither. The castle is totally ruined. The 
mount, on which the keep stood, two doorcases, and a piece 
of the moat, are all the remains. Near it is a front and 

8 Lady Catherine Ponsonby (d. of Han worth, whom he succeeded 

1789), eldest daughter of second Earl in 1781, becoming Duke of St. Albans 

of Bessborough ; m. (1763) Hon. in 1787. 

Aubrey Beauclerk, son of Lord Vere 6 So in MS. ; read Fotheringay. 


354 To George Montagu [176 3 

two projections of an ancient house, which, by the arms 
about it, I suppose was part of the palace of Kichard and 
Cicely, Duke and Duchess of York 7 . There are two pretty 
tombs for them and their uncle Duke of York in the church, 
erected by order of Queen Elizabeth. The church has been 
very fine, but is now intolerably shabby, yet many large 
saints remain in the windows, two entire, and all the heads 
well painted. You may imagine we were civil enough to 
the Queen of Scots, to feel a feel of pity for her, while we 
stood on the very spot where she was put to death ; my 
companion 8 , I believe, who is a better royalist than I am, 
felt a little more there, I have obeyed you. To-morrow 
we see Burleigh and Peterborough, and lie at Ely; on 
Monday I hope to be in town, and on Tuesday I hope much 
more to be in the gallery at Strawberry Hill, and to find 
the gilders laying on the last leaf of gold. Good night ! 

Yours ever, 



Hockerill l , Monday night, July 25, vol. 2nd. 
I CONTINUE. You must know we were drowned on Satur- 
day night. It rained, as it did at Greatworth on Wednesday, 
all night and all next morning, so we could not look even 
at the outside of Burleigh ; but we saw the inside pleasantly ; 
for Lord Exeter, whom I had prepared for our intentions, 
came to us, and made every door and every lock fly open, 
even of his magazines, yet unranged. He is going through 
the house by degrees, furnishing a room every year, and has 

7 Lady Cicely Nevill (d. 1495), 8 William Cole, 

daughter of first Earl of Westmor- LETTER 896. l Hockerill or Bi- 

land, wife of Richard Plantagenet, shop's Stortford, on the high road 

Duke of York, and mother of Edward between London and Newmarket. 
IV and Richard III. 

1763] To George Montagu 355 

already made several most sumptuous. One is a little tired 
of Carlo Maratti and Luca Jordano, yet still these are 
treasures. The china and japan are of the finest, miniatures 
in plenty, and a shrine full of crystal vases, filigree, enamel, 
jewels, and the trinkets of taste that have belonged to many 
a noble dame. In return for his civilities, I made my Lord 
Exeter a present of a glorious cabinet, whose drawers and 
sides are all painted by Kubens. This present you must 
know was his own, but he knew nothing of the hand or the 
value. Just so I have given Lady Betty Germain a very 
fine portrait, that I discovered at Drayton in the wood-house. 
I was not much pleased with Peterborough ; the front is 
adorable, but the inside has no more beauty than consists in 
vastness. By the way, I have a pen and ink that will not 
form a letter 2 . We were now sent to Huntingdon in our 
way to Ely, as we found it impracticable, from the rains 
and floods, to cross the country thither. We landed in the 
heart of the assizes, and almost in the middle of the races, 
both which, to the astonishment of the virtuosi, we eagerly 
quitted this morning. We were hence sent south to Cam- 
bridge, still on our way northward to Ely but when we 
were got to Cambridge we were forced to abandon all 
thoughts of Ely, there being nothing but lamentable stories 
of inundations and escapes. However, I made myself 
amends with the University, which I have not seen these 
four-and-twenty years, and which revived many youthful 
scenes, which, merely from their being youthful, are forty 
times pleasanter than any other ideas. You know I always 
long to live at Oxford I felt that I could like to live even 
at Cambridge again. The colleges are much cleaned and 
improved since my days, and the trees and groves more 
venerable ; but the town is tumbling about their ears. We 
surprised Gray with our appearance, dined and drank tea 
* The original is very ill-written. 

A a 2 

356 To Dr. Ducarel [i?63 

with him, and are come hither within sight of land. 
I always find it worth my while to make journeys, for the 
joy I have in getting home again. A second adieu ! 


DEAR SlR, Strawberry Hill, Aug. 8, 1763. 

You judge rightly, I am very indifferent about Dr. Shorton, 
since he is not Dr. Shorter. 

It has done nothing but rain since my return ; whoever 
wants hay, must fish for it ; it is all drowned, or swimming 
about the country. I am glad our tour gave you so much 
pleasure ; you was so very obliging, as you have always 
been to me, that I should have been grieved not to have 
had it give you satisfaction. I hope your servant is quite 

The painters and gilders quit my gallery this week, but 
I have not got a chair or a table for it yet ; however, I hope 
it will have all its clothes on by the time you have promised 
me a visit. I am, dear Sir, 

Your much obliged 

Humble servant, 


898. To DR. DUCAEEL. 

g IR) Strawberry Hill, Aug. 8, 1763. 

I have been rambling about the country, or should not so 
long have deferred to answer the favour of your letter. 
I thank you for the notices in it, and have profited of them. 
I am much obliged to you too for the drawings you intended 
me ; but I have since had a letter from Mr. Churchill, and 
he does not mention them. 

1763] To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway 357 


Strawberry Hill, Aug. 9, 1763. 

MY gallery claims your promise ; the painters and gilders 
finish to-morrow, and next day it washes its hands. You 
talked of the 15th ; shall I expect you then, and the 
Countess *, and the Contessina 2 , and the Baroness 3 ? 

Lord Digby is to be married immediately to the pretty 
Miss Feilding * ; and Mr. Boothby 5 , they say, to Lady Mary 
Douglas. What more news I know I cannot send you ; for 
I have had it from Lady Denbigh and Lady Blandford 6 , 
who have so confounded names, genders, and circumstances, 
that I am not sure whether Prince Ferdinand is not going 
to be married to the Hereditary Prince. Adieu ! 

Yours ever, 


P.S. If you want to know more of me, you may read 
a whole column of abuse upon me in the Public Ledger of 
Thursday last; where they inform me that the Scotch 
cannot be so sensible as the English, because they have not 
such good writers. Alack ! I am afraid the most sensible 
men in any country do not write. 

I had writ this last night This morning I receive your 
paper of evasions, perfide que vous etes! You may let it 

LETTER 899. * Of Ailesbury. Wai- Tooley Park, near Leicester, and 

pole. brother-in-law of Hugo Meynell, first 

2 Miss Anne Seymour Conway. master of the Quorn Hounds. He 
Walpole. was a man about town, and a com- 

3 Elizabeth Rich, second wife of paiiion of Fox, Fitzpatrick, and 
George, Lord Lyttelton. Walpole, others of that set. In later life he 

* Elizabeth (d. 1765), daughter of became very eccentric, and com- 

Hon. Charles Fielding ; m. (Sept. 5, mitted suicide (July 27, 1800) by 

1763) Henry Digby, seventh Baron shooting himself at his rooms in 

(afterwards first Earl) Digby. Clarges Street. 

5 Charles Skrimshire Boothby They were both Dutchwomen, 

Clopton, known as ' Prince ' Boothby, and spoke yery bad English. Wal- 

grandson of Thomas Boothby, of pole. 

358 To the Earl of Stra/ord [i?63 

alone, you will never see anything like my gallery and 
then to ask me to leave it the instant it is finished ! I never 
heard such a request in my days ! Why, all the earth is 
begging to come to see it : as Edging 7 says, I have had 
offers enough from blue and green ribands to make me 
a falbala-apron. Then I have just refused to let Mrs. Keppel 
and her Bishop be in the house with me, because I expected 
all you it is mighty well, mighty fine ! No, sir, no, 
I shall not come ; nor am I in a humour to do anything else 
you desire: indeed, without your provoking me, I should 
not have come into the proposal of paying GiardinL We 
have been duped and cheated every winter for these twenty 
years by the undertakers of operas, and I never will pay 
a farthing more till the last moment, nor can be terrified at 
their puffs ; I am astonished you are. So far from frighten- 
ing me, the kindest thing they could do would be not to let 
one have a box to hear their old threadbare voices and 
frippery thefts ; and as for Giardini himself, I would not go 
'cross the room to hear him play to eternity. I should think 
he could frighten nobody but Lady Bingley 8 by a refusal. 


MY DEAR LORD, Strawberry Hill, Aug. 10, 1763. 

I have waited in hopes that the world would do some- 
thing worth telling you : it will not, and I cannot stay any 
longer without asking you how you do, and hoping you 
have not quite forgot me. It has rained such deluges, that 
I had some thoughts of turning my gallery into an ark, 
and began to pack up a pair of bantams, a pair of cats, in 
short, a pair of every living creature about my house : but it 

7 A character in Gibber's Careless of first Baron Bingley ; m. (1731) 
Husband. George Fox Lane, cr. Baron Bingley 

8 Hon. Harriet Benson, daughter in 1762. 

1763] To Sir Horace Mann 359 

is grown fine at last, and the workmen quit my gallery 
to-day without hoisting a sail in it. I know nothing upon 
earth but what the ancient ladies in my neighbourhood 
knew threescore years ago ; I write merely to pay you my 
peppercorn of affection, and to inquire after my Lady, who 
I hope is perfectly well. A longer letter would not have 
half the merit : a line in return will however repay all the 
merit I can possibly have to one to whom I am so much 

I am, my dear Lord, your most faithful servant, 



Arlington Street, Aug. 11, 1763. 

I AM never so fruitful in summer, you know, as in winter. 
This year I am particularly barren. Your letter of July 23rd 
has given me a little fillip, or I don't know when I should 
have writ, for I have not a single circumstance to tell you, 
but that you will soon see a greater prince than him of 
Lichtenstein. The Duke of York is going to take a Medi- 
terranean tour with Augustus Hervey 1 , and, when at Leg- 
horn, will certainly see Florence. You will find him civil, 
condescending, and good-natured to a great degree ; and loro 
eccellenze, the Dame Florentine, will like him still better, for 
he is very gdlant and very generous. 

I am very sorry for Lord Northampton, and yet I could 
not help smiling at his physician's expression, that he 
seemed to go al patibolo in gala 2 . La Condamine, I believe, 
is departed ; I have heard nothing of him this month or six 
weeks. The French do not arrive in such shoals as we do 

LETTER 901. 1 Captain of a man- though dying of consumption, in- 

of-war, and afterwards Earl of sisted on making his state entry as 

Bristol Walpole, Ambassador to the Venetian Re- 

2 The Earl of Northampton, al- public. 

360 To George Montagu [i?63 

at Paris; there are no fewer than five English Duchesses 
there, Ancaster, Kichmond, Bridge-water, Hamilton, and 
Douglas 8 : the two last, indeed, upon an extraordinary law- 
suit*, which is vastly too long for a letter, and curious 
enough for the Causes Celebres. It is a contest about the 
Douglas estate, to which the Hamiltons think a pretender 
has been set up, and whom they say they shall, or have 
detected. This suit is not more extraordinary than the 
taste of the French, who prefer the Duchess of Ancaster B to 
either the Hamilton or the Eichmond. The last (Lady 
Ailesbury's daughter) is in all the bloom of youth and 
beauty, but awkward and unfashioned ; the second is sadly 
changed by ill health from that lovely figure which disputed 
with her sister Coventry ; and yet one is surprised that what 
was so charming, or what could be so charming, should not 
be preferred to the first, who is not young, was at best 
a pretty figure, is now repaired by every evident art, and is 
a heap of minauderies and affectations which have not even 
the stamp of a woman of quality ; but taste seems as much 
extinguished ia France as spirit or parts. Adieu ! 


Strawberry Hill, Aug. 15, 1763. 

THE most important piece of news I have to tell you is, 
that the gallery is finished ; that is, the workmen have 
quitted it. For chairs and tables, not one is arrived yet. 
Well ! how you will tramp up and down in it ! Methinks 
I wish you would. We are in the perfection of beauty; 
verdure itself was never green till this summer, thanks to 
the deluges of rain. Our complexion used to be mahogany 

3 Margaret, daughter of James * The Douglas Cause. 

Douglas, of Mains, Dumbartonshire ; 5 Daughter of Mr. Pan ton, of New- 

m. (1758) Archibald Douglas, first market. Walpole. 
Duke of Douglas ; d. 1774. 

1763] To George Montagu 361 

in August. Nightingales and roses indeed are out of blow, 
but the season is celestial. I don't know whether we have 
not even had an earthquake to-day. Lady Buckingham 1 , 
Lady Waldegrave, the Bishop of Exeter, and Mrs. Keppel, 
and the little Hotham * dined here ; between six and seven 
we were sitting in the great parlour ; I sat in the window 
looking at the river. On a sudden I saw it violently 
agitated, and, as it were, lifted up and down by a thousand 
hands. I called out, they all ran to the window; it con- 
tinued ; we hurried into the garden, and all saw the Thames 
in the same violent commotion for I suppose a hundred 
yards. We fancied at first there must be some barge rope ; 
not one was in sight. It lasted in this manner, and at the 
farther end, towards Teddington, even to dashing. It did 
not cease before I got to the middle of the terrace, between 
the fence and the shell 3 . Yet this is nothing to what is to 
come. The Bishop and I walked down to my meadow by 
the river. At this end were two fishermen in a boat, but 
their backs had been turned to the agitation, and they had 
seen nothing. At the farther end of the field was a gentle- 
man fishing, and a woman by him ; I had perceived him in 
the same spot at the time of the motion of the waters, 
which was rather beyond where it was terminated. I now 
thought myself sure of a witness, and concluded he could 
not have recovered his surprise. I ran up to him ; ' Sir,' 
said I, ' did you see that strange agitation of the waters ? ' 
'When, Sir?' 'When, Sir! now, this very instant, not 
two minutes ago.' He replied, with the phlegm of a philo- 
sopher, or of a man that can love fishing, ' Stay, Sir, let me 
recollect if I remember nothing of it.' ' Pray, Sir,' said I, 

LETTER 902. 1 Mary Anne Drury, the Countess of Suffolk, with whom 

Countess of Buckinghamshire. she frequently resided. She died un- 

* Henrietta Gertrude, daughter of married in 1816. 

Sir Charles Hotham - Thompson, 3 The shell bench, designed by 

eighth Baronet, and great-niece of Bentley 

362 To George Montagu [i?G3 

scarce able to help laughing, 'you must remember whether 
you remember it or not, for it is scarce over. ' ' I am trying 
to recollect,' said he, with the same coolness. 'Why, Sir,' 
said I, 'six of us saw it from my parlour window yonder.' 
'Perhaps,' answered he, 'you might perceive it better where 
you was, but I suppose it was an earthquake.' His nymph 
had seen nothing neither, and so we returned as wise as 
most who inquire into natural phenomena. We expect to 
hear to-morrow that there has been an earthquake some- 
where ; unless this appearance portended a state-quake. You 
see, my impetuosity does not abate much; no, nor my 
youthfullity, which bears me out even at a sabbat. I dined 
last week at Lady Blandford's, with her, the old Denbigh, 
the old Litchfield 4 , and Methuselah knows who. I had 
stuck some sweet peas in my hair, was playing at quadrille, 
and singing to mes sorcieres. The Duchess of Argyle and 
Mrs. Young came in. You may guess how they stared at 
last the Duchess asked what was the meaning of those 
flowers? 'Lord, Madam,' said I, 'don't you know it is the 
fashion ? The Duke of Bedford is come over with his hair 
full.' Poor Mrs. Young took this in sober sadness, and has 
reported that the Duke of Bedford wears flowers. You will 
not know me less by a precipitation of this morning. Pitt 
and I were busy adjusting the gallery. Mr. Elliot came in 
and discomposed us ; I was horridly tired of him. As he 
was going, he said, ' Well, this house is so charming, I don't 
wonder at your being able to live so much alone ' I, who 
shudder at the thought of anybody's living with me, replied 
very innocently, but a little too quick 'No, only pity me 
when I don't live alone.' Pitt was shocked, and said, 'To 
be sure he will never forgive you, as long as he lives.' 
Mrs. Leneve used often to advise me never to begin being 

* Probably Frances (d. 1769), Baronet, of Woodchurch, Kent, and 
daughter of Sir John Hales, fourth widow of second Earl of Lichneld. 

1763] To Sir Horace Mann 363 

civil to people I did not care for, ' For,' says she, ' you grow 
weary of them, and can't help showing it, and so make it ten 
times worse, than if you had never attempted to please them.' 

I suppose you have read in the papers the massacre of my 
innocents. Every one of my Turkish sheep, that I have 
been nursing up these fourteen years, torn to pieces in one 
night by three strange dogs ! They killed sixteen outright, 
and mangled the two others in such a manner, that I was 
forced to have them knocked on the head. However, I bore 
this better than an interruption. 

I have scrawled and blotted this letter, so I don't know 
whether you can read it ; but it is no matter, for I perceive 
it is all about myself ; but what has one else in the dead of 
summer ? In return, tell me as much as you please about 
yourself, which you know is always a most welcome subject 
to me. One may preserve one's spirits with one's juniors, 
but I defy anybody to care but about their cotemporaries. 
One wants to know about one's predecessors ; but who has 
the least curiosity about their successors ? This is abomin- 
able ingratitude : one takes wondrous pains to consign one's 
own memory to them at the same time that one feels the 
most perfect indifference to whatever relates to them them- 
selves. Well, they will behave just so in their turns. 
Adieu ! Yours ever, 



Strawberry Hill, Sept. 1, 1763. 

MY letters are like the works of Vertot ; I write nothing 

but les Revolutions d'Angleterre. Indeed, the present history 

is like some former I have sent you, a revolution that has 

not taken place, and, resembling Lord Granville's ', begun 

LETTEB 903. * In 1746. Walpole. 

364 To Sir Horace Mann [i?63 

and ended in three days. I could have dispatched it last 
Tuesday with regard to the termination of it ; but, though 
I heard it was begun, even on the Saturday while it was 
beginning, my curiosity did not carry me to town till 
Tuesday, when I found it all addled. Still, I knew too little 
to detail it to you ; and, even now, I can tell you little more 
than the outlines and general report but have patience ; 
this is one of the events which in this country will produce 
paper-war enough, and between attacks and defences one 
comes pretty near to the truth of the whole. 

Last Sunday was se'nnight Lord Egremont 2 died suddenly, 
though everybody knew he would die suddenly : he used no 
exercise, and could not be kept from eating, without which 
prodigious bleedings did not suffice. A day or two before 
he died, he said, 'Well, I have but three turtle-dinners to 
come, and if I survive them I shall be immortal.' He was 
writing, as my Lady breakfasted, complained of a violent 
pain in his head, asked twice if he did not look very particu- 
larly, grew speechless, and expired that evening. He has 
left eighteen thousand pounds a year, and, they say, an 
hundred and seventy thousand pounds in money. I hope 
you have as much philosophy as I have, or you will lose 
patience at these circumstances, when you are eager to hear 
the revolution. That week, you may be sure, was passed 
by the public in asking who was to be Secretary of State ? 
It seemed to lie between your old friend, Lord Sandwich, 
and Lord Egmont. Lord Shelburne, a young aspirer, who 
intends the world shall hear more of him, et gui postule le 
ministere, was in the meantime one of the candidates to 
succeed Lord Egremont. Somebody said, 'It ought to be 
given to him as you marry boys under age, and then send 
them to travel till they are ripe.' While this vacancy was 

2 Sir Charles Wyndham, first Earl of Egremont. Walpole. He was the 
second EarL 

176s] To Sir Horace Mann 365 

the public's only object, behold Mr. Pitt, in his chair, with 
two servants before it, goes openly, at nine o'clock on 
Saturday morning, through the Park to Buckingham House. 
You rub your eyes ; so did the mob, and thought they did 
not see clear. Mr. Pitt, of all men alive, except Lord Temple 
and Mr. Wilkes, the most proscribed there, Mr. Pitt to 
Buckingham House ! Oui, veritdblement ! What ! to ask to 
be Secretary of State ? By no means : sent for ; desired to 
accept the administration. Well, but do you know who 
stared more than the mob or you ? the ministers did ; for it 
seems this was the act and deed of Lord Bute, who, though 
he had given the present administration letters of attorney 
to act for him, has thought better of it, and retained the sole 
power himself ; the consequence of which was, as it was 
before, he grew horridly frightened, and advised this step, 
which has done him more hurt than all he had done before. 
Mr. Pitt stayed with the King three hours ; is said not 
to have demanded more than might well be expected that 
he would demand ; and had all granted. The next day, 
Sunday, the opposition were much pleased, looking on their 
desires as obtained ; the ministers, as much displeased, 
thinking themselves betrayed by Lord Bute. On Monday, 
Mr. Pitt, who the day before had seen the Duke of Newcastle 
and the Lord Mayor Beckford, the one or the other of 
whom is supposed to have advised what follows, went 
again to the King, with a large increase of demands. What 
those were are variously stated, nor do I pretend to tell you 
how far the particulars are exact. The general purport is, 
though I dare say not to the extent given out, that he in- 
sisted on a general dismission of all who had voted for the 
Peace ; and that he notified his intention of attacking the 
Peace itself: that he particularly proscribed Lord Holland, 
Lord Halifax, Lord Sandwich, Lord Barrington, and Lord 
Shelburne ; named himself and Charles Townshend for 

366 To Sir Horace Mann [1763 

Secretaries of State, Lord Temple for the Treasury, Pratt for 
Chancellor ; proposed some place, not of business, for the 
Duke of Newcastle, forgot Mr. Legge, and desired the Duke 
of Cumberland for the head of the army. They tell you, 
that the King asked him, ' Mr. Pitt, if it is right for you to 
stand by your friends, why is it not as right for me to stand 
by mine?' and that the treaty broke off, on his Majesty 
refusing to give up his. Broken off the negotiation certainly 
is. Why broken, I shall, as I told you before, wait a little 
before I settle my belief. The ministers were sent for 
again ; Mr. Pitt and Lord Temple, according to the modern 
well-bred usage, were at the levee yesterday, had each their 
Drawing-room question ; and there ended this interlude. 

It is said Lord Sandwich kisses hands to-morrow for 
Secretary of State. If a President of the Council is named 
too, I shall think they mean to stand it : if not, shall con- 
clude a door is still left open for treating. 

There was a little episode, previous to this more dignified 
drama, which was on the point of employing the attention 
of the public, if it had not been overlaid by the revolution in 
question. The famous Mr. Wilkes was challenged at Paris, 
by one Forbes, an outlawed Scot in the French service, who 
could not digest the North Britons. Wilkes would have 
joked it off, but it would not do. He then insisted on 
seconds ; Forbes said duels were too dangerous in France 
for such extensive proceedings. Wilkes adhered to his 
demand. Forbes pulled him by the nose, or, as Lord Mark 
Kerr s , in his well-bred formality, said to a gentleman, ' Sir, 
you are to suppose I have thrown this glass of wine in your 
face.' Wilkes cried out murder! The lieutenant de police 
was sent for, and obliged Forbes to promise that he would 
proceed no farther. Notwithstanding the present discussion, 

8 Brother of the Marquis of Lothian, a very brave but remarkably 
formal man. Walpole. 

176.3] To Sir Horace Mann 367 

you may imagine the Scotch will not let this anecdote be 
still-born. It is cruel on Lord Talbot, whom Wilkes ventured 
to fight. 

Other comical passages have happened to us at Paris. 
Their King, you know, is wondrous shy to strangers, awkward 
at a question, or too familiar. For instance, when the Duke 
of Eichmond was presented to him, he said, ' Monsieur le 
Due de Cumberland boude le Koi, n'est-ce pas?' The Duke 
was confounded. The King persisted, ' II le fait, n'est-il pas 
vrai ? ' The Duke answered very properly, ' Ses ministres 
quelquefois, Sire, jamais sa Majeste.' This did not stop 
him : ' Et vous, Milord, quand aurez-vous le cordon bleu ? ' 
George Selwyn, who stood behind the Duke, said softly, 
'Answer that if you can, my Lord.' To Lord Holland, the 
King said, ' Vous avez fait bien du bruit dans votre pays, 
n'est-ce pas ? ' His answer was pretty too : ' Sire, je fais 
tout mon possible pour le faire cesser.' Lord Holland was 
better diverted with the Duchess d'Aiguillon 4 ; she got him 
and Lady Holland tickets for one of the best boxes to see 
the fireworks on the Peace, and carried them in her coach. 
When they arrived, he had forgot the tickets ; she flew into 
a rage, and, sans marchander, abused him so grossly that 
Lady Holland coloured, and would not speak to her. Not 
content with this, when her footman opened the door of the 
coach, the Duchess, before all the mob, said aloud, ' C'est une 
des meilleures tetes de 1'Angleterre, et voici la betise qu'il a 
faite ! ' and repeated it. He laughed, and the next day she 
recollected herself, and made an excuse. . . . 5 

Mrs. Poyntz 6 is an comble de la gloire there ; she has cured 
Madame Victoire 7 of the stone, by Mrs. Stephens's medicine. 

4 Anne Charlotte de Crussol de a great beauty : the poem of The 

Florensac, Duchesse d'Aiguillon. Fair Circassian was written on her. 

* Passage omitted. She was Maid of Honour to Queen 

6 Anna Maria Mordaunt, wife of Caroline. Walpole. 
Stephen Poyntz, governor of William, 7 Fourth daughter of Louis XV; 

Duke of Cumberland. She had been d. 1800. 

368 To Sir Horace Mann [i763 

When Mrs. Poyntz took leave of them for Spa, they shut 
the door, and the whole royal family kissed her ; for the 
King is so fond of his children that, they say, it was visible 
every day in his countenance whether his daughter was 
better or worse. 

We sent you Sir William Stanhope 8 and my Lady, a fond 
couple ; you have returned them to us very different. When 
they came to Blackheath, he got out of the chaise to go to 
his brother Lord Chesterfield's, made her a low bow, and 
said, 'Madam, I hope I shall never see your face again.' 
She replied, ' Sir, I will take all the care I can that you never 
shall.' He lays no gallantry to her charge. It would not 
be very wonderful if he did, considering the disproportion 
of their ages, of which he was so sensible, that finding her 
extremely alarmed the first night, he said, ' It is I, Madam, 
that have most reason to be frightened.' 

We are sending you another couple, the famous Garrick 9 
and his once famous wife 10 . He will make you laugh as 
a mimic, and as he knows we are great friends, will affect 
great partiality to me ; but be a little upon your guard, 
remember he is an actor. 

My poor niece u has declared herself not breeding : you 
will be charmed with the delicacy of her manner in breaking 
it to General Waldegrave 12 . She gave him her Lord's seal 
with the coronet. You will be more charmed with her. 
On Sunday the Bishop of Exeter 13 and I were talking of 
this new convulsion in politics she burst out in a flood 
of tears, reflecting on the great rank her Lord, if living, 
would naturally attain on this occasion. 

8 A man of wit, and brother of the 10 La Violetta, a German dancer, 
famous Lord Chesterfield. His third Walpole. 

wife was sister of Sir Francis Del aval. n Lady Waldegrave. Walpole. 

Walpole. 12 General John Waldegrave, her 

9 The Garricks left England in husband's brother and successor. 
September 1768, and travelled on 1S Dr. Keppel, her brother-in-law, 
the Continent until April 1765. Walpole. 

1763] To George Montagu 369 

I think I have nothing more to tell you, but a bon mot 
of my Lady Townshend. She has taken a strange little 
villa at Paddington, near Tyburn. People were wondering 
at her choosing such a situation, and asked her, in joke, 
what sort of neighbourhood she had: 'Oh,' said she, 'one 
that can never tire me, for they are hanged every week.' 
Good night. This would be a furious long letter, if it was 
not short by containing a whole revolution. 


Strawberry Hill, Sept 3, 1763. 

I HAVE but a minute's time for answering your letter ; 
my house is full of people, and has been so from the instant 
I breakfasted, and more are coming in short, I keep an 
inn ; the sign, ' The Gothic Castle.' Since my gallery was 
finished I have not been in it a quarter of an hour together ; 
my whole time is passed in giving tickets for seeing it, and 
hiding myself while it is seen. Take my advice, never 
build a charming house for yourself between London and 
Hampton Court : everybody will live in it but you. 

I fear you must give up all thoughts of the Vine for this 
year, at least for some time. The poor master is on the 
rack. I left him the day before yesterday in bed, where 
he had been ever since Monday with the gout in both knees 
and one foot, and suffering martyrdom every night. I go 
to see him again on Monday. He has not had so bad a fit 
these four years ; and he has probably the other foot still 
to come. You must come to me at least in the meantime, 
before he is well enough to receive you. After next Tuesday 
I am unengaged, except on Saturday, Sunday, and Monday 
following ; that is, the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth, when 
the family from Park Place are to be with me. Settle your 
motions, and let me know them as soon as you can, and 


370 To George Montagu [1763 

give me as much time as you can spare. I flatter myself 
the General and Lady Grandison will keep the kind promise 
they made me, and that I shall see your brother John and 
Mr. Miller too. 

My niece is not breeding. You shall have the auction 
books as soon as I can get them, though I question if there 
is anything in your way ; however, I shall see you long 
before the sale, and we will talk on it. 

There has been a revolution and a re-revolution, but I 
must defer the history till I see you, for it is much too big 
for a letter written in such a hurry as this. Adieu ! 

Yours faithfully, 

H. W. 


Strawberry Hill, Sept. 7, 1763. 

As I am sure the house of Conway will not stay with me 
beyond Monday next, I shall rejoice to see the house of 
Montagu this day se'nnight (Wednesday), and shall think 
myself highly honoured by a visit from Lady Beaulieu * ; 
I know nobody that has a better taste, and it would flatter 
me exceedingly if she should happen to like Strawberry. 

I knew you would be pleased with Mr. T. Pitt ; he is 
very amiable and very sensible, and one of the very few 
that I reckon quite worthy of being at home at Strawberry. 

I have again been in town to see Mr. Chute; he thinks 
the worst over, yet he gets no sleep, and is still confined to 
his bed : but his spirits keep up surprisingly. As to your 
gout, so far from pitying you, 'tis the best thing that can 
happen to you. All that claret and port are very kind to 
you, when they prefer the shape of lameness to that of 
apoplexies, or dropsies, or fevers, or pleurisies. 

LETTER 905. ^ Isabella Montagu, Baroness Beaulieu, formerly Dowager 
Duchess of Manchester. 

176s] To Sir Horace Mann 371 

Let me have a line certain what day I may expect your 
party, that I may pray to the sun to illuminate the cabinet. 
Adieu! Yours ever, 

H. W. 


DEAR SIR, Strawberry Hill, Sept. 7, 1763. 

Though I am sensible I have no pretensions for asking 
you a favour, and, indeed, should be very unwilling to 
trespass on your good nature, yet I flatter myself I shall 
not be thought quite impertinent in interceding for 
a person, who I can answer has neither been to blame, 
nor any way deserved punishment, and therefore I think 
you, Sir, will be ready to save him from prejudice. The 
person is my deputy, Mr. Grosvenor Bedford, who, above 
five-and-twenty years ago, was appointed Collector of the 
Customs in Philadelphia by my father. 

I hear he is threatened to be turned out. If the least 
fault can be laid to his charge, I do not desire to have 
him protected. If there cannot, I am too well persuaded, 
Sir, of your justice not to be sure you will be pleased to 
protect him. 

When I have appealed to your good nature and justice, 
it would be impertinent to say more than that I am, 
&c., &c. 



Strawberry Hill, Sept. 13, 1763. 

THE administration is resettled: the opposition does 
not come in ; and the old ministers have resumed their 
functions. The Duke of Bedford, who had formerly advised 

B b 2 

372 To Sir Horace Mann [1763 

to invite Mr. Pitt to court, finding himself omitted in 
Mr. Pitt's list, is cordially united, nay, incorporated with 
the administration; he has kissed hands for President of 
the Council. Lord Sandwich is the new Secretary of 
State, Lord Egmont the new head of the Admiralty, and 
Lord Hilsborough the new First Lord of Trade, for Lord 
Shelburne, whom I mentioned to you in my last, has 
resigned in the midst of these bustles. Many reasons are 
given, but the only one that people choose to take is, 
that, thinking Mr. Pitt must be minister, and finding 
himself tolerably obnoxious to him, he is seeking to make 
his peace at any rate. 

This concussion has produced one remarkable event, the 
total removal of Lord Bute, which Mr. Grenville and 
Lord Halifax made the absolute sine qua non of their 
re-acceptance. The favourite Earl has given it under 
his hand that he will go abroad. Thus ends his foolish 
drama not its consequences, for the flames he has lighted 
up will not be extinguished soon. 

I could tell you a great deal of what is reported of the 
dialogue in the closet, but not a circumstance which is not 
denied on one side or the other, for though there were but 
two interlocutors 1 , there is a total disagreement in the 
relation. Parties will not meet in better humour next 
session for this abortive negotiation : the paper-war is re- 
kindled with violence, but produces no wit ; nay, scarce 
produces the bulk of a pamphlet, for the fashionable 
warfare at present is carried on by anonymous 2 letters in 
the daily newspapers, which die as suddenly as other lies 
of the day. This skirmishing is sharp and lively, but not 
very entertaining. 

LETTER 907. 1 The King and Pitt their letters printed in the daily 
* It is certain that from this time, newspapers, pamphlets grew exceed- 
when anonymous writers oould get ingly more rare. Walpcile. 

1763] To George Montagu 373 

I have not a syllable of other news to send you. You 
must take this rather as a codicil to my last letter, than 
as pretending to be a letter itself. The Parliament, I 
suppose, will not meet till after Christmas, and till then 
little material is likely to happen ; unless some notable 
death should intervene, which, considering the tottering 
condition of some principal performers, is not unlikely. 
An old statesman that has November to pass through 
in his way to preferment, may chance never to arrive 
at it. Adieu ! 


Strawberry Hill, Oct. 3, 1763. 

I WAS just getting into my chaise to go to Park Place, 
when I received your commission for Mrs. Cosby's pictures ; 
but I did not neglect it, though I might as well, for the 
old gentlewoman was a little whimsical, and though I sent 
my own gardener and farmer with my cart to fetch them 
on Friday, she would not deliver them, she said, till 
Monday ; so this morning they were forced to go again 
they are now all safely lodged in my cloister ; when I say 
safely, you understand that two of them have large holes 
in them, as witness this bill of lading signed by your aunt. 
There are eleven in all, besides Lord Halifax, seven half- 
lengths and four heads ; the former are all desirable, and 
one of the latter ; the three others woful. Mr. Wicks 
is now in the act of packing them, for we have changed 
our minds about sending them to London by water, as 
your waggoner told Louis last time I was at Great worth, 
that if they were left at the Old Hat, near Acton, he 
would take them up and convey them to Greatworth ; 
so my cart carries them thither, and they will set out 
towards you next Saturday. 

374 To George Montagu [i?63 

I felt shocked, as you did, to think how suddenly the 
prospect of joy at Osterley was dashed after our seeing it. 
However, the young lover 1 died handsomely. Fifty thousand 
pounds will dry tears, that at most could be but two 
months old. His brother 2 , I heard, has behaved still more 
handsomely, and confirmed the legacy, and added from 
himself the diamonds that had been prepared for her here 
is a charming wife ready for anybody that likes a senti- 
mental situation, a pretty woman, and a large fortune 3 . 

I have been often at Bulstrode from Chaffont, but I don't 
like it. It is Dutch and trist. The pictures you mention 
in the gallery would be curious if they knew one from 
another ; but the names are lost, and they are only sure 
that they have so many pounds of ancestors in the lump. 
One or two of them indeed I know, as the Earl of 
Southampton, that was Lord Essex's friend. 

The works of Park Place go on bravely; the cottage 
will be very pretty, and the bridge sublime, composed 
of loose rocks, that will appear to have been tumbled 
together there the very week of the deluge. One stone 
is of fourteen hundred weight. It will be worth an 
hundred of Palladio's bridges, that are only fit to be used 
in an opera. I had a ridiculous adventure on my way 
thither. A Sir Thomas Eeeves wrote to me last year, 
that he had a great quantity of heads of painters, drawn 
by himself from Dr. Mead's collection, of which many 
were English, and offered me the use of them. This was 
one of the numerous unknown correspondents which my 
books have drawn upon me. I put it off then, but being 
to pass near his door, for he lives but two miles from 

LETTER 908. 1 Francis Child, stantia Hampden, only daughter of 

banker and M.P. for Bishop's Castle. fourth Baron Trevor (afterwards 

* Robert Child ; d. 1782. Viscount Hampden). She married, 

* Francis Child had been on the in 1764, Henry Howard, twelfth Earl 
point of marrying Hon. Maria Con- of Suffolk, and died in 1767. 

176s] To George Montagu 375 

Maidenhead, I sent him word I would call on my way 
to Park Place. After being carried to three wrong houses, 
I was directed to a very ancient mansion, composed of 
timber, and looking as unlike modern habitations, as the 
picture of Penderel's house in Clarendon. The garden was 
overrun with weeds, and with difficulty we found a bell. 
Louis came riding back in great haste, and said, 'Sir, the 
gentleman is dead suddenly.' You may imagine I was 
surprised however, as an acquaintance I had never seen 
was a very endurable misfortune, I was preparing to 
depart, but happening to ask some women, that were 
passing by the chaise, if they knew any circumstance of 
Sir Thomas's death, I discovered that this was not Sir 
Thomas's house, but belonged to a Mr. Meake*, a fellow 
of a college at Oxford, who was actually just dead, and 
that the antiquity itself had formerly been the residence 
of Nel Gwyn. Pray inquire after it the next time you 
are at Frogmore. I went on, and after a mistake or two 
more found Sir Thomas a man about thirty in age, and 
twelve in understanding; his drawings very indifferent, 
even for the latter calculation. I did not know what to 
do or say, but commended them, and his child, and his 
house, said I had all the heads, hoped I should see him 
at Twickenham, was afraid of being too late for dinner, 
and hurried out of his house before I had been there 
twenty minutes. It grieves one to receive civilities when 
one feels obliged, and yet finds it impossible to bear the 
people that bestow them. 

I have given my assembly, to show my gallery ; and it 
was glorious ; but happening to pitch upon the feast of 
tabernacles, none of my Jews could come, though Mrs. Clive 
proposed to them to change their religion. So I am forced 
to exhibit once more. For the morning spectators, the 
* Rev. John Meeke, Fellow of Pembroke College. 

376 To the Eev. William Cole [1763 

crowd augments instead of diminishing. It is really true 
that Lady Hertford called here t'other morning, and 
I was reduced to bring her by the back gate into the 
kitchen ; the house was so full of company that came 
to see the gallery, that I had nowhere else to carry her. 

Yours ever, 


P.S. I hope the least hint has never dropped from the 
Beaulieus of that terrible picture of Sir Charles Williams B , 
that put me into such confusion the morning they break- 
fasted here. If they did observe the inscription, I am 
sure they must have seen too how it distressed me. 

Your collection of pictures is packed up, and makes two 
large cases and one smaller. 

My next assembly will be entertaining; there will be 
five countesses, two bishops, fourteen Jews, five papists, 
a doctor of physic, and an actress ; not to mention Scotch, 
Irish, East and West Indians. 

I find that, to pack your pictures, Louis has taken some 
paper out of a hamper of waste, into which I had cast 
some of the Conway Papers. Perhaps only as useless 
however, if you find any such in the packing, be so good as 
to lay them by for me. 


DEAR SIB, Strawberry Hill, Oct. 8, 1763. 

You are always obliging to me and always thinking of 
me kindly ; yet for once you have forgotten the way of 

5 The portrait of Sir Charles Han- hang in the blue bedchamber at 
bury Williams, holding a paper in- Strawberry Hill. The ' Isabella ' of 
scribed Isabella or the Morning, which the poem was Lady Beaulieu. 

1763] To Sir Horace Mann 377 

obliging me most. You do not mention any thought 
of coming hither, which you had given me cause to hope 
would be about this time. I flatter myself nothing has 
intervened to deprive me of that visit. Lord Hertford 
goes to France the end of next week ; I shall be in town to 
take leave of him; but after the 15th, that is, this day 
se'nnight, I shall be quite unengaged, and the sooner I see 
you after the 15th, the better, for I should be sorry 
to drag you across the country in the badness of November 

I shall treasure up your notices against my second 
edition ; for the volume of Engravers is printed off, and 
has been some time ; I only wait for some of the plates. 
The book you mention I have not seen, nor do you 
encourage me to buy it. Some time or other however 
I will get you to let me turn it over. 

As I will trust that you will let me know soon when 
I shall have the pleasure of seeing you here, I will make 
this a very short letter ; indeed I know nothing new or old 
worth telling you. 

Your obedient and obliged humble servant, 



Strawberry Hill, Oct. 17, 1763. 

I DON'T know how long it is since I wrote to you, 
I fear a great while; but I think my fidelity to you as 
a correspondent is so proved, that you may be sure not 
an incident worthy of a paragraph has happened when 
you do not hear from me. The very newspapers have 
subsisted only on the price of stocks, horse-races, the 
arrival of the good ship Charming Nancy, and such 
anecdotes, with the assistance of the heroic controversy 

378 To Sir Horace Mann [1763 

between Mr. Wilkes and Mr. Forbes, of which one is 
heartily sick. But the campaign draws near, and will 
be hot enough. Methinks I wish we had some fresh 
generals ; I am rather tired of the old ones, all of whom 
I have seen so often both on the offensive and defensive, 
that I am incredibly incurious about their manoeuvres. 

The press for soldiers is so warm that Augustus Hervey 
could not be spared to attend the Duke of York, who has 
sailed some time. I shall be very impatient to hear of 
the Duke's arrival at Florence ; tell me the whole history. 
You will be very anxious, but you will acquit yourself 
perfectly well. Lord Hertford set out on his embassy last 
Thursday, and by this time I suppose Monsieur de Guerchy 1 
is in London. Most of our Parisian English are come 
back. The newspapers have given the rage of going to 
Paris a good name ; they call it the French disease. I shall 
be a little ashamed of having it so late; but I shall next 
spring. Having Lord Hertford there will be so agreeable 
a way of seeing Paris, that one cannot resist, especially 
as I took such pains to see so little of it when I was there 
before. I don't expect to like it much better now, though 
having a particular friend minister goes a great way in 
reconciling one to a country not one's own ; I don't believe 
I should have been quite so fond of Florence, if I had lived 
with nothing but Florentines. This time I am determined 
to ascertain what I have always doubted of, whether there 
is any such thing as a lively Frenchman ; the few I knew, 
and all those I have seen here, have had no more vivacity 
than a German. You see I do not go prejudiced. 

Have you got Mr. Garrick yet? If you have, you may 
keep him ; there is come forth within these ten days 
a young actor, who has turned the heads of the whole 

LETTER 910. l Claude Frai^ois cently appointed French Ambassador 
(1716-1767), Comte de Guerchy, re- in London, 

1763] To Sir Horace Mann 379 

town. The first night of his appearance the audience, 
not content with clapping, stood up and shouted. His 
name is Powell 2 ; he was clerk to Sir Kobert Ladbroke, 
and so clever in business that his master would have taken 
him in partner, but he had an impulse for the stage, was 
a Heaven-born hero, as Mr. Pitt called my Lord Clive. His 
figure is fine and voice most sonorous, as they say, for 
I wait for the rebound of his fame, and till I can get in, 
for at present all the boxes are taken for a month. As 
the reputation of this prodigy could not have reached 
France, where they have the English disease, they were 
content with showering honours on Mr. Garrick ; appointed 
a box for him, revived their best plays, and recalled their 
veteran actors. Their Helvetius, whose book has drawn 
such persecution on him, and the persecution such fame, 
is coming to settle here, and brings two Miss Helvetiuses, 
with fifty thousand pounds apiece, to bestow on two 
immaculate members of our most august and incorruptible 
senate, if he can find two in this virtuous age who will 
condescend to accept his money. Well, we may be dupes 
to French follies, but they are ten times greater fools to be 
the dupes of our virtue. Good night. 

Arlington Street, Oct. 18. 

I brought this to town to-day for the Secretary's office, 
and found yours of October 1st. Marshal Botta's advice of 
ceding your palace to the Duke of York may be very proper, 
but his Eoyal Highness, who is all good breeding and good 
humour, will certainly not suffer it. Yet, I am not averse 
to your making the offer, if it is still to make. Do you 
know, my national pride is wonderfully gratified by the 
Pope's humility and respect for whom we please to have 

2 William Powell (1735-1769), whose popularity became so great as to 
excite Garrick's jealousy. 

380 To the Earl of Hertford [i763 

Duke of York. An hundred and fifty years ago an English 
Protestant dared not own himself for such at Eome ; now 
they invite the very son of a family that has turned out 
their Stuarts, under the nose of those very Stuarts, nay, 
when the Stuart Duke of York is even a cardinal. I trust 
it is not only the Papal chair that has sunk, but the crown 
of England that has risen. Think of the mighty Elizabeth 
excommunicated by Sixtus V and the brother of George III 
invited to Rome by Clement XIII ! If the honours I have 
told you Mr. Garrick has received in France do not obtain 
him a chair in a Florentine conversazione, I think you must 
threaten them with the thunder of the Vatican, which you 
see we have at command ; but to be serious, I would not 
have you get into a squabble about him ; he is not worth 

We hear the King of Poland s is dead ; is that to be the 
source of a new war? You will see by the Gazette, that 
without such an event we had a nest-egg for another war. 
There have been half a dozen battles in miniature with the 
Indians in America*. It looked so odd to see a list of 
killed and wounded just treading on the heels of the Peace. 


MY DEAR LORD, Arlington Street, Oct. 18, 1763. 

I am very impatient for a letter from Paris 1 , to hear of 
your outset, and what my Lady Hertford thinks of the new 
world she is got into, and whether it is better or worse than 
she expected. Pray tell me all: I mean of that sort, for 

8 Augustus HI, King of Poland ; feated by Colonel Bouquet in August, 

d. Oct. 6, 1763. at Bushy Bun, but the war was still 

4 Some tribes of Indians rose in the in progress, and continued till the 

summer of 1763. They laid waste following year. 

the frontiers of Pennsylvania, Vir- LETTER 911. * Lord Hertford had 

ginia, and Maryland, and took some just gone to Paris as Ambassador, 
of the smaller forts. They were de- 

1763] To the Earl of Hertford 381 

I have no curiosity about the family compact, nor the 
harbour of Dunkirk. It is your private history your 
audiences, reception, comforts or distresses, your way of 
life, your company that interests me ; in short, I care 
about my cousins and friends, not, like Jack Harris, about 
my Lord Ambassador. Consider you are in my power. 
You, by this time, are longing to hear from England, and 
depend upon me for the news of London. I shall not send 
you a tittle, if you are not very good, and do not (one of you, 
at least) write to me punctually. 

This letter, I confess, will not give you much encourage- 
ment, for I can absolutely tell you nothing. I dined at 
Mr. Grenville's to-day, where, if there had been anything to 
hear, I should have heard it ; but all consisted in what you 
will see in the papers some diminutive battles in America, 
and the death of the King of Poland, which you probably 
knew before we did. The town is a desert ; it is like a vast 
plain, which, though abandoned at present, is in three weeks 
to have a great battle fought upon it. One of the colonels, 
I hear, is to be in town to-morrow, the Duke of Devonshire. 
I came myself but this morning, but as I shall not return to 
Strawberry till the day after to-morrow, I shall not seal my 
letter till then. In the meantime, it is but fair to give you 
some more particular particulars of what I expect to know. 
For instance, of Monsieur de Nivernois's cordiality; of 
Madame Dusson's affection for England ; of my Lord 
Holland's joy at seeing you in France, especially without 
your secretary 2 ; of all my Lady Hertford's cousins at 
St. Germains ; and I should not dislike a little anecdote 
or two of the late embassy s , of which I do not doubt you 

2 Lord Holland 'procured his it, he treated Bunbury with such 

wife's brother-in-law, Mr. Bunbury, obstinate coldness, that the latter 

to be imposed on Lord Hertford as was glad to quit the employment.' 

secretary of the embassy, an affront (Memoirs of George III, ed. 1894, 

Lord Hertford was advised not to voL L p. 209.) 

digest : but though he acquiesced in 3 That of the Duke of Bedford. 

382 To the Earl of Hertford [i?63 

will hear plenty. I must trouble you with many compli- 
ments to Madame de Boufflers, and with still more to the 
Duchesse de Mirepoix, who is always so good as to remember 
me. Her brother, Prince de Beauvau 4 , I doubt has for- 
gotten me. In the disagreeableness of taking leave, I omitted 
mentioning these messages. Good night for to-night oh ! 
I forgot pray send me some cafe au lait: the Due de 
Picquigny B (who by the way is somebody's son, as I thought) 
takes it for snuff, and says it is the new fashion at Paris ; 
I suppose they drink rappee after dinner. 

Wednesday night. 

I might as well have finished last night; for I know 
nothing more than I did then, but that Lady Mary Coke 
arrived this evening. She has behaved very honourably, 
and not stolen the Hereditary Prince. 

Mr. Bowman 6 called on me yesterday before I came, and 
left word that he would come again to-day, but did not. 
I wished to hear of you from him, and a little of my old 
acquaintance at Kheims. Did you find Lord Beauchamp 
much grown? Are all your sons to be like those of the 
Amalekites 7 ? who were I forget how many cubits high. 

Pray remind Mr. Hume 8 of collecting the whole history 
of the expulsion of the Jesuits. It is a subject worthy of 
his inquiry and pen. Adieu ! my dear Lord. 

4 The son of Horace Walpole's old Beauchamp, with whom he had 

friend, the Princesse de Craon. lately been at Bheims. 

8 Marie Joseph Louis d'Albert 7 All Lord Hertford's sons, and 

d'Ailly (1741-1793), Due de Piquigny, some of his daughters, were un- 

eldest son of the Due de Chaulnes, usually tall, 

whom he succeeded in 1769. 8 David Hume was secretary to 

6 According to Croker, Mr. Bow- Lord Hertford, 
man was travelling tutor to Lord 

1763] To George Montagu 383 


Strawberry Hill, Nov. 12, 1763. 

1 SEND you the catalogue as you desired ; and as I told 
you, you will, I think, find nothing to your purpose: the 
present Lord bought all the furniture-pictures at Navestock : 
the few now to be sold are the very fine ones of the best 
masters, and likely to go at vast prices, for there are several 
people determined to have some one thing that belonged to 
Lord Waldegrave. I did not get the catalogue till the night 
before last, too late to send by the post, for I had dined with 
Sir Kichard Lyttelton at Eichmond, and was forced to return 
by Kew Bridge, for the Thames was swelled so violently 
that the ferry could not work. I am here quite alone in the 
midst of a deluge, without Mrs. Noah, but with half as many 
animals. The waters are as much out as they were last year, 
when her vice-majesty of Ireland 1 , that now is sailed to 
Newmarket with both legs out at the fore glass, was here. 
Apropos, the Irish court goes on ill ; they lost a question by 
forty the very first day on the Address. The Irish not being 
so absurd or so complimental as Mr. Allen 2 , they would not 
suffer the word adequate to pass. The Prime Minister is so 
unpopular that they think he must be sent back. His patent 
and Kigby's are called in question. You see the age is not 
favourable to Prime Ministers ! Well ! I am going amidst 
it all, very unwillingly ; I had rather stay here, for I am 
sick of the storms, that once loved them so cordially. Over 
and above, I am not well; this is the third winter my 
nightly fever has returned. It comes like the bellman 
before Christmas, to put me in mind of my mortality. 

LETTER 912. 1 The Countess of fellow member for Bath in present- 
Northumberland, ing to the King an address from the 

2 Ralph Allen (1694-1764), of Prior Bath Corporation, in which the word 
Park, Bath. A coolness had arisen 'adequate,' describing the recently- 
between him and Pitt in consequence concluded Peace, was inserted by 
of the latter's refusal to join his Allen's advice. 

384 To the Earl of Hertford [1768 

Sir Michael Foster 3 is dead, a Whig of the old rock : he 
is a greater loss to his country than the prim Attorney- 
General 4 , who has resigned, or than the Attorney's father 5 , 
who is dying, will be. 

My gallery is still in such request, that, though the middle 
of November, I gave out a ticket to-day for seeing it. I see 
little of it myself, for I cannot sit alone in such state; 
I should think myself like the mad Duchess of Albemarle ', 
who fancied herself Empress of China. Adieu ! 

Yours ever, 



I ask you nothing about your coming, for I conclude we 
shall not see you till Christmas. My compliments to your 
brother John and your almoner Mr. Miller. 


Arlington Street, Nov. 17, 1763. 

IP the winter keeps up to the vivacity of its debut, you 
will have no reason to complain of the sterility of my letters. 
I do not say this from the spirit of the House of Commons 
on the first day, which was the most fatiguing and dull 
debate I ever heard, dull as I have heard many ; and yet for 
the first quarter of an hour it looked as if we were met to 
choose a Xing of Poland, and that all our names ended in 
isJcy. Wilkes, the night before, had presented himself at 
the Cockpit : as he was listening to the Speech, George 
Selwyn said to him, in the words of the Dunciad, ' May 
Heaven preserve the ears you lend ! ' We lost four hours 
debating whether or not it was necessary to open the session 

8 Sir Michael Poster, Knight (1689- 5 The Earl of Hard wicke. 

1768), Puisne Judge of the King's 6 Elizabeth Cavendish, Duchess of 

Bench. Albemarle ; d. 1734. 

4 Hon. Charles Yorke. 

176s] To the Earl of Hertford 385 

with reading a bill. The opposite sides, at the same time, 
pushing to get the start, between the King's message, which 
Mr. Grenville stood at the bar to present, and which was to 
acquaint us with the arrest of Wilkes and all that affair, and 
the complaint which Wilkes himself stood up to make. At 
six we divided on the question of reading a bill. Young 
Thomas Townshend 1 divided the House injudiciously, as the 
question was so idle ; yet the whole argument of the day 
had been so complicated with this question, that in effect it 
became the material question for trying forces. This will 
be an interesting part to you, when you hear that your 
brother 2 and I were in the minority. You know him, and 
therefore know he did what he thought right ; and for me, 
my dear Lord, you must know that I would die in the House 
for its privileges, and the liberty of the press. But come, 
don't be alarmed : this will have no consequences. I don't 
think your brother is going into opposition ; and for me, if 
I may name myself to your affection after him, nothing but 
a question of such magnitude can carry me to the House at 
all. I am sick of parties and factions, and leave them to 
buy and sell one another. Bless me ! I had forgot the 
numbers : they were 300, we 111. We then went upon the 
King's message ; heard the North Briton read ; and Lord 
North, who took the prosecution upon him and did it very 
well, moved to vote it a scandalous libel, &c., tending to 
foment treasonable insurrections. Mr. Pitt gave up the paper, 
but fought against the last words of the censure. I say 
Mr. Pitt, for indeed, like Almanzor, he fought almost singly, 
and spoke forty times : the first time in the day with much 
wit, afterwards with little energy. He had a tough enemy 

LETTER 913. l Thomas (d. 1800), Whitchurch ; Lord of the Treasury, 

eldest son of Hon. Thomas Town- 1765-67 ; Paymaster-General, 1767- 

shend ; cr. (March 6, 1783) Baron 68 ; Secretary at War, 1782 ; Home 

Sydney of Chislehurst, Kent ; and Secretary, 1782-83, and 1783-89. 

Viscount Sydney, 1789. M.P. for 2 General Con way. 


386 To the Earl of Hertford [i?63 

too ; I don't mean in parts or argument, but one that makes 
an excellent bull-dog, the Solicitor-General Norton. Legge 
was, as usual, concise ; and Charles Townshend, what is not 
usual, silent. We sat till within few minutes of two, after 
dividing again ; we, our exact former number, 111; they, 
273 ; and then we adjourned to go on the point of privilege 
the next day ; but now 

Listen, lordlings, and hold you still ; 
Of doughty deeds tell you I will. 

Martin, in the debate, mentioned the North Briton, in which 
he himself had been so heavily abused ; and he said, ' Who- 
ever stabs a reputation in the dark, without setting his 
name, is a cowardly, malignant, and scandalous scoundrel.' 
This, looking at Wilkes, he repeated twice, with such rage 
and violence, that he owned his passion obliged him to sit 
down. Wilkes bore this with the same indifference as he 
did all that passed in the day. The House too, who from 
Martin's choosing to take a public opportunity of resent- 
ment, when he had so long declined any private notice, 
and after Wilkes's courage was become so problematic, 
seemed to think there was no danger of such champions 
going further ; but the next day, when we came into the 
House, the first thing we heard was that Martin had shot 
Wilkes : so he had ; but Wilkes has six lives still good. 
It seems Wilkes had writ, to avow the paper, to Martin, on 
which the latter challenged him. They went into Hyde 
Park about noon ; Humphrey Cotes, the wine-merchant, 
waiting in a postchaise to convey Wilkes away if trium- 
phant. They fired at the distance of fourteen yards : both 
missed. Then Martin fired and lodged a ball in the side 
of Wilkes; who was going to return it, but dropped his 
pistol. He desired Martin to take care of securing himself, 
and assured him he would never say a word against him, 
and he allows that Martin behaved well. The wound 

1763] To the Earl of Hertford 387 

yesterday was thought little more than a flesh-wound, and 
he was in his old spirits. To-day the account is worse, 
and he has been delirious : so you will think when you 
hear what is to come. I think, from the agitation his 
mind must be in, from his spirits, and from drinking, as 
I suppose he will, that he probably will end here. He 
puts me in mind of two lines of Hudibras s , which, by the 
arrangement of the words combined with Wilkes's story, 
are stronger than Butler intended them : 

But he that fights and runs away 
May live to fight another day. 

His adventures with Lord Talbot, Forbes, and Martin, make 
these lines history. 

Now for Part the Second. On the first day, in your 
House, where the Address was moved by Lord Hillsborough 
and Lord Suffolk, after some wrangling between Lord 
Temple, Lord Halifax, the Duke of Bedford, and Lord 
Gower, Lord Sandwich laid before the House the most 
blasphemous and indecent poem that ever was composed, 
called An Essay on Woman, with notes, by Dr. Warburton. 
I will tell you none of the particulars : they were so ex- 
ceedingly bad, that Lord Lyttelton begged the reading 
might be stopped. The House was amazed ; nobody 
ventured even to ask a question : so it was easily voted 
everything you please, and a breach of privilege into the 
bargain. Lord Sandwich then informed your Lordships 
that Mr. Wilkes was the author. Fourteen copies alone 
were printed, one of which the ministry had bribed the 
printer to give up. Lord Temple then objected to the 
manner of obtaining it ; and Bishop Warburton, as much 
shocked at infidelity as Lord Sandwich had been at ob- 
scenity, said, 'the blackest fiends in hell would not keep 
company with Wilkes when he should arrive there.' Lord 

3 These lines are not in Httdibras. 
C C 2 

388 To the Earl of Hertford [i?63 

Sandwich moved to vote Wilkes the author ; but thia Lord 
Mansfield stopped, advertising the House that it was neces- 
sary first to hear what Wilkes could say in his defence. 
To-day, therefore, was appointed for that purpose ; but it 
has been put off by Martin's lodging a caveat. This bomb 
was certainly well conducted, and the secret, though known 
to many, well kept. The management is worthy of Lord 
Sandwich, and like him. It may sound odd for me, with 
my principles, to admire Lord Sandwich ; but besides that 
he has in several instances been very obliging to me, there 
is a good humour and an industry about him that are very 
uncommon. I do not admire politicians ; but when they are 
excellent in their way, one cannot help allowing them their 
due. Nobody but he could have struck a stroke like this. 

Yesterday we sat till eight on the Address, which yet 
passed without a negative : we had two very long speeches 
from Mr. Pitt and Mr. Grenville ; many fine parts in each. 
Mr. Pitt has given the latter some strong words, yet not so 
many as were expected. To-morrow we go on the great 
question of privilege ; but I must send this away, as we 
have no chance of leaving the House before midnight, if 
before next morning. 

This long letter contains the history of but two days ; 
yet if two days furnish a history, it is not my fault. The 
ministry, I think, may do whatever they please. Three 
hundred, that will give up their own privileges, may be 
depended upon for giving up anything else. I have not 
time or room to ask a question, or say a word more. 

Nov. 18, Friday. 

I have luckily got a holiday, and can continue my dis- 
patch, as you know dinner-time is my chief hour of busi- 
ness. The Speaker *, unlike Mr. Onslow, who was immortal 

4 Sir John Gust. 

1763] To the Earl of Hertford 389 

in the chair, is taken very ill, and our House is adjourned 
to Monday. Wilkes is thought in great danger: instead 
of keeping him quiet, his friends have shown their zeal by 
visiting him, and himself has been all spirits and riot, and 
sat up in his bed the next morning to correct the press for 
to-morrow's North Briton. His bons mots are all over the 
town, but too gross, I think, to repeat ; the chief are at the 
expense of poor Lord George 6 . Notwithstanding Lord Sand- 
wich's masked battery, the tide runs violently for Wilkes, 
and I do not find people in general so inclined to excuse 
his Lordship as I was. One hears nothing but stories of 
the latter's impiety, and of the concert he was in with 
Wilkes on that subject. Should this hero die, the Bishop 
of Gloucester may doom him whither he pleases, but Wilkes 
will pass for a saint and a martyr. 

Besides what I have mentioned, there were two or three 
passages in the House of Lords that were diverting. Lord 
Temple dwelled much on the Spanish ministry being 
devoted to France. Lord Halifax replied, ' Can we help 
that ? We can no more oblige the King of Spain to change 
his ministers, than his Lordship can force his Majesty to 
change the present administration.' Lord Gower, too, 
attacking Lord Temple on want of respect to the King, 
the Earl replied, ' he never had wanted respect for the King : 
he and his family had been attached to the House of 
Hanover full as long as his Lordship's family had 6 .' 

You may imagine that little is talked of but Wilkes, and 
what relates to him. Indeed, I believe there is no other 
news, but that Sir George Warren 7 marries Miss Bishop, 
the Maid of Honour. The Duchess of Grafton is at Euston, 
and hopes to stay there till after Christmas. Operas do not 
begin till to-morrow se'nnight ; but the Mingotti is to sing, 

8 Lord George Sackville. 7 Sir George Warren, KB., of 

6 Lord Gower's father was a con- Poynton, Cheshire, 
vert from Jacobitism. 

390 To the Earl of Hertford [i?63 

and that contents me. I forgot to tell you, and you may 
wonder at hearing nothing of the Keverend Mr. Charles 
Py lades 8 , while Mr. John Orestes is making such a figure : 
but Dr. Py lades, the poet, has forsaken his consort and the 
Muses, and is gone off with a stone-cutter's daughter. If 
he should come and offer himself to you for chaplain to the 
embassy ! 

The Countess of Harrington was extremely alarmed last 
Sunday, on seeing the Due de Perquigny enter her assembly : 
she forbade Lady Caroline 9 speaking to such a debauched 
young man, and communicated her fright to everybody. 
The Duchess of Bedford observed to me that as Lady 
Berkeley and some other matrons of the same stamp were 
there, she thought there was no danger of any violence being 
committed. For my part, the sisters are so different, that 
I conclude my Lady Hertford has not found any young man 
in France wild enough for her. Your counterpart, M. de 
Guerchy, takes extremely. I have not yet seen his wife. 

I this minute received your charming long letter of the 
llth, and give you & thousand thanks for it. I wish next 
Tuesday was past, for Lady Hertford's sake. You may 
depend on my letting you know, if I hear the least rumour 
in your disfavour. I should do so without your orders, 
for I could not bear to have you traduced and not adver- 
tise you to defend yourself. I have hitherto not heard 
a syllable ; but the newspapers talk of your magnificence, 
and I approve extremely your intending to support their 
evidence ; for though I do not think it necessary to scatter 
pearls and diamonds about the streets like their vice-majesties 
of Ireland, one owes it to oneself and to the King's choice 
to prove it was well made. 

8 Wilkes's friend, Charles Churchill, Harrington ; m. (1765) Kenneth Mac- 

thepoet. konzic, Viscount Fortrose (after- 

Lady Caroline Stanhope (d. 1767), wards Earl of Seaforth). 
eldest daughter of second Earl of 

1763] To Sir Horace Mann 391 

The colour given at Paris to Bunbury's stay in England 
has been given out here too. You need not, I think, 
trouble yourself about that ; a majority of three hundred 
will soon show, that if he was detained, the reason at least 
no longer subsists. 

Hamilton 10 is certainly returning from Ireland. Lord 
Shannon's son " is going to marry the Speaker's daughter, 
and the Primate has begged to have the honour of joining 
their hands. 

This letter is wofully blotted and ill-written, yet I must 
say it is print compared to your Lordship's. At first I 
thought you had forgot that you was not writing to the 
Secretary of State, and had put it into cipher. Adieu ! 
I am neither dead of my fever nor apoplexy, nay, nor of 
the House of Commons. I rather think the violent heat 
of the latter did me good. Lady Aylesbury was at court 
yesterday, and benignly received ; a circumstance you will 
not dislike. 

P.S. If I have not told you all you want to know, 
interrogate me, and I will answer the next post. 


Arlington Street, Nov. 17, 1763. 

THE campaign is opened, hostilities begun, and blood 
shed. Now you think, my dear Sir, that all this is meta- 
phor, and mere eloquence. You are mistaken: our diets, 
like that approaching in Poland, use other weapons than 
the tongue ; ay, in good truth, and they who use the tongue 
too, and who perhaps you are under the common error 

10 William Gerard Hamilton. 1764 ; m. Catherine(d. 1827), daughter 

11 Richard Boyle (1728-1807), Vis- of Hon. John Ponsonby, Speaker of 
count Boyle, eldest son of first Earl the Irish House of Commons. 

of Shannon, whom he succeeded in 

392 To Sir Horace Mann [i763 

of thinking would not fight, have signalized their prowess. 
But stay, I will tell you my story more methodically ; 
perhaps you shall not know for these two pages what 
member of the British Senate, of that august divan whose 
wisdom influences the councils of all Europe, as its incorrupt 
virtue recalls to mind the purest ages of Kome, was shot 
in a duel yesterday in Hyde Park. The Parliament met 
on Tuesday. We for you know I have the honour of 
being a senator sat till two in the morning; and had it 
not been that there is always more oratory, more good 
sense, more knowledge, and more sound reasoning in the 
House of Commons, than in the rest of the universe put 
together, the House of Lords only excepted, I should have 
thought it as tedious, dull, and unentertaining a debate as 
ever I heard in my days. The business was a complaint 
made by one King George of a certain paper called the 
North Briton, No. 45, which the said King asserted was 
written by a much more famous man called Mr. Wilkes. 
Well ! and so you imagine that Mr. Wilkes and King 
George went from the House of Commons and fought out 
their quarrel in Hyde Park? And which do you guess 
was killed? Again you are mistaken. Mr. Wilkes, with 
all the impartiality in the world, and with the phlegm 
of an Areopagite, sat and heard the whole matter discussed, 
and now and then put in a word, as if the affair did not 
concern Mm. The House of Commons, who would be 
wisdom itself, if they could but all agree on which side 
of a question wisdom lies, and who are sometimes forced 
to divide in order to find this out, did divide twice on 
this affair. The first time, one hundred and eleven, of 
which I had the misfortune to be one, had more curiosity 
to hear Mr. Wilkes's story than King George's ; but three 
hundred being of the contrary opinion, it was plain they 
were in the right, especially as they had no private motives 

17G3] To Sir Horace Mann 393 

to guide them. Again, the individual one hundred and 
eleven could not see that the North Briton tended to foment 
treasonable insurrections, though we had it argumentatively 
demonstrated to us for seven hours together: but the 
moment we heard two hundred and seventy-five gentlemen 
counted, it grew as plain to us as a pike-staff, for a syllogism 
carries less conviction than a superior number, though that 
number does not use the least force upon earth, but only 
walk peaceably out of the House and into it again. The 
next day we were to be in the same numerical way con- 
vinced that we ought to be but one hundred and ten, for 
that we ought to expel Mr. Wilkes out of the House : and 
the majority were to prove to us (for we are slow of 
comprehension, and imbibe instruction very deliberately) 
that in order to have all London acquainted with the person 
and features of Mr. Wilkes, it would be necessary to set 
him on a high place called the pillory, where everybody 
might see him at leisure. Some were even almost ready 
to think that, being a very ugly man, he would look better 
without his ears ; and poor Sir William Stanhope, who 
endeavoured all day by the help of a trumpet to listen to 
these wise debates and found it to no purpose, said, 'If 
they want a pair of ears they may take mine, for I am 
sure they are of no use to me.' The regularity, however, 
of these systematic proceedings has been a little interrupted. 
One Mr. Martin 1 , who has much the same quarrel to 
Mr. Wilkes with King George, and who chose to suspend 
his resentment like his Majesty, till with proper dignity he 
could notify his wrath to Parliament, did express his 
indignation with rather less temper than the King had 
done, calling Mr. Wilkes to his face cowardly scoundrel, 

LETTER 914. l Samuel Martin, a Lord, and Treasurer to the Princess 
West Indian, Secretary to the Dowager of Wales. Walpole. 
Treasury, when Lord Bute was First 

394: To Sir Horace Mann [1763 

which you, who represent monarchs, know is not royal 
language. Mr. Wilkes, who, it seems, whatever may have 
been thought, had rather die compendiously than piece- 
meal, inquired of Mr. Martin by letter next morning, if 
he, Mr. Wilkes, was meant by him, Mr. Martin, under the 
periphrasis cowardly scoundrel. Mr. Martin replied in the 
affirmative, and accompanied his answer with a challenge. 
They immediately went into Hyde Park ; and, at the second 
fire, Mr. Wilkes received a bullet in his body. Don't be 
frightened, the wound was not mortal at least it was not 
yesterday. Being corporally delirious to-day, as he has been 
mentally some time, I cannot tell what to say to it. How- 
ever, the breed will not be lost, if he should die. You 
have still countrymen enough left : we need not despair of 

Now, would not you think that this man had made noise 
enough, and that he had no occasion to burn a temple to 
perpetuate his name? Alas, alas! there is nothing like 
having two strings to one's bow. The very day in which 
the scene I have mentioned passed in the House of Commons, 
Lord Sandwich produced to the Lords a poem, called an 
Essay on Woman, written by the same Mr. Wilkes, though 
others say, only enlarged by him from a sketch drawn by 
a late son 2 of a late archbishop. It is a parody on Pope's 
Essay on Man ; and, like that, pretending to notes by 
Dr. Warburton, the present holy and orthodox Bishop of 
Gloucester. It is dedicated to Fanny Murray s , whom it 
prefers to the Virgin Mary from never having had a child ; 
and it calls the ass a noble animal, which never disgraced 
itself but once, and that was when it was ridden on into 
Jerusalem. You may judge by these samples of the whole : 
the piece, indeed, was only printed, and only fourteen 

Thomas Potter, son of Dr. Potter, * A noted courtesan, afterwards 

Archbishop of Canterbury. Walpolc. married to Boss the actor. Walpole. 

1763] v ^ To Sir Horace Mann 395 

copies, but never published. Mr. Wilkes complains that 
he never read it but to two persons, who both approved 
it highly, Lord Sandwich and Lord Despencer 4 . The style, 
to be sure, is at least not unlike that of the last. The 
wicked even affirm, that very lately, at a club with Mr. 
Wilkes, held at the top of the playhouse in Drury Lane, 
Lord Sandwich talked so profanely that he drove two 
harlequins out of company. You will allow, however, that 
the production of this poem so critically was masterly : the 
secret too was well kept : nor till a vote was passed against 
it, did even Lord Temple suspect who was the author. 
If Mr. Martin has not killed him, nor should we, you see 
here are faggots enough in store for him still. The Bishop 
of Gloucester, who shudders at abuse and infidelity, has 
been measuring out ground in Smithfield for his execution ; 
and in his speech begged the devil's pardon for comparing 
him to Wilkes. 

Well, now ! after all, do you with your plain Florentine 
understanding comprehend one word of what I have been 
saying? Do you think me or your countrymen quite 
distracted? Go, turn to your Livy, to your history of 
Athens, to your life of Sacheverel. Find upon record what 
mankind has been, and then you will believe what it is. 
We are poor pigmy, short-lived animals, but we are comical, 
I don't think the curtain fallen and the drama closed. 
Three hundred is an omnipotent number, and may do 
whatever it will ; and yet I think there are some single 
men, whom three hundred cannot convince. Well, but 
then they may cut their ears off ; I don't see what could 
hinder it. Adieu ! 

4 Sir Francis Dashwood, Lord Despencer. WalpoU. 

396 To George Montagu [1763 


Arlington Street, Nov. 20, 1763. 

You are in the wrong, believe me you are in the wrong 
to stay in the country ; London never was so entertaining 
since it had a steeple or a mad-house. Cowards fight duels ; 
Secretaries of State turn Methodists on the Tuesday, and 
are expelled the playhouse for blasphemy on Friday. I am 
not turned Methodist, but Patriot, and what is more extra- 
ordinary, am not going to have a place. What is more 
wonderful still, Lord Hardwicke has made two of his sons 
resign their employments. I know my letter sounds as 
enigmatic as Merlin's Almanack ; but my events have really 
happened. I had almost persuaded myself like you to quit 
the world thank my stars I did not ! Why, I have done 
nothing but laugh since last Sunday ; though on Tuesday I 
was one of a hundred and eleven that were outvoted by three 
hundred ; no laughing matter generally to a true Patriot, 
whether he thinks his country undone or himself. Nay, 
I am still more absurd even for my dear country's sake 
I cannot bring myself to connect with Lord Hardwicke, or 
the Duke of Newcastle, though they are in the minority 
an unprecedented case, not to love everybody one despises, 
when they are of the same side. On the contrary, I fear 
I resemble a fond woman, and dote on the dear betrayer. 
In short (and to write something that you can understand), 
you know I have long had a partiality for your cousin 
Sandwich, who has out-Sandwiched himself. He has im- 
peached Wilkes for a blasphemous poem, and has been 
expelled for blasphemy himself by the Beef-steak Club at 
Covent Garden. Wilkes has been shot by Martin, and 
instead of being burnt at an auto da fe, as the Bishop of 
Gloucester intended, is reverenced as a saint by the mob, 

1763] To the Earl of Hertford 397 

and if he dies, I suppose, the people will squint themselves 
into convulsions at his tomb, in honour of his memory. 
Now, is not this better than feeding one's birds and one's 
bantams, poring one's eyes out over old histories, not half 
so extraordinary as the present, or ambling to Squire Blen- 
cow's on one's pad-nag, and playing at cribbage with one's 
brother John and one's parson? Prithee come to town, 
and let us put off taking the veil for another year. Besides, 
by this time twelvemonth we are sure the world will be 
a year older in wickedness, and we shall have more matter 
for meditation. One would not leave it methinks till it 
comes to the worst, and that time cannot be many months 
off. In the meantime, I have bespoken a dagger, in case 
the circumstances should grow so classic as to make it 
becoming to kill oneself; however, though disposed to quit 
the world, as I have no mind to leave it entirely, I shall 
put off my death to the last minute, and do nothing rashly, 
till I see Mr. Pitt and Lord Temple place themselves in 
their curule chairs in St. James's Market, and resign their 
throats to the victors. I am determined to see them dead 
first, lest they should play me a trick, and be hobbling to 
Buckingham House, while I am shivering and waiting for 
them on the banks of Lethe. Adieu ! Yours, 



Arlington Street, Nov. 25, 1763. 

You tell me, my dear Lord, in a letter I have this moment 
received from you, that you have had a comfortable one from 
me ; I fear it was not the last : you will not have been fond 
of your brother's voting against the court \ Since that, he 

LETTER 916. J Con way's vote the King, who at once proposed to 
against the court deeply offended Grenville to dismiss him from his 

398 To the Earl of Hertford [i?63 

has been told by different channels that they think of taking 
away regiments from opposers. He heard it, as he would 
the wind whistle : while in the shape of a threat he treats it 
with contempt ; if put into execution, his scorn would subside 
into indifference. You know he has but one object doing 
what is right ; the rest may betide as it will. One or two 
of the ministers, who are honest men, would, I have reason 
to believe, be heartily concerned to have such measures 
adopted ; but they are not directors. The little favour they 
possess, and the desperateness of their situation, oblige them 
to swallow many things they disapprove, and which ruin 
their character with the nation ; while others, who have no 
character to lose, and whose situation is no less desperate, 
care not what inconveniences they bring on their master, 
nor what confusion on their country, in which they can 
never prosper, except when it is convulsed. The nation, 
indeed, seem thoroughly sensible of this truth. They are 
unpopular beyond conception : even of those that vote with 
them there are numbers that express their aversion without 
reserve. Indeed, on Wednesday, the 23rd, this went farther : 
we were to debate the great point of privilege 2 : Wilbraham 
objected, that Wilkes was involved in it, and ought to be 
present. On this, though, as you see, a question of slight 
moment, fifty-seven left them at once : they were but 243 
to 166. As we had sat, however, till eight at night, the 

employments. This step was not of Pitt and of a powerful protest 

taken until after Conway's vote signed by seventeen peers, a resolu- 

against the legality of general war- tion was now carried through both 

rants in February 1764. Houses " that privilege of Parliament 

2 'The doctrine that no member does not extend to the case of writing 

of Parliament could be arrested or and publishing seditious libels, nor 

prosecuted without the express per- ought to be allowed to obstruct the 

mission of the House, except for ordinary course of the laws in the 

treason, felony, or actual breach of speedy and effectual prosecution of 

the peace, or for refusal to pay so heinous and dangerous an of- 

obedience to a writ of Habeas Corpus, fence.'" (Lecky, Hist. Cent, XVIII, 

had hitherto been fully acknow- ed. 1895, voL iii. p. 264.) 
ledged. ... In spite of the opposition 

1763] To the Earl of Hertford 399 

debate was postponed to next day. Mr. Pitt, who had a 
fever and the gout, came on crutches, and wrapped in 
flannels : so he did yesterday, but was obliged to retire at 
ten at night, after making a speech of an hour and fifty 
minutes ; the worst, I think, I ever heard him make in my 
life. For our parts, we sat till within ten minutes of two in 
the morning ; yet we had but few speeches, all were so long. 
Hussey, Solicitor to the Princess of Wales s , was against the 
court, and spoke with great spirit, and true Whig spirit. 
Charles Yorke shone exceedingly. He had spoke and voted 
with us the night before ; but now maintained his opinion 
against Pratt's. It was a most able and learned performance, 
and the latter part, which was oratorio, uncommonly beautiful 
and eloquent. You find I don't let partiality to the Whig 
cause blind my judgement. That speech was certainly the 
masterpiece of the day. Norton would not have made a 
figure, even if Charles Yorke had not appeared ; but giving 
way to his natural brutality, he got into an ugly scrape. 
Having so little delicacy or decency as to mention a cause in 
which he had prosecuted Sir John Kushout (who sat just 
under him) for perjury, the tough old knight (who had been 
honourably acquitted of the charge) gave the House an 
account of the affair ; and then added, ' I was assured the 
prosecution was set on foot by that honest gentleman ; I hope 
I don't call him out of his name and that it was in revenge 
for my having opposed him in an election.' Norton denied 
the charge, upon his honour, which did not seem to persuade 
everybody. Immediately after this we had another episode. 
Eigby, totally unprovoked either by anything said or by the 
complexion of the day, which was grave and argumentative, 
fell upon Lord Temple, and described his behaviour on the 
commitment of Wilkes. James Grenville, who sat behind 
him, rose in all the acrimony of resentment : drew a veiy 

* He was Solicitor to the Queen. 

400 To the Earl of Hertford [1733 

favourable picture of his brother, and then one of Rigby, 
conjuring up the bitterest words, epithets, and circumstances 
that he could amass together : told him how interested he 
was, and how ignorant: painted his journey to Ireland to 
get a law-place 4 , for which he was so unqualified; and 
concluded with affirming he had fled from thence to avoid 
the vengeance of the people. The passive Speaker suffered 
both painters to finish their works, and would have let them 
carry their colours and brushes into Hyde Park the next 
morning, if other people had not represented the necessity 
of demanding their paroles that it should go no farther. 
They were both unwilling to rise: Rigby did at last, and 
put an end to it with humour and good-humour. The 
numbers were 258 to 133. The best speech of all those 
that were not spoken was Charles Townshend's. He has 
for some time been informing the world that for the last 
three months he had constantly employed six clerks to 
search and transcribe records, journals, precedents, &c. The 
production of all this mountain of matter was a mouse, and 
that mouse still-born: he has voted with us, but never 
uttered a word. 

We shall now repose for some time ; at least I am sure 
I shall. It has been hard service : and nothing but a Whig 
point of this magnitude could easily have carried me to the 
House at all, of which I have so long been sick. Wilkes 
will live, but is not likely to be in a situation to come forth 
for some time. The blasphemous book has fallen ten times 
heavier on Sandwich's own head than on Wilkes's : it has 
brought forth such a catalogue of anecdotes as is incredible ! 
Lord Hardwicke fluctuates between life and death. Lord 
Effingham is dead suddenly, and Lord Cantelupe has got his 

These are all our news; I am glad yours go on so 

4 Rigby was Master of the Bolls in Ireland. 

1763] To the Earl of Hertford 401 

smoothly. I take care to do you justice at M. de Guerchy's 
for all the justice you do to France, and particularly to the 
house of Nivernois. D'6on 5 is here still : I know nothing 
more of him but that the honour of having a hand in the 
Peace overset his poor brain. This was evident on the fatal 
night at Lord Halifax's : when they told him his behaviour 
was a breach of the peace, he was quite distracted, thinking 
it was the peace between his country and this. 

Our operas begin to-morrow. The Duchess of Grafton is 
come for a fortnight only. My compliments to the Ambassa- 
dress, and all your court. 


Arlington Street, Dec. 2, 1763. 

I HAVE been expecting a letter all day, as Friday is the 
day I have generally received a letter from you, but it is 
not yet arrived, and I begin mine without it. M. de Guerchy 
has given us a prosperous account of my Lady Hertford's 
audience: still I am impatient to hear it from yourselves. 
I want to know, too, what you say to your brother's being 
in the minority. I have already told you that unless 
they use him ill, I do not think him likely to take any 
warm part. With regard to dismission of officers, I hear 
no more of it: such a violent step would but spread the 
flames, which are already fierce enough. I will give you 
an instance : last Saturday, Lord Cornwallis l and Lord 

5 ' D'Eon took it into his fancy George III, ed. 1894, vol. i. p. 242.) 
that one Treyssac de Vergy, an LETTER 917. 1 Charles Cornwallis 
adventurer, -was brought over to (1738-1805), second Earl Cornwallis, 
assassinate him; and on this belief cr. Marquis Cornwallis in 1792; en- 
broke out so outrageously against the tered the army in 1756. He took 
Count after dinner at Lord Halifax's, a prominent part in the American 
that the Earl, at M. de Guerchy's War, but after several successes he 
desire, was obliged to aend^for Justice was obliged to surrender at York- 
Fielding and put D'Eon under town (Oct. 19, 1781). He was 
arrest; and next day Vergy swore Governor-General and Commancler- 
the peace against him.' (Memoirs of in-Chief in the East Indies, 1786-98 ; 


402 To the Earl of Hertford [i763 

Allen* came drunk to the Opera: the former went up to 
Rigby in the pit, and told him in direct words that Lord 
Sandwich was a pickpocket. Then Lord Allen, with looks 
and gestures no less expressive, advanced close to him, and 
repeating this again in the passage, would have provoked 
a quarrel, if George West" had not carried him away by 
force. Lord Cornwallis, the next morning in Hyde Park, 
made an apology to Rigby for his behaviour, but the rest 
of the world is not so complaisant. His pride, insolence, 
and over-bearingness, have made him so many enemies, 
that they are glad to tear him to pieces for his attack on 
Lord Temple, so unprovoked, and so poorly performed. It 
was well that with his spirit and warmth he had the sense 
not to resent the behaviour of those two drunken young 

On Tuesday your Lordship's House sat till ten at night, 
on the resolutions we had communicated to you ; and you 
agreed to them by 114 to 35: a puny minority indeed, 
considering of what great names it was composed ! Even 
the Duke of Cumberland voted in it ; but Mr. Yorke's 
speech in our House, and Lord Mansfield's in yours, for 
two hours, carried away many of the opposition, particularly 
Lord Lyttelton, and the greater part of the Duke of New- 
castle's Bishops. The Duke of Grafton is much com- 
mended. The Duke of Portland commenced, but was too 
much frightened. There was no warmth nor event ; but 
Lord Shelburne, who they say spoke well, and against the 
court, and as his friends had voted in our House, has 
produced one, the great Mr. Calcraft being turned out 
yesterday, from some muster-mastership ; I don't know 

General, 1798 ; Lord-Lieutenant of Viscount Allen. 
Ireland, 1798-1801. Hon. George West (1733-1776), 

2 Joshua Allen (1728-1816), fifth second son of first Earl Delaware. 

1763] To the Earl of Hertford 403 

Lord Sandwich is canvassing to succeed Lord Hardwicke, 
as High Steward of Cambridge ; another egg of animosity. 
We shall, however, I believe, be tolerably quiet till after 
Christmas, as Mr. Wilkes will not be able to act before the 
holidays. I rejoice at it : I am heartily sick of all this folly, 
and shall be glad to get to Strawberry again, and hear nothing 
of it. The ministry have bought off Lord Clive with a bribe 
that would frighten the King of France himself: they have 
given him back his 25,OOOZ. a year 4 . Walsh 6 has behaved 
nobly: he said he could not in conscience vote with the 
administration, and would not vote against Lord Clive, who 
chose him : he has therefore offered to resign his seat. Lady 
Augusta's 6 fortune was to be voted to-day, and Lord Strange 
talked of opposing it ; but I had not the curiosity to go down. 
This is all our politics, and indeed all our news ; we have 
none of any other kind. So far you will not regret England. 
For my part, I wish myself with you. Being perfectly 
indifferent who is minister and who is not, and weary of 
laughing at both, I shall take hold of the first spring to 
make you my visit. 

Our operas do not succeed. Giardini, now become minister, 
and having no exchequer to buy an audience, is grown un- 
popular. The Mingotti, whom he has forced upon the town, 
is as much disliked as if he had insisted on her being first 
Lord of the Treasury. The first man, though with sweet 
notes, has so weak a voice that he might as well hold his 
tongue like Charles Townshend. The figurantes are very 
pretty, but can dance no more than Tommy Pelham. The 
first man dancer is handsome, well made, and strong enough 
to make his fortune anywhere : but, you know, fortunes 
made in private are seldom agreeable to the public. In 

4 The ' jaghir ' granted to Clive by ' The Princess Augusta, eldest 

Mir Jaffier, of which the East India daughter of Frederick, Prince of 

Directors wished to deprive him. Wales, married in Jan. 1764 to the 

John Walah, M.P. for Worcester. Hereditary Prince of Brunswick. 

D d 2 

404 To the Earl of Hertford [i?63 

short, it will not do ; there was not a soul in the pit the 
second night. 

Lady Mary Coke has received her gown by the Prince de 
Masseran 7 , and is exceedingly obliged to you, though much 
disappointed ; this being a slight gown made up, and not 
the one she expected, which is a fine one bought for her by 
Lady Holland, and which you must send somehow or other : 
if you cannot, you must dispatch an ambassador on purpose. 
I dined with the Prince de Masseran, at Guerchy's the day 
after his arrival ; and if faces speak truth, he will not be 
our ruin. Oh ! but there is a ten times more delightful 
man the Austrian minister 8 : he is so stiff and upright, 
that you would think all his mistress's diadems were upon 
his head, and that he was afraid of their dropping off. 

I know so little of Irish politics, that I am afraid of mis- 
informing you ; but I hear that Hamilton, who has come off 
with honour in a squabble with Lord Newton 9 about the 
latter's wife, speaks and votes with the opposition against 
the Castle. I don't know the meaning of it, nor, except it 
had been to tell you, should I have remembered it. 

Well ! your letter will not come, and I must send away 
mine. Remember, the holidays are coming, and that I 
shall be a good deal out of town. I have been charming 
hitherto, but I cannot make brick without straw. Encore, 
you are almost the only person I ever write a line to. 
I grow so old and so indolent that I hate the sight of a pen 
and ink. 

7 The Spanish Ambassador in Lanesborough, whom he succeeded 
London. in 1768 ; m. (1754) Lady Jane Boch- 

8 Count von Seillern. fort, daughter of first Earl of Belvi- 

9 Brinsley Butler (1728-1 7 79), Lord dere. 
Newtown Butler, son of first Earl of 

1763] To the Rev. William Cole 405 


DEAR SlR, Arlington Street, Dec. 6, 1763. 

According to custom I am excessively obliged to you : 
you are continually giving me proofs of your kindness. 
I have now three packets to thank you for, full of informa- 
tion, and have only to lament the trouble you have given 

I am glad for the tomb's sake and my own, that Sir Giles 
Allington's 1 monument is restored. The draft you have 
sent is very perfect. The account of your ancestor Tuer 2 
shall not be forgotten in my next edition. The pedigree of 
Allington I had from Collins s before his death, but I think 
not so perfect as yours. You have made one little slip in 
it : my mother was grand-daughter, not daughter of Sir John 
Shorter, and was not an heiress, having three brothers, who 
all died after her, and we only quarter the arms of Shorter, 
which I fancy occasioned the mistake, by their leaving no 
children. The verses by Sir Edward Walpole 4 , and the 
translation by Bland 5 , are published in my Description of 

I am come late from the House of Lords, and am just 
going to the Opera, so you will excuse me saying more, 
than that I have a print of Archbishop Button 8 for you (it 
is Dr. Ducarel's), and a little plate of Strawberry, but I do 
not send them by the post, as it would crease them : if you 

LETTER 918. 1 Sir Giles Allington, * Sir Edward Walpole, K.B., great- 
Knight, of Horseheath, Cambridge- grandfather of Horace Walpole. The 
shire, an ancestor of Horace Walpole. verses in question were written upon 

8 Herbert Tner, painter, of whom his wife's death. 

a short account ia given in Anecdotes 6 Henry Bland, Dean of Durham ; 

of Painting. d. 1746. 

8 Arthur Collins (d. 1760), author 6 Matthew Hutton, Archbishop of 

of the Peerage. Canterbury; d .1758. 

406 To the Earl of Hertford [ires 

will tell me how to convey them otherwise, I will. I repeat 
many thanks to you and am, 

Dear Sir, 

Yours most sincerely, 



Friday, Dec. 9, 1763. 

YOUR brother has sent you such a full account of his 
transaction with Mr. Grenville *, that it is not necessary for 
me to add a syllable, except, what your brother will not 
have said himself, that he has acted as usual with the 
strictest honour and firmness, and has turned this negotia- 
tion entirely to his own credit. He has learned the ill 
wishes of his enemies, and what is more, knows who they 
are : he has laughed at them, and found at last that their 
malice was much bigger than their power. Mr. Grenville, 
as you would wish, has proved how much he disliked the 
violence of his associates, as I trust he will, whenever he 
has an opportunity, and has at last contented himself with 
so little or nothing, that I am sure you will feel yourself 
obliged to him. For the measure itself, of turning out the 
officers in general who oppose, it has been much pressed, 
and what is still sillier, openly threatened by one set ; but 
they dare not do it, and having notified it without effect, 
are ridiculed by the whole town, as well as by the persons 
threatened, particularly by Lord Albemarle, who has treated 
their menaces with the utmost contempt and spirit. This 
mighty storm, like another I shall tell you of, has vented 
itself on Lord Shelburne and Colonel Barre 2 , who were 

LETTER 919. 1 At a meeting on Conway refused to bind himself. 

Dec. 4, in presence of the Dnke of a Isaac Barre (1726-1802), M.P. for 

Richmond, Grenville tried to pledge Chipping Wycombe. Joint Vice- 

Conway to support the government. Treasurer of Ireland, 1766-68 ; Trea- 

1763] To the Earl of Hertford 407 

yesterday turned out ; the first from aide-de-camp to the 
King, the latter from adjutant-general and governor of 
Stirling. Campbell 3 , to whom it was promised before, has 
got the last ; Ned Harvey, the former. My present expecta- 
tion is an oration from Barre, in honour of Mr. Pitt; for 
those are scenes that make the world so entertaining. 
After that, I shall demand a satire on Mr. Pitt, from 
Wilkes ; and I do not believe I shall be balked, for Wilkes 
has already expressed his resentment on being given up by 
Pitt, who, says Wilkes, ought to be expelled for an im- 
postor. I do not know whether the Duke of Newcastle 
does not expect a palinodia from me. T'other morning at 
the Duke's levee he embraced me, and hoped I would come 
and eat a bit of Sussex mutton with him. I had such 
difficulty to avoid laughing in his face that I got from him 
as fast as I could. Do you think me very likely to forget 
that I have been laughing at him these twenty years ? 

Well ! but we have had a prodigious riot : are not you 
impatient to know the particulars? It was so prodigious 
a tumult, that I verily thought half the administration 
would have run away to Harrowgate. The North Briton 
was ordered to be burned by the hangman at Cheapside 
on Saturday last. The mob rose ; the greatest mob, says 
Mr. Sheriff Blunt, that he has known in forty years. They 
were armed with that most bloody instrument, the mud 
out of the kennels: they hissed in the most murderous 
manner; broke Mr. Sheriff Harley's* coach-glass in the 
most frangent manner; scratched his forehead, so that he 
is forced to wear a little patch in the most becoming 

surer of the Navy, 1782 ; Paymaster- * Captain (afterwards Sir James) 

General, 1782-88. He was a political Campbell, of Ardkinglas, M.P. for 

adherent of Shelburne, and, after Stirling Burghs, 

his dismissal, of Pitt* He was one * Hon. Thomas Harley(1730-1804), 

of the most prominent members of third son of third Earl of Oxford, 

the opposition to Lord North's M.P. for the City of London. He was 

ministry. Lord Mayor in 1767. 

408 To the Earl of Hertford [i763 

manner ; and obliged the hangman to burn the paper with 
a link, though faggots were prepared to execute it in a more 
solemn manner. Numbers of gentlemen, from windows 
and balconies, encouraged the mob, who, in about an hour 
and half, were so undutiful to the ministry, as to retire 
without doing any mischief, or giving Mr. Carteret Webb 5 
the opportunity of a single information, except against an 
ignorant lad, who had been in town but ten days. 

This terrible uproar has employed us four days. The 
sheriffs were called before your House on Monday, and 
made their narrative. My brother Cholmondeley, in the 
most pathetic manner, and suitably to the occasion, recom- 
mended it to your Lordships, to search for precedents of 
what he believed never happened since the world began. 
Lord Egmont, who knows of a plot, which he keeps to 
himself, though it has been carrying on these twenty years, 
thought more vigorous measures ought to be taken on such 
a crisis, and moved to summon the mistress of the Union 
Coffee-house 6 . The Duke of Bedford thought all this but 
piddling, and at once attacked Lord Mayor, Common Council, 
and charter of the City, whom, if he had been supported, 
I believe he would have ordered to be all burned by the 
hangman next Saturday. Unfortunately for such national 
justice, Lord Mansfield, who delights in every opportunity 
of exposing and mortifying the Duke of Bedford, and Sand- 
wich, interposed for the magistracy of London, and, after 
much squabbling, saved them from immediate execution. 
The Duke of Grafton, with infinite shrewdness and cool- 
ness, drew from the witnesses that the whole mob was of 
one mind ; and the day ended in a vote of general censure 
on the rioters. This was communicated to us at a confer- 

6 Philip Carteret Webb (d. 1770), 8 The sheriff stated that the rioters 
M.P. for Haslemere and Joint Soli- had been encouraged by persons at 
citor to the Treasury. the Union Coffee-house. 

1763] To the Earl of Hertford 409 

ence, and yesterday we acted the same farce ; when Eigby 
trying to revive the imputation on the Lord Mayor, &c. 
(who, by-the-by, did sit most tranquilly at Guildhall during 
the whole tumult), the ministry disavowed and abandoned 
him to a man, vindicating the magistracy, and plainly dis- 
covering their own fear and awe of the City, who feel the 
insult, and will from hence feel their own strength. In 
short, to finish this foolish story, I never saw a transaction 
in which appeared so little parts, abilities, or conduct ; nor 
do I think there can be anything weaker than the adminis- 
tration, except it is the opposition : but an opposition, bed- 
rid and tongue-tied, is a most ridiculous body. Mr. Pitt is 
laid up with the gout; Lord Hardwicke, though much 
relieved by a quack medicine, is still very ill; and Mr. 
Charles Townshend is as silent as my Lord Abercorn that 
they two should ever be alike ! 

This is not all our political news ; Wilkes is an in- 
exhaustible fund : on Monday was heard, in the Common 
Pleas, his suit against Mr. Wood 7 , when, after a trial of 
fourteen hours, the jury gave him damages of one thousand 
pounds; but this was not the heaviest part of the blow. 
The Solicitor-General 8 tried to prove Wilkes author of the 
North Briton, and failed in the proof. You may judge how 
much that miscarriage adds to the defeat. Wilkes is not 
yet out of danger : they think there is still a piece of coat 
or lining to come out of the wound. The campaign is over 
for the present, and the troops going into country quarters. 
In the meantime, the house of Harrington has supplied us 
with new matter of talk. My Lord was robbed 9 about three 
o'clock in the night between Saturday and Sunday last, of 
money, bills, watches, and snuff-boxes, to the amount of 

7 For seizing Wilkes's papers. porter, and one Bradley. Wesket 

8 Sir Fletcher Norton. was hanged on evidence given by 

9 The robbery was committed by Bradley. 
John Weaket, Lord Harrington's 

410 To Miss Anne Pitt [i?63 

three thousand pounds. Nothing is yet discovered, but 
that the guard in the Stable Yard saw a man in a great- 
coat and white stockings come from thereabouts, at the 
time I have named. The servants have all been examined 
over and over to no purpose. Fielding is all day in the 
house, and a guard of his at night. The bureau in my 
Lord's dressing-room (the little red room where the pictures 
are) was forced open. I fear you can guess who was at first 
suspected 10 . 

I have received yours, my dear Lord, of Nov. 30th, and 
am pleased that my Lady Hertford is so well reconciled to 
her ministry. You forgot to give me an account of her 
audience, but I have heard of the Queen's good-natured 
attention to her. 

The anecdotes about Lord Sandwich are numerous ; but 
I do not repeat them to you, because I know nothing how 
true they are, and because he has, in several instances, been 
very obliging to me ; and I have no reason to abuse him. 
Lord Hardwicke's illness, I think, is a rupture and conse- 

I hope to hear that your little boy is recovered. Adieu ! 
I have filled my gazette, and exhausted my memory. I am 
glad such gazettes please you : I can have no other excuse 
for sending such tittle-tattle. 

920. To Miss ANNE PITT. 

Arlington Street, Dec. 10, 1763. 

I SHOULD be much concerned that anybody should have 
reason to complain of Lord Hertford, much more so amiable 
a man and one I esteem so much as Mr. Selwin. However 

10 Walpole evidently refers to Lady printed from Hist. XSS. Comm., 18th 

Harrington's favourite footman Report, Appendix, Part III, voL i. 

Richard. See vol. iii. p. 889. p. 145. 

LETTER 920. Not in C. ; now 

1763] To Sir Horace Mann 411 

this neglect has happened, nothing shall be wanting on my 
part, as far as I have any credit, to set it right, not only 
from an old partiality to Mr. Selwin. but as your recom- 
mendation, Madam, tells me that you wish it too. I was 
ignorant that my Lord Hertford did not use Mr. Selwin's 
and Mr. Foley's house l ; but with those private affairs you 
may believe, Madam, I never meddle, nor ask a question 
relating to them. Mr. Selwin indeed does not seem to 
desire it, nor if he did, would it become me to take liberties 
with my Lord Hertford's goodness to me, on such subjects. 
The obliging esteem with which Mr. Selwin mentions both 
my Lord and Lady deserves a return from them ; I shall 
certainly let them know it, and can answer for the goodness 
of their hearts that they will not be insensible to it. 

The passages you are so kind as to quote, Madam, relative 
to Lady Hertford, and confirmed by Mr. Selwin, give me 
the greatest satisfaction. Indeed I hear from all hands 
that she is not disliked. 

I hope, Madam, you find benefit from the waters ; the 
town begins to empty very fast, though I believe the Parlia- 
ment will not adjourn before Thursday se'nnight. I return 
you, Madam, Mr. Selwin's letter; assure you I shall take 
the first opportunity of doing him justice. 


Arlington Street, Dec. 12, 1763. 

MY last journal was dated the 18th of last month. Since 
that period we have been totally employed upon Mr. Wilkes, 
or events flowing from him; for he is an inexhaustible 
source. I shall move regularly, and tell you his history in 

In the first place, he is not dead of his wound, though not 

1 Mr. Selwyn and Mr. Foley were bankers in Paris. See letter to the 
Earl of Hertford of Dec. 16, 1763. 

412 To Sir Horace Mann [ires 

yet out of danger, for they think another piece of his coat is 
to come away, as two have already. 

On the 23rd we, the Commons, had a debate that lasted 
late, whether we should proceed to the question on privilege, 
as Wilkes could not attend. There was a great defection 
among the royal troops, and the minority amounted to 166 : 
but the next day, on the question itself, it sunk to 133, when 
we resigned our privilege into the hands of any messengers 
that should be sent for it. Mr. Pitt was brought thither in 
flannels, and spoke for two hours, but was forced to retire 
four hours before we came to the question. 

These debates were followed by a curious account of the 
famous blasphemous and bawdy poem, the Essay on Woman, 
published by one Kidgell 1 , a Methodist parson, who had 
been employed to hunt it out. The man has most de- 
servedly drawn on himself a torrent of indignation and 
odium, which I suppose he will forget in a deanery 2 . 

The next proceeding was in the Lords, who sat till ten at 
night on the question of agreeing to our resolutions. The 
Duke of Cumberland, who voted at the head of the minority, 
was as unsuccessful as he has been in other engagements, 
and was beaten by 114 to 35. 

So much for within doors. But without, where the 
minority is the majority, the event was very different. The 
North Briton was ordered to be burned by the hangman at 
Cheapside on the third of this month. A prodigious riot 
ensued ; the sheriffs were mobbed, the constables beaten, 
and the paper with much difficulty set on fire by a link, and 
then rescued. The ministry, some in a panic and some in 
a rage, fetched the sheriffs before both Houses ; but, after 
examinations and conferences for four days, the whole result 

LETTEB921. * Rev. John Kidgell, land for debt, and died abroad. 
Chaplain to the Earl of March. Walpole. 

2 Kidgell was forced to leave Eng- 

1763] To Sir Horace Mann 413 

was, that all the world had appeared to be on the same side, 
that is, not well disposed to the administration. This dis- 
satisfaction has been increased by a violent attack made by 
the Duke of Bedford on the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and 
Common Council, for not discountenancing and suppressing 
the riot ; and though he was abandoned by the rest of the 
ministry, who paid court to the City at his Grace's expense, 
they were so exasperated, that a motion being made to 
thank the sheriffs for their behaviour, and to prosecute one 
of the rioters, who is in prison, it was rejected on a division 
by the casting vote of the Lord Mayor. 

The ministry have received a still greater mortification : 
the Under-Secretary, Mr. Wood, has been cast in the 
Common Pleas in damages of a thousand pounds to Mr. 
Wilkes ; the printers too have recovered four hundred ; 
and, what is still more material, the Solicitor-General could 
not make out his proof of Wilkes being author of the North 

The last scene has been an attempt to assassinate Wilkes. 
A sea-lieutenant, called Alexander Dunn 3 , got into his house 
on Thursday night last for that purpose ; but he is not only 
mad, but so mad that he had declared his intention in 
a coffee-house some nights before ; and said twelve more 
Scotchmen, for he is one, were engaged in the same design. 

I have told you all this briefly, but you may imagine 
what noise so many events have made in the hands of some 
hundred thousand commentators. 

The famous Lord Shelburne, and the no less famous 
Colonel Barre I don't know whether their fame has 
reached you are turned out for joining the opposition. 

The approaching holidays will suspend farther hostilities 
for some time, or prepare more. We have scarce any other 

8 Dunn was examined at the bar of the House of Commons, and found 
to be insane. 

414: To Sir Horace Mann [1763 

kind of news than politics. The interlude of Princess 
Augusta's wedding will be of very short duration. 

You have seen some mention in the papers of Monsieur 
D'^lon, who, from secretary to Monsieur de Nivernois, 
became Plenipotentiary ; an honour that turned his brain. 
His madness first broke out upon one Vergy, an adventurer, 
whose soul he threatened to put into the chamber-pot and 
make him drink it. This rage was carried so far one night 
at Lord Halifax's, that he was put under arrest. Being told 
his behaviour was a breach of the peace, he thought it 
meant the Peace he had signed, and grew ten times madder. 
This idea he has thrust into a wild book that he has 
published, the title-page of which would divert you ; he 
states all his own names, titles, and offices: Noble Claude, 
Genevieve, Louis, Auguste, Caesar, Alexandre, Hercule, and 
I don't know what, Docteur en Droit : the chute from Caesar 
to Master Doctor is admirable. The conclusion of the story 
is, that the poor creature has all the papers of the negotiation 
in his hands, and threescore thousand livres belonging to the 
Comte de Guerchy, and will deliver neither one nor the 
other. He is recalled from home, and forbidden the court 
here, but enjoys the papers, and lives on the money, and 
they don't know how to recover either. Monsieur de 
Guerchy has behaved with the utmost tenderness and 
humanity to him. This minister is an agreeable man, and 
pleases much. 

I have received your long letter of November 12th, with 
your expectations of the Duke of York, the Woronzows, and 
the Garricks, most of whom are, I suppose, arrived by this 
time. The Chelsea china, as you guessed, was a present 
from the Duchess of Grafton : I told her how pleased you 
was with it, and that you flattered yourself it was her 
present. She thought you knew it, for she says she had 
writ you two letters. 

1763] To the Earl of Hertford 415 

Adieu ! You must live upon this letter for some time. 
Our villeggiatum begins when yours ends. The town will 
be quite empty in a week, till the 18th or 20th of January, 
unless folks come to stare at the Prince of Brunswick ; but 
I don't know when he is to be here. Nay, you will not 
want English news, while you have English Princes, Russian 
Chancellors, and English players. 


Arlington Street, Dec. 16, 1768. 

ON the very day I wrote to you last, my dear Lord, an 
extraordinary event happened, which I did not then know. 
A motion was made in the Common Council, to thank the 
sheriffs for their behaviour at the riot, and to prosecute the 
man who was apprehended for it. This was opposed, and 
the previous question being put, the numbers were equal ; 
but the casting vote of the Lord Mayor l was given against 
putting the first question a pretty strong proceeding ; for 
though, in consequence and in resentment of the Duke of 
Bedford's speech, it seemed to justify his Grace, who had 
accused the Mayor and magistracy of not trying to suppress 
the tumult ; if they will not prosecute the rioters, it is not 
very unfair to surmise that they did not dislike the riot. 
Indeed, the City is so inflamed, and the ministry so 
obnoxious, that I am very apprehensive of some violent 
commotion. The court have lost the Essex election, merely 
from Lord Sandwich interfering in it, and from the Duke of 
Bedford's speech ; a great number of votes going from the 
City on that account to vote for Luther. Sir John Griffin 2 , 

LBTTEB 922. * William Bridgen. Barony of Howard de Walden, and 

1 Lieutenant - General Sir John was created (Sept. 6, 1788) Baron 

Griffin Griffin, KB. (1719-1797) ; in Braybrooke of Braybrooke, North- 

1784 be established his claim to the amptonshire. 

416 To the Earl of Hertford [i763 

who was disobliged by Sandwich's espousing Conyers, went 
to Chelmsford at the head of five hundred voters. 

One of the latest acts of the ministry will not please my 
Lady Hertford : they have turned out her brother, Colonel 
Fitzroy 3 : Fitzherbert 4 , too, is removed, and, they say, Sir 
Joseph Yorke recalled 6 . I must do Lord Halifax and 
Mr. Grenville the justice to say that these violences are not 
imputed to them. It is certain that the former was the 
warmest opposer of the measure for breaking the officers ; 
and Mr. Grenville's friends take every opportunity of 
throwing the blame on the Duke of Bedford and Lord 
Sandwich. The Duchess of Bedford, who is too fond a wife 
not to partake in all her husband's fortunes, has contributed 
her portion of indiscretion. At a great dinner, lately, at 
Lord Halifax's, all the servants present, mention being 
made of the Archbishop of Canterbury, M. de Guerchy 
asked the Duchess, ' Est-il de famille ? ' She replied, ' Oh ! 
mon Dieu, non, il a ete sage-femme.' The mistake of sage- 
femme for accoucheur, and the strangeness of the proposition, 
confounded Guerchy so much, that it was necessary to 
explain it : but think of a minister's wife telling a foreigner, 
and a Catholic, that the primate of her own Church had 
been bred a man-midwife ! 

The day after my last, another verdict was given in the 
Common Pleas, of four hundred pounds to the printers ; 
and another episode happened, relating to Wilkes: one 
Dunn, a mad Scotchman, was seized in Wilkes's house, 
whither he had gone intending to assassinate him. This 
was complained of in the House of Commons, but the 
man's frenzy was verified ; it was even proved that he had 

* Colonel Charles Fitzroy, M.P. for Derby ; Lord of Trade, 1765-72. He 
Bury St. Edmunds, natural son of was dismissed from the post of Gen- 
second Duke of Grafton. tleman-Usher to the King. 

* William Fitzherbert (d. 1772), of 8 This was not the case. 
Tissington, Derbyshire, M.P. for 

1763] To the Earl of Hertford 417 

notified his design in a coffee-house, some days before. 
The mob, however, who are determined that Lord Sandwich 
shall answer for everybody's faults, as well as his own, 
believe that he employed Dunn. I wish the recess, which 
begins next Monday, may cool matters a little, for indeed 
it grows very serious. 

Nothing is discovered of Lord Harrington's robbery, nor 
do I know any other news, but that George West is to 
marry Lady Mary Grey 8 . The Hereditary Prince's wound 
is broken out again, and will defer his arrival. We have 
had a new comedy 7 , written by Mrs. Sheridan, and admi- 
rably acted ; but there was no wit in it, and it was so vulgar 
that it ran but three nights. 

Poor Lady Hervey desires you will tell Mr. Hume how 
incapable she is of answering his letter. She has been 
terribly afflicted for these six weeks with a complication 
of gout, rheumatism, and a nervous complaint. She cannot 
lie down in her bed, nor rest two minutes in her chair. 
I never saw such continued suffering. 

You say in your last, of the 7th, that you have omitted 
to invite no Englishman of rank or name. This gives me 
an opportunity, my dear Lord, of mentioning one English- 
man, not of great rank, but who is very unhappy that you 
have taken no notice of him. You know how utterly 
averse I am to meddle, or give impertinent advice ; but the 
letter I saw was expressed with so much respect and esteem 
for you, that you would love the person. It is Mr. Selwyn, 
the banker. He says, he expected no favour; but the 
great regard he has for the amiableness of your character 
makes him miserable at being totally undistinguished by 
you. He has so good a character himself, and is so much 
beloved by many persons here that you know, that I think 

8 Second daughter of fourth Earl of Stamford. 
7 The Dupe, acted at Drury Lane. 


418 To the Earl of Hertford 

you will not dislike my putting you in mind of him. The 
letter was not to me, nor to any friend of mine ; therefore, 
I am sure, unaffected. I saw the whole letter, and he did 
not even hint at its being communicated to me. 

I have not mentioned Lady Holdernesse's presentation, 
though I by no means approve it, nor a Dutchwoman's 
lowering the peerage of England. Nothing of that sort 
could make me more angry, except a commoner's wife taking 
such a step ; for you know I have all the pride of 

A citizen of Rome, while Rome survives: 

In that respect my name is thoroughly 



Arlington Street, Dec. 29, 1763. 

You are sensible, my dear Lord, that any amusement 
from my letters must depend upon times and seasons. We 
are a very absurd nation (though the French are so good 
at present as to think us a very wise one, only because they 
themselves are now a very weak one) ; but then that 
absurdity depends upon the almanac. Posterity, who will 
know nothing of our intervals, will conclude that this age 
was a succession of events. I could tell them that we know 
as well when an event, as when Easter, will happen. Do 
but recollect these last ten years. The beginning of October, 
one is certain that everybody will be at Newmarket, and 
the Duke of Cumberland will lose, and Shafto 1 win, two 
or three thousand pounds. After that, while people are 
preparing to come to town for the winter, the ministry is 
suddenly changed, and all the world comes to learn how 

LKTTEB 928. * Eobert Shafto (d. 1797), of Whitworth, Durham, M.P. 
for Durham county. 

1763] To the Earl of Hertford 419 

it happened, a fortnight sooner than they intended ; and 
fully persuaded that the new arrangement cannot last a 
month. The Parliament opens ; everybody is bribed ; and 
the new establishment is perceived to be composed of 
adamant. November passes, with two or three self-murders, 
and a new play. Christmas arrives ; everybody goes out 
of town ; and a riot happens in one of the theatres. The 
Parliament meets again ; taxes are warmly opposed ; and 
some citizen makes his fortune by a subscription. The 
opposition languishes ; balls and assemblies begin ; some 
master and miss begin to get together, are talked of, and 
give occasion to forty more matches being invented ; an 
unexpected debate starts up at the end of the session, that 
makes more noise than anything that was designed to 
make a noise, and subsides again in a new peerage or two. 
Kanelagh opens and Vauxhall ; one produces scandal, and 
t'other a drunken quarrel. People separate, some to Tun- 
bridge, and some to all the horse-races in England; and 
so the year comes again to October. I dare to prophesy, 
that if .you keep this letter, you will find that my future 
correspondence will be but an illustration of this text; 
at least, it is an excuse for my having very little to tell 
you at present, and was the reason of my not writing to 
you last week. 

Before the Parliament adjourned, there was nothing but 
a trifling debate in an empty House, occasioned by a motion 
from the ministiy, to order another physician and surgeon to 
attend Wilkes : it was carried by about seventy to thirty, and 
was only memorable by producing Mr. Charles Townshend, 
who, having sat silent through the question of privilege, 
found himself interested in the defence of Dr. Brocklesby ! ! 
Charles ridiculed Lord North extremely, and had warm 
words with George Grenville. I do not look upon this as 
2 Dr. Richard Brocklesby (1722-1797), who was attending Wilkes. 
E e 2 

420 To the Earl of Hertford [i?63 

productive of consequential speaking for the opposition ; on 
the contrary, I should expect him sooner in place, if the 
ministry could be fools enough to restore weight to him, 
and could be ignorant that he can never hurt them so much 
as by being with them. Wilkes refused to see Heberden s 
and Hawkins, whom the House commissioned to visit him ; 
and to laugh at us more, sent for two Scotchmen, Duncan 
and Middleton. Well ! but since that, he is gone off * 
himself : however, as I did in Dion's case, I can now only 
ask news of him from you, not tell you any ; for you have 
got him. I do not believe you will invite him, and make 
so much of him, as the Duke of Bedford did. Both sides 
pretend joy at his being gone ; and for once I can believe 
both. You will be diverted, as I was, at the cordial esteem 
the ministers have for one another ; Lord Waldegrave told 
my niece, this morning, that he had offered a shilling, to 
receive an hundred pounds when Sandwich shall lose his 
head ! what a good opinion they have of one another ! 
Apropos to losing heads, is Lally 5 beheaded ? 

The East India Company have come to an unanimous 
resolution of not paying Lord Clive the three hundred 
thousand pounds, which the ministry had promised him 
in lieu of his Nabobical annuity. Just after the bargain 
was made, his old rustic of a father was at the King's 
levee ; the King asked where his son was ; he replied, 
'Sire, he is coming to town, and then your Majesty will 
have another vote.' If you like these franknesses, I can 
tell you another. The Chancellor 6 is chosen a governor 
of St. Bartholomew's Hospital: a smart gentleman, who 
was sent with the staff, carried it in the evening, when 
the Chancellor happened to be drunk. ' Well, Mr. Bartlemy,' 

8 Dr. William Heberden (1710- B Lally was not executed until 
1801). May 1766. 

< Wilkes left for France on Dec. 26. Lord Henley. 

1763] To the Earl of Hertford 421 

said his Lordship, snuffing, 'what have you to say?' The 
man, who had prepared a formal harangue, was transported 
to have so fair opportunity given him of uttering it, and 
with much dapper gesticulation congratulated his Lordship 
on his health, and the nation on enjoying such great 
abilities. The Chancellor stopped him short, crying, 'By 
God, it is a lie ! I have neither health nor abilities ; my 
bad health has destroyed my abilities.' The late Chancellor 7 
is much better. 

The last time the King was at Drury Lane, the play 
given out for next night was All in the Wrong: the galleries 
clapped, and then cried out, ' Let us be all in the right ! 
Wilkes and Liberty ! ' When the Bang comes to a theatre, 
or goes out, or goes to the House, there is not a single 
applause ; to the Queen there is a little : in short, Louis le 
bien-aime is not French at present for King George. 

The town, you may be sure, is very empty ; the greatest 
party is at Woburn, whither the Comte de Guerchy and 
the Due de Pecquigny are going. I have been three days 
at Strawberry, and had George Selwyn, Williams, and 
Lord Ashburnham ; but the weather was intolerably bad. 
We have scarce had a moment's drought since you went, 
no more than for so many months before. The town and 
the roads are beyond measure dirty, and everything else 
under water. I was not well neither, nor am yet, with 
pains in my stomach : however, if I ever used one, I could 
afford to pay a physician. T'other day, coming from my 
Lady Townshend's, it came into my head to stop at one 
of the lottery offices, to inquire after a single ticket I had, 
expecting to find it a blank, but it was five hundred pounds 
thank you! I know you wish me joy. It will buy 
twenty pretty things when I come to Paris. 

I read, last night, your new French play, Le Comte de 

7 The Earl of Hardwicke. 

422 To the Earl of Hertford [i?63 

Warwic 8 , which we hear has succeeded much. I must say, 
it does but confirm the cheap idea I have of you French : 
not to mention the preposterous perversion of history in 
so known a story, the Queen's ridiculous preference of old 
Warwick to a young Kong ; the omission of the only thing 
she ever said or did in her whole life worth recording, 
which was thinking herself too low for his wife, and too 
high for his mistress ; the romantic honour bestowed on two 
such savages as Edward and Warwick : besides these, and 
forty such glaring absurdities, there is but one scene that 
has any merit, that between Edward and Warwick in the 
third act. Indeed, indeed, I don't honour the modern 
French : it is making your son but a slender compliment, 
with his knowledge, for them to say it is extraordinary. 
The best proof I think they give of their taste, is liking 
you all three. I rejoice that your little boy is recovered. 
Your brother has been at Park Place this week, and stays 
a week longer : his hill is too high to be drowned. 

Thank you for your kindness to Mr. Selwyn : if he had 
too much impatience, I am sure it proceeded only from 
his great esteem for you. 

I will endeavour to learn what you desire ; and will 
answer, in another letter, that and some other passages 
in your last. Dr. Hunter is very good, and calls on me 
sometimes. You may guess whether we talk you over 
or not. Adieu! 

P.S. There has not been a death, but Sir William 
Maynard's, who is come to life again ; or a marriage, 
but Admiral Knollys's, who has married his divorced wife 

8 A tragedy by La Harpe, recently produced at Paris. 

1763] To the Rev. William Mason 423 


Arlington Street, Dec. 29, 1763. 
Your bookseller has brought me the volume of your 
Works, for which I give you a thousand thanks ; I have 
read them again in this form with great satisfaction. I wish 
in return that I had anything literary to tell you or send 
you, that would please you half as much. I should be glad 
to know how to convey to you another volume of my 
Anecdotes and a volume of Engravers, which will be pub- 
lished in a fortnight or three weeks but they will be far 
from amusing you. If the other volumes were trifling, 
these are ten times more so ; nothing but my justice to 
the public, to whom I owed them, could have prevailed 
over my dissatisfaction with them, and have made me 
produce them. The painters in the third volume are more 
obscure, most of them, than those in the former ; and the 
facts relating to them have not even the patina of ambiguity 
to hide and consecrate their insignificance. The tome of 
Engravers is a mere list of very bad prints. You will 
find this account strictly true and no affectation. To make 
you some amends, it will not be long before I have the 
pleasure of sending you by far the most curious and enter- 
taining book that my press has produced ; if it diverts you 
as much as it does Mr. Gray and me, you will think it the 
most delightful book you ever read ; and yet, out of 1 50 
pages, you had better skip the fifty first. Are not you 
impatient to know what this curiosity is and to see it? 
It is the life of the famous Lord Herbert of Cherbury 1 , and 
written by himself of the contents I will not anticipate 
one word. I address this letter to Aston 8 , upon the 

LETTER 924. 1 Edward Herbert self, was first printed at Strawberry 
(1683-1648), first Baron Herbert of Hill. 
Cherbury. His Life, written by him- - Mason was Hector of Aston. 

4:24 To Sir Horace Mann [1764 

authority of your book. I should be sorry if it miscarried 
only as it is a mark of my gratitude. 

I am, Sir, your much obliged humble servant, 


P.S. Have you read Mrs. Macaulay 3 ? I am glad again 
to have Mr. Gray's opinion to corroborate mine, that it is 
the most sensible, unaffected, and best history of England 
that we have had yet. 


Strawberry Hill, Jan. 8, 1764. 

MY dear Sir, it does not rain histories as it did the first 
week of the session. I am very faithful to you, and never 
omit a material event. The Parliament has been adjourned 
these three weeks, and party been to keep its Christmas in 
the country. To-morrow se'nnight we meet again, and 
some of our passions will revive, though a good quantity 
probably will subside, as Mr. Wilkes, the hero of the times, 
has preferred France to martyrdom. This excuses me from 
what, by the way, I would have excused myself somehow 
or other, the entering with you into a discussion of the 
controversy on his subject. I have no objection to the 
opinion you have formed, while you are at such a distance ; 
I am no maker of converts, and you and I shall never love 
one another the less for thinking differently. I will have 
the famous ' No. 45 ' written out for you, for it is not to 
be had now but in the collection printed together. The 
Essay on Woman I do not wonder you concluded had been 
reprinted, but it has not ; nor have I ever seen it, though 

Catherine (1781-1791), daughter (2) (1778) William Graham. The first 
of John Sawbridge, of Olantigh, volume of her History of England had 
Kent ; m. (1) Dr. George Macaulay ; lately been published. 

1764] To Sir Horace Mann 425 

it lies in the House of Lords. The public attention was 
instantly diverted from the piece itself to indignation at the 
manner in which it was obtained. Then there was a dirty 
parson, one Kidgell, who, not content with being the pro- 
curer, published such an indecent account of it, as at once 
satisfied the curiosity of the town, and provoked them to 
abhorrence of the wretched tool himself. He has been 
pelted in every newspaper, while the work itself was for- 
got. Whether the ministers will be so weak as to revive 
this clamour now Wilkes is gone, I don't know, judgement 
is not their bright side ! 

Don't think I disapprove your magnificence for your 
Russian guests; and yet, my dear Sir, the generosity of 
your temper is fond of catching at a command to be ex- 
pensive. I can excuse it too, as I conclude the Muscovite 
Chancellor hates his mistress, the murderess ; one can't 
help being civil to anybody that wishes her dead. We are 
on the eve of a royal wedding, but not a very sumptuous 
one. The Hereditary Prince is expected every hour, and 
if arrived, is, they say, to be married on the 1 2th. You see 
I talk of it with little certainty. I shall satisfy my 
curiosity by seeing him at the Opera ; a glimpse of a hero 
will content me. He is to take away his bride almost as 
soon as possible after the nuptials. 

There is a wedding in embryo that touches you much 
nearer than the Princess Augusta's. Your nephew Horace l 
is to marry a sister of the Earl of Gainsborough. I believe 
it is quite fixed, though not to be perfected till he is of 
age. She has little beauty, I hear, and less fortune, but 
the boy likes her, and the alliance is very creditable. He 
is a most amiable, gentle, good-natured lad ; I grieve that 

LETTER 925. 1 Horace Mann the of fourth Earl of Gainsborough, and 
younger, married, in 1765, Lady sister of Henry Noel (174S-1798), 
Lucy Noel (d. 1778), sixth daughter sixth Earl. 

426 To Sir Horace Mann [1764 

this business will prevent your seeing him, but I recollect 
that you were not fond of having him at Florence. Per- 
haps I tell you this too imperfectly; but it is imperfectly 
that I know it ; and from report that I first heard it. I got 
a little from your brother James, who is not more com- 
municative to me than to you : as for your eldest brother, 
he has totally dropped me, and indeed (which I may say to 
you) his insupportable temper makes me not very sorry. 
Gal and you were as much as one had reason to expect in 
one family ; accordingly I cherish the thought of you, and 
the memory of him, which is as dear to me as the first 
moment I lost him. He was the most sincere and affec- 
tionate friend that ever man had, and could I forget him 
on his account I never can on my own. 

Thursday night, late, but not the wedding-night. 
We have heard, but since six this evening, that the 
Hereditary Prince has landed ; the wedding, I fancy, will 
scarcely be sooner than Monday. Next week will be the reign 
of gold and silver stuffs, for besides the marriage, there is 
the Queen's birthday ; but Mr. Wilkes will spoil half the 
solemnity, if he does not return to be sacrificed. Bishop 
Warburton has whetted ready a classic knife, which he 
would swear came from Diana's own altar in the Cherso- 
nesus, and whose religion he believes as much as that he pro- 
fesses, except that the archbishopric of Tauris is at present 
in partibus infidelium ; and the Turks have sequestered the 
revenues. Adieu. 

P.S. Here is the '45,' which I have cut out of a maga- 

1764] To George Montagu 427 


Arlington Street, Jan. 11, 1764. 

IT is an age, I own, since I wrote to you: but except 
politics, what was there to send you ? and for politics, the 
present are too contemptible to be recorded by anybody but 
journalists, gazetteers, and such historians ! The ordinary 
of Newgate, or Mr. , who write for their monthly half- 
crown, and who are indifferent whether Lord Bute, Lord 
Melcomb, or Maclean is their hero, may swear they find 
diamonds on dunghills; but you will excuse me, if I let 
our correspondence lie dormant rather than deal in such 
trash. I am forced to send Lord Hertford and Sir Horace 
Mann such garbage, because they are out of England, and 
the sea softens and makes palatable any potion, as it does 
claret ; but unless I can divert you, I had rather wait till 
we can laugh together ; the best employment for friends, 
who do not mean to pick one another's pocket, nor make 
a property of either's frankness. Instead of politics, there- 
fore, I shall amuse you to-day with a fairy tale. 

I was desired to be at my Lady Suffolk's on New Year's 
morn, where I found Lady Temple and others. On the 
toilette Miss Hotham spied a small round box. She seized 
it with all the eagerness and curiosity of eleven years. In 
it was wrapped up a heart-diamond ring, and a paper in 
which, in a hand as small as Buckinger's *, who used to 
write the Lord's Prayer in the compass of a silver penny, 
were the following lines: 

Sent by a sylph, unheard, unseen, 

A New Year's gift from Mab our queen : 

But tell it not, for if you do, 

You will be pinch'd all black and blue. 

LKTTXK 926. 1 Matthew Buckinger (1674-1722), born without hands or 

4:28 To George Montagu [i?64 

Consider well, what a disgrace, 
To show abroad your mottl'd face : 
Then seal your lips, put on the ring, 
And sometimes think of 


You will easily guess that Lady Temple was the poetess, 
and that we were delighted with the genteelness of the 
thought and execution. The child, you may imagine, was 
less transported with the poetry than the present. Her 
attention, however, was hurried backwards and forwards 
from the ring to a new coat, that she had been trying on 
when sent for down impatient to revisit her coat, and to 
show the ring to her maid, she whisked upstairs when 
she came down again, she found a letter sealed, and lying 
on the floor new exclamations ! Lady Suffolk bad her 
open it: here it is: 

Your tongue, too nimble for your sense, 

Is guilty of a high offence ; 

Hath introduc'd unkind debate, 

And topsy-turvy turned our state. 

In gallantry I sent the ring, 

The token of a love-sick king : 

Under fair Mab's auspicious name 

From me the trifling present came. 

You blabb'd the news in Suffolk's ear, 

The tattling zephyrs brought it here, 

As Mab was indolently laid 

Under a poppy's spreading shade. 

The jealous queen started in rage ; 

She kick'd her crown, and beat her page: 

' Bring me my magic wand,' she cries ; 

' Under that primrose, there it lies : 

I'll change the silly, saucy chit, 

Into a flea, a louse, a nit, 

A worm, a grasshopper, a rat, 

An owl, a monkey, hedge-hog, bat 

1764] To George Montagu 429 

But hold why not by fairy art 

Transform the wretch into a ? 

Ixion once a cloud embraced, 

By Jove and jealousy well plac'd ; 

What sport to see proud Oberon stare, 

And flirt it with a pet-en-l'air ! ' 

Then thrice she stamp'd the trembling ground, 

And thrice she wav'd her wand around 

When I, endow'd with greater skill, 

And less inclin'd to do you ill, 

Mutter'd some words, withheld her arm, 

And kindly stopp'd the unfinished charm. 

But though not chang'd to owl or bat, 

Or something more indelicate: 

Yet, as your tongue has run too fast, 

Your boasted beauty must not last. 

No more shall frolic Cupid He 

In ambuscade in either eye, 

From thence to aim his keenest dart 

To captivate each youthful heart : 

No more shall envious misses pine 

At charms now flown, that once were thine : 

No more, since you so ill behave, 

Shall injur'd Oberon be your slave. 

There is one word which I could wish had not been 
there, though it is prettily excused afterwards. The next 
day my Lady Suffolk desired I would write her a patent for 
appointing Lady Temple poet laureate to the fairies. I was 
excessively out of order with a pain in my stomach, which 
I had had for ten days, and was fitter to write verses like 
a poet laureate, than for making one however, I was 
going home to dinner alone, and at six I sent her some 
lines, which you ought to have seen how sick I was, to 
excuse but first I must tell you my tale methodically. 
The next morning by nine o'clock Miss Hotham (she must 
forgive me twenty years hence for saying she was eleven, 
for I recollect she is but ten) arrived at Lady Temple's, her 

430 To George Montagu [i764 

face and neck all spotted with saffron, and limping. ' Oh, 
Madam!' said she, 'I am undone for ever if you do not 
assist me ! ' ' Lord, child,' cried my Lady Temple, ' what is 
the matter ? ' thinking she had hurt herself, or lost the ring, 
and that she was stolen out before her aunt was up. ' Oh, 
Madam,' said the girl, ' nobody but you can assist me.' 
My Lady Temple protests the child acted her part so well 
as to deceive her. 'What can I do for you?' 'Dear 
Madam, take this load from my back ; nobody but you can.' 
Lady Temple turned her round, and upon her back was 
tied a child's waggon. In it were three tiny purses of blue 
velvet ; in one of them a silver cup, in another a crown of 
laurel, and in the third four new silver pennies ; with the 
patent, signed at top, ' Oberon Imperator ' ; and two sheets 
of warrants strung together with blue silk according to 
form ; and at top an office seal of wax and a chaplet of cut 
paper on it. The warrants were these : 

From the Koyal Mews. 

A waggon with the draught horses, delivered by command 
without fee. 

From the Lord Chamberlain's Office. 
A warrant with the royal sign manual, delivered by com- 
mand without fee, being first entered in the office books. 

From the Lord Steward's Office. 

A butt of sack, delivered without fee or gratuity, with an 
order for returning the cask for the use of the office, by 

From the Great Wardrobe. 
Three velvet bags, delivered without fee, by command. 

From the Treasurer of the Household's Office. 
A year's salary paid free from land-tax, poundage, or any 
other deduction whatever, by command. 

1764] To George Montagu 431 

From the Jewel Office. 

A silver butt, a silver cup, a wreath of bays, by command 
without fee. 

Then came the Patent : 

By these presents be it known, 

To all who bend before our throne, 

Fays and fairies, elves and sprites, 

Beauteous dames and gallant knights, 

That we, Oberon the grand, 

Emperor of Fairyland, 

King of moonshine, prince of dreams, 

Lord of Aganippe's streams, 

Baron of the dimpl'd isles 

That lie in pretty maiden's smiles, 

Arch-treasurer of all the graces 

Dispers'd through fifty lovely faces, 

Sovereign of the Slipper's order, 

With all the rites thereon that border, 

Defender of the sylphic faith, 

Declare and thus your monarch saith : 

Whereas there is a noble dame, 

Whom mortals Countess Temple name, 

To whom ourself did erst impart 

The choicest secrets of our art, 

Taught her to tune th' harmonious line 

To our own melody divine, 

Taught her the graceful negligence, 

Which, scorning art and veiling sense, 

Achieves that conquest o'er the heart 

Sense seldom gains, and never art : 

This lady, 'tis our royal will 

Our laureate's vacant seat should fill: 

A chaplet of immortal bays 

Shall crown her brow and guard her lays ; 

Of nectar sack an acorn cup 

Be at her board each year fill'd up ; 

And as each quarter feast comes round 

A silver penny shall be found 

Within the compass of her shoe 

And so we bid you all adieu ! 

432 To George Montagu [i?64 

Given at our palace of Cowslip Castle, the shortest night 
of the year. OBERON. 

And underneath 


Now shall I tell you the greatest curiosity of the story ? 
The whole plan and execution of the second act was laid 
and adjusted by my Lady Suffolk herself and Will Chet- 
wynd, Master of the Mint, Lord Bolinbroke's Oroonoko- 
Chetwynd ; he fourscore, she past seventy-six and, what 
is more, much worse than I was, for, added to her deaf- 
ness, she has been confined these three weeks with the 
gout in her eyes, and was actually then in misery, and had 
been without sleep. What spirits, and cleverness, and 
imagination, at that age, and under those afflicting circum- 
stances ! You reconnoitre her old court knowledge ; how 
charmingly she has applied it ! Do you wonder I pass so 
many hours and evenings with her ? Alas ! I had like 
to have lost her this morning! They had poulticed her 
feet to draw the gout downwards, and began to succeed 
yesterday, but to-day it flew up into her head, and she was 
almost in convulsions with the agony, and screamed dread- 
fully proof enough how ill she was, for her patience and 
good breeding makes her for ever sink and conceal what 
she feels. This evening the gout has been driven back to 
her foot, and I trust she is out of danger. Her loss will be 
irreparable to me at Twickenham, where she is by far the 
most rational and agreeable company I have. 

I don't tell you that the Hereditary Prince is still expected 
and not arrived. A royal wedding would be a flat episode 
after a real fairy tale, though the bridegroom is a hero. 
I have not seen your brother General yet, but have called on 
him. When come you yourself? Never mind the town and 
its filthy politics ; we can go to the gallery at Strawberry 
stay, I don't know whether we can or not, my hill is almost 

1764] To Sir Horace Mann 433 

drowned, I don't know how your mountain is well, we can 
take a boat, and always be gay there ; I wish we may be so 
at seventy-six and eighty ! I abominate politics more and 
more ; we had glories, and would not keep them well ! 
content, that there was an end of blood then perks pre- 
rogative its ass's ears up ; we are always to be saving our 
liberties, and then staking them again ! Tis wearisome ! 
I hate the discussion, and yet one cannot always sit at 
a gaming-table and never make a bet. I wish for nothing, 
I care not a straw for the ins or the outs ; I determine 
never to think of them, yet the contagion catches one 
can you tell one anything that will prevent infection? 
Well then, here I swear, no, I won't swear, one always 
breaks one's oath. Oh that I had been born to love a 
court like Sir William Breton ! I should have lived and 
died with the comfort of thinking that courts there will 
be to all eternity, and the liberty of my country would 
never once have ruffled my smile, or spoiled my bow. 
I envy Sir William ! Good night ! Yours ever, 

H. W. 


Arlington Street, Jan. 18, 1764. 

Shall I tell you of all our crowds, and balls, and em- 
broideries? Don't I grow too old to describe Drawing- 
rooms ? Sure I do, when I find myself too old to go into 
them. I forswore puppet-shows at the last Coronation, and 
have kept my word to myself. However, being bound by 
a prior vow, to keep up the acquaintance between you and 
your own country, I will show you, what by the way 
I have not seen myself, the Prince of Brunswick. He 
arrived at Somerset House last Friday evening ; at Chelms- 
ford a Quaker walked into the room, did pull off his hat, 
and said, 'Friend, my religion forbids me to fight, but 


434 To Sir Horace Mann [1764 

I honour those that fight well.' The Prince, though he 
does not speak English, understands it enough to be pleased 
with the compliment. He received another, very flattering. 
As he went next morning to St. James's, he spied in the 
crowd one of Elliot's Light Horse l and kissed his hand to 
the man. ' What ! ' said the populace, ' does he know 
you?' 'Yes,' replied the man; 'he once led me into a 
scrape, which nothing but himself could have brought me 
out of again.' You may guess how much this added to the 
Prince's popularity, which was at high-water mark before. 

When he had visited the King and Queen, he went to 
the Princess Dowager at Leicester House, and saw his 
mistress. He is very galant, and professes great satisfaction 
in his fortune, for he had not even seen her picture. He 
carries his good breeding so far as to declare he would have 
returned unmarried, if she had not pleased him. He has 
had levees and dinners at Somerset House ; to the latter, 
company was named for him. On Monday evening they 
were married by the Archbishop in the great drawing-room, 
with little ceremony ; supped, and lay at Leicester House. 
Yesterday morning was a Drawing-room at St. James's, and 
a ball at night ; both repeated to-day, for the Queen's birth- 
day. On Thursday they go to the play; on Friday the 
Queen gives them a ball and dinner at her house ; on 
Saturday they dine with the Princess at Kew, and return 
for the Opera ; and on Wednesday why, they make their 
bow and curtsey, and sail. 

The Prince has pleased everybody; his manner is 
thought sensible and engaging; his person slim, genteel, 
and handsome enough ; that is, not at all handsome, but 

LETTER 927. 1 The First Light and famous as the defender of 

Horse, raised in 1759 by Colonel Gibraltar from 1779-S2 ; K.B., 1782 ; 

George Augustus Elliot (1719-1790), cr. (July 6, 1787) Baron Heathfield of 

seventh son of Sir Gilbert Elliot, third Gibraltar. 
Baronet, of Stobs, Roxburghshire, 

1764] To Sir Horace Mann 435 

martial, and agreeably weather-worn. I should be able to 
swear to all this on Saturday, when I intend to see him ; 
but, alas ! the post departs on Friday, and, however material 
my testimony may be, he must want it. 

By the subsequent post I shall have forgotten him. A 
new hero, or rather a revived hero, was to have taken his 
place. To-morrow is the day appointed by the House of 
Commons for the appearance of Mr. Wilkes. He had 
ordered a dinner for to-day, and company to be invited ; 
nay, he sent word he should certainly be here and who 
do you think was the messenger? only Mr. Martin, who 
was at Paris for murdering him. Wilkes made Martin 
a visit there, sat with him an hour, joked as usual, told 
him he had really come thither only to see his daughter ; 
that, concluding he should be shut up in prison for six or 
twelve months, he could not bear the thoughts of not seeing 
her before that ; that this passion was as strong as the 
maladie du pays of the Swiss very well : we had no doubt 
but we should see him. Cards were sent to the mob to 
invite them to meet him alas ! last night came a letter of 
excuse to the Speaker, pleading the impediment of his 
wound, and accompanied by certificates of French surgeons. 
Paris seems very fatal to Wilkes's courage! If he had 
sent an insulting message to the House of Commons, or 
even professed having fled from persecution pass all 
that, or either, would have coupled very well with his 
patriotism. I cannot possibly honour this paltry medium. 
However, I am very glad he is not come. But he must 
fight the Parliament of Paris to retrieve his character, or 
at least be sent to the Bastille, to excuse his not being in 
Newgate. For our parts, we have no occasion to practise 
at a target a ; we may do what we will with him, now we 

8 Mr. Martin practised shooting at fought Wilkes. See Churchill's 
a target for some months before he Duellist. Walpole. 

F f 2 

436 To Sir Horace Mann [1764 

can do nothing ; expel him, send his writings to gaol, and 
execute his excuses nay, we may burn his memory ; no- 
body will say a word for it ; I expect very brave invectives 
against him to-morrow. 

Friday evening, 20th. 

Yesterday was different from what I expected ; but I 
never guess right ! Who could have expected that a hun- 
dred and two men would have defended Wilkes, who would 
not defend himself, till four in the morning? Yet this was 
the case of at least fifty; the rest, of which I was one, 
retired at eleven at night. He was expelled " at last, after 
six divisions. But we have not yet done with him ; his 
Essay on Woman is to be tried next Tuesday in the 
House of Lords. 

The crowds of this week have proved the goodness of our 
constitutions ; that on the Queen's birthday was immo- 
derate ; but last night, to see the Prince of Brunswick at 
the play, exceeded all belief. Your brother James told me 
this morning, that he went to Covent Garden at two in the 
afternoon, to wait till the doors of the playhouse should be 
opened. He soon found himself buried in such a mob, 
that he could not even lift his hand to his head, and so 
remained for five hours, without getting in at last ; and 
though he had stood in the open Piazza, he had sweat so 
violently that at his return he was forced to change every 
thread he had on. The shouts, claps, and huzzas to the 
Prince were immoderate ; he sat behind his Princess and her 
brothers ; the galleries called him to come forward. In 
the middle of the play, he went to be elected a member of 
the Koyal Society, and returned to the theatre, when the 
applause was renewed. This was the stronger, as there 
were other folks 4 present, who had no share in the triumph. 

8 From membership of the House of Commons. 
4 The King and Queen. Walpole. 

mMrau, fXMaratu* o/a%0 

1764] To the Earl of Hertford 437 

When he had gone out, he returned, presented himself in 
the front of the box, and made a most respectful bow to 
the audience, who returned it with the loudest acclama- 
tions. Do you think he will not go on Wednesday ? 
Adieu ! 


Arlington Street, Jan. 22, 1764. 

MONSIEUR MONIN, who will deliver this to you, my dear 
Lord, is the particular friend I mentioned in my last *, and 
is, indeed, no particular friend of mine at all, but I had 
a mind to mislead my Lord Sandwich, and send you one 
letter which he should not open. This I write in pecu- 
liar confidence to you, and insist upon your keeping it 
entirely to yourself from every living creature. It will be 
an answer to several passages in your letters, to which I did 
not care to reply by the post. 

Your brother was not pleased with your laying the 
stopping your bills to his charge. To tell you the truth, 
he thinks you as too much inclined to courts and ministers, 
as you think him too little so. So far from upbraiding him 
on that head, give me leave to say you have no reason to 
be concerned at it. You must be sensible, my dear Lord, 
that you are far from standing well with the opposition, 
and should any change happen, your brother's being well 
with them would prevent any appearance that might 
be disagreeable to you. In truth, I cannot think you 
have abundant reason to be fond of the administration. 
Lord Bute never gave you the least real mark of friendship. 
The Bedfords certainly do not wish you well : Lord Holland 
has amply proved himself your enemy : for a man of your 
morals, it would be a disgrace to you to be connected with 
Lord Sandwich : and for George Grenville, he has shown 

LETTER 928. * This letter does not appear. 

438 To the Earl of Hertford [i764 

himself the falsest and most contemptible of mankind. 
He is now the intimate tool of the Bedfords, and reconciled 
to Lord Bute, whom he has served and disserved just as 
occasion or interest directed. In this situation of things, 
can you wonder that particular marks of favour are with- 
held from you, or that the expenses of your journey are 
not granted to you as they were to the Duke of Bedford ? 

You ask me how your letters please : it is impossible 
for me to learn, now I am so disconnected with every- 
thing ministerial. I wish you not to make them please 
too much. The negotiations with France must be the 
great point on which the nation will fix its eyes : with 
France we must break sooner or later. Your letters will 
be strictly canvassed : I hope and firmly believe that 
nothing will appear in them but attention to the honour 
and interest of the nation ; points, I doubt, little at the 
heart of the present administration, who have gone too far 
not to be in the power of France, and who must bear 
anything rather than quarrel. I would not take the liberty 
of saying so much to you, if, by being on the spot, I was 
not a judge how very serious affairs grow, and how necessary 
it is for you to be upon your guard. 

Another question you ask is, whether it is true that the 
opposition is disunited ? I will give you one very necessary 
direction, which is, not to credit any court stories. Sand- 
wich is the father of lies, and every report is tinctured 
by him. The administration give it out, and trust to this 
disunion. I will tell you very nearly what truth there is 
or is not in this. The party in general is as firmly and 
cordially united as ever party was. Consider, that without 
any heads or leaders at all, 102 men stuck to Wilkes, the 
worst cause they could have had, and with all the weight 
of the Yorkes against them. With regard to the leaders 
there is a difference. The old Chancellor is violent against 

1764] To the Earl of Hertford 439 

the court : but, I believe, displeased that his son was 
sacrificed to Pratt, in the case of privilege. Charles Yorke 
resigned, against his own and Lord Koyston's inclination, 
is particularly angry with Newcastle for complying with 
Pitt in the affair of privilege, and not less displeased that 
Pitt prefers Pratt to him for the seals ; but then Norton 
is Attorney-General, and it would not be graceful to return 
to court, which he has quitted, while the present ministers 
remain there. In short, as soon as the affair of Wilkes 
and privilege is at an end, it is much expected that the 
Yorkes will take part with the opposition. It is for that 
declaration that Charles Townshend says he waits. He 
again broke out strongly on Friday last against the ministry, 
attacking George Grenville, who seems his object. How- 
ever, the childish fluctuation of his temper, and the vehe- 
mence of his brother George for the court, that is for 
himself, will for ever make Charles little to be depended 
on. For Mr. Pitt, you know, he never will act like any 
other man in opposition, and to that George Grenville 
trusts ; however, here are such materials, that if they could 
once be put in operation for a fortnight together, the present 
administration would be blown up. To this you may 
throw in dissensions among themselves: Lord Halifax 
and Lord Talbot are greatly dissatisfied. Lord Bute is 
reconciled to the rest ; sees the Bang continually ; and will 
soon want more power, or will have more jealousy than 
is consistent with their union. Many single men are ill- 
disposed to them, particularly Lord George Sackville: indeed, 
nobody is with them, but as it is farther off from, or nearer 
to, quarter-day : the nation is unanimous against them : a 
disposition which their own foolish conduct during the 
episode of the Prince of Brunswick, to which I am now 
coming, has sufficiently manifested. 

The fourth question put to him on his arrival was, 

440 To the Earl of Hertford [1764 

'When do you go?' The servants of the King and Queen 
were forbid to put on their new clothes for the wedding, or 
Drawing-room next day, and ordered to keep them for the 
Queen's birthday. Such pains were taken to keep the Prince 
from any intercourse with any of the opposition, that he 
has done nothing but take notice of them. He not only 
wrote to the Duke of Newcastle and Mr. Pitt, but has been 
at Hayes to see the latter, and has dined twice with the 
Duke of Cumberland ; the first time on Friday last, when 
he was appointed to be at St. James's at half an hour after 
seven, to a concert. As the time drew near, Feronce 2 
pulled out his watch ; the Duke took the hint, and said, 
' I am sorry to part with you, but I fear your time is come.' 
He replied, ' N'importe ' ; sat on, drank coffee, and it was 
half an hour after eight before he set out from Upper 
Grosvenor Street for St. James's. He and Princess Augusta 
have felt and shown their disgusts so strongly, and his suite 
have complained so much of the neglect and disregard of 
him, and of the very quick dismission of him, that the 
people have caught it, and on Thursday, at the play, received 
the King and Queen without the least symptom of applause, 
but repeated such outrageous acclamations to the Prince, as 
operated very visibly on the King's countenance. Not a gun 
was fired for the marriage, and Princess Augusta asking 
Lord Gower about some ceremony, to which he replied, it 
could not be, as no such thing had been done for the Prince 
of Orange s ; she said, it was extraordinary to quote that 
precedent to her in one case, which had been followed in no 
other. I could tell you ten more of these stories, but one 
shall suffice. The royal family went to the Opera on 
Saturday: the crowd not to be described: the Duchess of 
Leeds 4 , Lady Denbigh, Lady Scarborough, and others, sat 

8 The Prince's Chief Secretary. daughter of George IL 

3 Who married, in 1734, the eldest Lady Mary Godolphin (d. 1764), 

1764] To the Earl of Hertford 441 

on chairs between the scenes : the doors of the front boxes 
were thrown open, and the passages were all filled to the 
back of the stoves ; nay, women of fashion stood on the 
very stairs till eight at night. In the middle of the second 
act, the Hereditary Prince, who sat with his wife and her 
brothers in their box, got up, turned his back to King and 
Queen, pretending to offer his place to Lady Tankerville 8 
and then to Lady Susan 6 . You know enough of Germans 
and their stiffness to etiquette, to be sure that this could 
not be done inadvertently ; especially as he repeated this, 
only without standing up. with one of his own gentlemen, 
in the third act. 

I saw him, without any difficulty, from the Duchess of 
Grafton's box. He is extremely slender, and looks many 
years older than he is : in short, I suppose it is his manner 
with which every mortal is captivated, for though he is 
well enough for a man, he is far from having anything 
striking in his person. To-day (this is Tuesday) there was 
a Drawing-room at Leicester House, and to-night there is 
a subscription ball for him at Carlisle House, Soho, made 
chiefly by the Dukes of Devonshire and Graf ton. I was 
invited to be of it, but not having been to wait on him, did 
not think it civil to meet him there. The court, by accident 
or design, had forgot to have a bill passed for naturalizing 
him. The Duke of Grafton undertook it, on which they 
adopted it, and the Duke of Bedford moved it ; but the 
Prince sent word to the Duke of Grafton, that he should 
not have liked the compliment half so well if he had not 
owed it to his Grace. You may judge how he will report 
of us at his return ! 

second daughter and coheir of second Baronet, of Patshull, Staffordshire ; 

Earl of Godolphin ; m. (1740)Thomas m. (1742) Charles Bennett, third Earl 

Osborne, fourth Duke of Leeds. of Tankerville. 

6 Alicia (d. 1791), third daughter ' Lady Susan Stewart, Lady-in- 

and co-heir of Sir John Astley, third Waiting to the Princess. 

442 To the Earl of Hertford [i?64 

With regard to your behaviour to Wilkes, I think you 
observed the just medium : I have not heard it mentioned : 
if they should choose to blame it, it will not be to me, 
known as your friend and no friend of theirs. They very 
likely may say that you did too much, though the Duke of 
Bedford did ten times more. Churchill has published a 
new satire, called The Duellist, the finest and bitterest of 
his works. The poetry is glorious ; some lines on Lord 
Holland, hemlock: charming abuse on that scurrilous 
mortal, Bishop Warburton: an ill-drawn, though deserved, 
character of Sandwich ; and one, as much deserved, and 
better, of Norton. 

Wednesday, after dinner. 

The Lord knows when this letter will be finished ; I have 
been writing it this week, and believe I shall continue it 
till old Monin sets out. Encore, the Prince of Brunswick. 
At the ball, at Buckingham House, on Monday ; it had 
began two hours before he arrived. Except the King and 
Queen's servants, nobody was there but the Duchesses of 
Marlborough and Ancaster, and Lord Bute's two daughters. 
No supper. On Sunday evening the Prince had been to 
Newcastle House, to visit the Duchess. His speech to the 
Duke of Bedford, at first, was by no means so strong as 
they gave it out : he only said, ' Milord, nous avons fait 
deux metiers bien differents ; le votre a ete le plus agreable : 
j'ai fait couler du sang, vous 1'avez fait cesser.' His whole 
behaviour, so much a la minorite, makes this much more 
improbable. His Princess thoroughly agrees with him. 
When Mr. Grenville objected to the greatness of her for- 
tune, the King said, ' Oh ! it will not be opposed, for 
Augusta is in the opposition.' 

The ball, last night, at Carlisle House, Soho, was most 
magnificent : one hundred and fifty men subscribed, at five 
guineas each, and had each three tickets. All the beauties 

1764] To the Earl of Hertford 443 

in town were there, that is, of rank, for there was no bad 
company. The Duke of Cumberland was there too ; and 
the Hereditary Prince so pleased, and in such spirits, that 
he stayed till five in the morning. He is gone to-day, 
heartily sorry to leave everything but St. James's and 
Leicester House. They lie to-night at Lord Abercorn's, at 
Witham, who does not step from his pedestal to meet 
them. Lady Strafford said to him, ' Soh ! my Lord ! I 
hear your house is to be royally filled on Wednesday.' 
'And serenely,' he replied, and closed his mouth again till 
next day. 

Our politics have been as follow. Last Friday the oppo- 
sition moved for Wilkes's complaint of breach of privilege 
to be heard as to-day : Grenville objected to it, and at last 
yielded, after receiving some smart raps from Charles 
Townshend and Sir George Saville 7 . On Tuesday the 
latter, and Sir William Meredith, proposed to put it off to 
the 13th of February, that Wilkes's servant, the most 
material evidence, might be here. George Grenville again 
opposed it, was not supported, and yielded. Afterwards 
Dowdeswell 8 moved for a committee on the Cider Bill ; and, 
at last, a committee was appointed for Tuesday next, with 
powers to report the grievances of the bill, and suggest 
amendments and redress, but with no authority to repeal it. 
This the administration carried but by 167 to 125. Indeed, 
many of their people were in the House of Lords, where 
the court triumphed still less. They were upon the Essay 
on Woman. Sandwich proposed two questions; 1st, that 
Wilkes was the author of it ; 2dly, to order the Black Kod 
to attach him. It was much objected by the Dukes of 

7 Sir George Savile (1726-1784), held office. 

eighth Baronet, of Bufford, Notting- 8 William Dowdeswell (1721-1775), 

hamshire, M.P. for Yorkshire. He of Pull Court, Worcestershire, M.P. 

was a staunch Whig, and adherent for Worcestershire; Chancellor of the 

of the Kockingham party, but never Exchequer, 1766-66. 

444 To the Earl of Hertford [i?64 

Devonshire, Grafton, Newcastle, and even Richmond, that 
the first was not proved, and might affect him in the courts 
below. Lord Mansfield tried to explain this away, and Lord 
Marchmont and Lord Temple had warm words. At last 
Sandwich, artfully, to get something, if not all, agreed to 
melt both questions into one, which was accepted ; and the 
vote passed, that it appearing Wilkes was the author, he 
should be taken into custody by the usher. It appearing, 
was allowed to mean as far as appears. Then a committee 
was appointed to search for precedents how to proceed on 
his being withdrawn. That dirty dog Kidgel had been 
summoned by the Duke of Grafton, but as they only went 
on the breach of privilege, he was not called. The new 
Club 9 , at the house that was the late Lord Waldegrave's, in 
Albemarle Street, makes the ministry very uneasy ; but they 
have worse grievances to apprehend ! 

Sir Kobert Kich is extremely angry with my nephew, the 
Bishop of Exeter, who, like his own and wife's family, is 
tolerably warm. They were talking together at St. James's, 
when A'Court 10 came in. 'There's poor A'Court,' said the 
Bishop. ' Poor A'Court !' replied the Marshal, ' I wish all 
those fellows that oppose the King were to be turned out 
of the army!' 'I hope,' said the Bishop, 'they will first 
turn all the old women out of it !' 

The Due de Pecquigny was on the point of a duel with 
Lord Garlies 11 , at Lord Milton's ball, the former handing 
the latter's partner down to supper. I wish you had this 
Duke again, lest you should have trouble with him from 

9 A tavern in Albemarle Street, wards appointed to command the 
frequented by members of the oppo- llth Foot, and became full general 
sition. They subsequently estab- in 1778. He took the additional sur- 
lished a club there, called ' The name of Ashe on inheriting an estate. 
Coterie.' " John Stewart (1786-1806), Lord 

10 Lieutenant - General William Garlies, eldest son of sixth Earl of 
A'Court (d. 1781), M.P. for Heytesbury, Galloway, whom he succeeded in 
dismissed from the army for parlia- 1778. 

mentary opposition. He was after- 

1764] To the Earl of Hertford 445 

hence : he seems a genius of the wrong sort. His behaviour 
on the visit to Woburn was very wrong-headed, though 
their treatment of him was not more right. Lord Sand- 
wich flung him down in one of their horse-plays, and almost 
put his shoulder out. He said the next day there, at 
dinner, that for the rest of his life he should fear nothing 
so much as a lettre de cachet from a French secretary of 
state, or a coup d'dpaule from an English one. After this 
he had a pique with the Duchess, with whom he had been 
playing at whisk. A shilling and sixpence were left on the 
table, which nobody claimed. He was asked if it was his, 
and said no. Then they said, ' Let us put it to the cards ' : 
there was already a guinea. The Duchess, in an air of 
grandeur, said as there was gold for the Groom of the 
Chambers, the sweeper of the room might have the silver, 
and brushed it off the table. The Pecquigny took this to 
himself, though I don't believe meaned ; and complained 
to the whole town of it, with large comments, at his 
return. It is silly to tell you such silly stories, but in 
your situation it may grow necessary for you to know the 
truth, if you should hear them repeated. I am content 
to have you call me gossip, if I prove but of the least use 
to you. 

Here have I tapped the ninth page ! Well ! I am this 
moment going to M. de Guerchy's, to know when Monin 
sets out, that I may finish this eternal letter. If I tire you, 
tell me so : I am sure I do myself. If I speak with too 
much freedom to you, tell me so ; I have done it in con- 
sequence of your questions, and mean it most kindly. In 
short, I am ready to amend anything you disapprove ; so 
don't take anything ill, my dear Lord, unless I continue after 
you have reprimanded me. The safe manner in which 
this goes has made me, too, more explicit than you know 
I have been on any other occasion. Adieu ! 

446 To the Countess Temple [i764 

Wednesday night, late. 

Well, my letter will be finished at last. M. Monin sets 
out on Friday ; so does my Lord Holland : but I affect not 
to know it, for he is not just the person that you or I should 
choose to be the bearer of this. You will be diverted with 
a story they told me to-night at the French Ambassador's. 
When they went to supper, at Soho, last night, the Duke 
of Cumberland placed himself at the head of the table. 
One of the waiters tapped him on the shoulder, and said, 
' Sir, your Royal Highness can't sit there ; that place is 
designed for the Hereditary Prince.' You ought to have 
seen how everybody's head has been turned with this 
Prince, to make this story credible to you. My Lady 
Rockingham, at Leicester House, yesterday, cried great sobs 
for his departure. Yours ever, 




MR. WALPOLE cannot express how much he is obliged 
and honoured by the trust Lady Temple is so good as to put 
in him, nor will her Ladyship's modesty let her be a proper 
judge how great that is. He will say no more but that 
more than slight corrections in measure would destroy the 
chief merit of the poems, which consists in the beautiful 
ease and negligence of the composition a merit which 
correction may take away, but can never bestow. I do real 
justice to these poems : they should be compared with the 
first thoughts and sketches of other great poets. Mr. Addi- 
son, with infinite labour, accomplished a few fine poems ; but 
what does your Ladyship think were his rough drafts ? 

1764] To the Rev. William Cole 447 


January 28, 1764. 

I HAVE now, Madam, very carefully studied your Lady 
ship's poems, in which, as I told you, I can find no faults 
but in the longer metre. This I have tried to supply here 
and there by a syllable, or by little inversions which mend 
the cadence ; and these I submit to your Ladyship's judge- 
ment as mere mechanic corrections, and not at all as im- 
proving the ease and natural grace of the original, much 
less the poetry, which perhaps suffers by my dull criticisms. 

Your Ladyship will probably improve on my hints, for 
your own genteel pen is much more likely to strike out 
proper alterations than I, who work by dull rules, can do. 
One thing I am sure of, that larger changes than I have 
ventured to make, would entirely prejudice the agreeable 
air of your verses, which is so much and so peculiarly your 

When I have the honour of seeing you, I will hope for 
further orders as to the impression *, which I trust will not 
be so rigidly confined as you first proposed. I am, Madam, 
your most obedient and most sensibly obliged humble 



DEAR SIR, Arlington Street, Jan. 31, 1764. 

Several weeks ago I begged you to tell me how to convey 
to you a print of Strawberry Hill, and another of Arch- 
bishop Button. I must now repeat the same request for 

LETTER 930. * Countess Temple's Poems were printed at Strawberry Hill 
in 1764. 

448 To Sir David Ddlrymple [1764 

two more volumes of my Anecdotes of Painting, which are 
on the point of being published. I hope no illness pre- 
vented my hearing from you. 

Yours ever, 



Arlington Street, Jan. 31, 1764. 

I AM very sorry, Sir, that your obliging corrections of my 
Anecdotes of Painting have come so late, that the first volume 
is actually reprinted. The second shall be the better for 
them. I am now publishing the third volume, arid another 
of Engravers. I wish you would be so kind as to tell me 
how I may convey them speedily to you: you waited too 
long the last time for things that have little merit but 
novelty. These volumes are of still less worth than the 
preceding ; our latter painters not compensating by excel- 
lence for the charms that antiquity has bestowed on their 

I wish I had known in time what heads of Nanteuil l you 
want. There has been a very valuable sale of Sir Clement 
Cottrell's prints, the impressions most beautiful, and of 
which Nanteuil made the capital part. I do not know who 
particularly collects his works now, but I have ordered my 
bookseller Bathoe 2 , who is much versed in those things, to 
inquire ; and if I hear of any purchaser, Sir, I will let you 

I have not bought the Anecdotes of Polite Literature, 
suspecting them for a bookseller's compilation, and con- 
firmed in it by never hearing them mentioned. Our book- 
sellers here at London disgrace literature by the trash they 

LETTER 982. l Bobert Nanteuil (1630-1678), engraver. 
William Bathoe (d. 1768). 

1764] To the Earl of Hertford 449 

bespeak to be written, and at the same time prevent every- 
thing else from being sold. They are little more or less 
than upholsters, who sell sets or bodies of arts and sciences 
for furniture ; and the purchasers, for I am sure they are 
not readers, buy only in that view. I never thought there 
was much merit in reading : but yet it is too good a thing 
to be put upon no better footing than damask and mahogany. 
Whenever I can be of the least use to your studies or 
collections, you know, Sir, that you may command me 


Arlington Street, Feb. 6, 1764. 

You have, I hope, long before this, my dear Lord, received 
the immense letter that I sent you by old Monin. It 
explained much, and announced most part of which has 
already happened : for you will observe that when I tell 
you anything very positively, it is on good intelligence. 
I have another much bigger secret for you, but that will 
be delivered to you by word of mouth. I am not a little 
impatient for the long letter you promised me. In the 
meantime thank you for the account you give me of the 
King's extreme civility to you. It is like yourself to dwell 
on that, and to say little of M. de Chaulnes's dirty behaviour ; 
but Monsieur and Madame de Guerchy have told your brother 
and me all the particulars. 

I was but too good a prophet when I warned you to expect 
new extravagances from the Due de Chaulnes's son. Some 
weeks ago he lost five hundred pounds to one Virette, an 
equivocal being, that you remember here. Paolucci, the 
Modenese minister, who is not in the odour of honesty, was 
of the party. The Due de Pecquigny said to the latter, 
'Monsieur, ne jouez plus avec lui, si vous n'etes pas de 
moitie.' So far was very well. On Saturday, at the 


450 To the Earl of Hertford [i?64 

Maccaroni Club (which is composed of all the travelled 
young men who wear long curls and spying-glasses), they 
played again : the Due lost, but not much. In the passage 
at the Opera, the Due saw Mr. Stuart talking to Virette, and 
told the former that Virette was a coquin, a fripon, &c., &c. 
Virette retired, saying only, 'Voila un fou.' The Due then 
desired Lord Tavistook to come and see him fight Virette, 
but the Marquis desired to be excused. After the Opera, 
Virette went to the Due's lodgings, but found him gone to 
make his complaint to Monsieur de Guerchy, whither he 
followed him ; and farther this deponent knoweth not. 
I pity the Count, who is one of the best-natured amiable 
men in the world, for having this absurd boy upon his 
hands ! 

Well ! now for a little politics. The Cider Bill has not 
answered to the minority, though they ran the ministry 
hard ; but last Friday was extraordinary. George Grenville 
was pushed upon some Navy bills 1 . I don't understand 
a syllable, you know, of money and accounts ; but what- 
ever was the matter, he was driven from entrenchment to 
entrenchment by Baker 2 and Charles Townshend. After 
that affair was over, and many gone away, Sir W. Meredith 
moved for the depositions on which the warrant against 
Wilkes had been granted. The ministers complained of the 
motion being made so late in the day ; called it a surprise ; 
and Kigby moved to adjourn, which was carried but by 73 
to 60. Had a surprise been intended, you may imagine the 
minority would have been better provided with numbers ; 
but it certainly had not been concerted : however, a majority, 
shrunk to thirteen, frightened them out of the small senses 
they possess. Heaven, Earth, and the Treasury were moved 

LETTER 933. l According to Cro- ties at 4 per cent. 

ker, a proposal for converting certain a Sir William Baker, Knight, M. P. 
outstanding Navy bills into annul- for Plympton. 

1764] To the Earl of Hertford 451 

to recover their ground to-day, when the question was re- 
newed. For about two hours the debate hobbled on very 
lamely, when on a sudden your brother rose, and made such 
a speech but I wish anybody was to give you the account 
except me, whom you will think partial : but you will hear 
enough of it, to confirm anything I can say. Imagine fire, 
rapidity, argument, knowledge, wit, ridicule, grace, spirit; 
all pouring like a torrent, but without clashing. Imagine 
the House in a tumult of continued applause : imagine 
the ministers thunderstruck ; lawyers abashed and almost 
blushing, for it was on their quibbles and evasions he fell 
most heavily, at the same time answering a whole session of 
arguments on the side of the court. No, it was unique ; you 
can neither conceive it, nor the exclamations it occasioned. 
Ellis, the Forlorn Hope Ellis, presented himself in the gap, 
till the ministers could recover themselves, when on a sudden 
Lord George Sackville led up the Blues s ; spoke with as much 
warmth as your brother had, and with great force continued 
the attack which he had begun. Did not I tell you he would 
take this part ? I was made privy to it ; but this is far from 
all you are to expect. Lord North in vain rumbled about his 
mustard-bowl*, and endeavoured alone to outroar a whole 
party : him and Forrester B , Charles Townshend took up, but 
less well than usual. His jealousy of your brother's success, 
which was very evident, did not help him to shine. There 
were several other speeches, and, upon the whole, it was 
a capital debate ; but Plutus is so much more persuasive an 
orator than your brother or Lord George, that we divided 
but 122 against 217. Lord Strange, who had agreed to the 
question, did not dare to vote for it, and declared off; and 

8 Which he had failed to do at Thunder and Mustard were the 

Minden. same ; but since, it is more advan- 

Cf. Dundad, book ii. L 226 : ' With tageously performed by troughs of 

thunder rumbling from the mustard- wood with stops in them.' 

bowl.' Pope's note on this line is as 5 Alexander Forrester, M.P, for 

follows : ' The old way of malting Oakhampton. 

452 To the Earl of Hertford [i?64 

George Townshend, who had actually voted for it on Friday, 
now voted against us. Well ! upon the whole, I heartily 
wish this administration may last: both their characters 
and abilities are so contemptible, that I am sure we can be 
in no danger from prerogative when trusted to such hands ! 

Before I have done with Charles Townshend, I must tell 
you one of his admirable bons mots. Miss Draycote, the 
great fortune, is grown very fat: he says her tonnage is 
become equal to her poundage. 

There is the devil to pay in Nabob-land, but I understand 
Indian histories no better than stocks. The council rebelled 
against the Governor ', and sent a deputation, the Lord knows 
why, to the Nabob 7 , who cut off the said deputies' heads, 
and then, I think, was dis-Nabob'd himself, and Olive's old 
friend reinstated. There is another rebellion in Minorca, 
where Johnston has renounced his allegiance to viceroy 
Dick Lyttelton 8 , and set up for himself. Sir Richard has 
laid the affair before the King and Council ; Charles Town- 
shend first, and then your brother (you know why I am 
sorry they should appear together in that cause), have tried 
to deprecate Sir Richard's wrath : but it was then too late. 
The silly fellow has brought himself to a precipice. 

I forgot to tell you that Lord George Sackville carried 
into the minority with him his own brother Lord Middlesex ; 
Lord Milton's brother 9 ; young Beauclerc ; Sir Thomas 
Hales 10 ; and Colonel Irwine u . 

6 Henry Vansittart (1732-1770), Mir Jaffier, was reinstated. 
Governor of Bengal. 8 Sir Richard Lyttelton was Go- 

7 Mir l^asim, set up by Vansittart vernor of Minorca. 

in the place of Mir Jaffier. He in- 9 John Darner, M.P. for Dorches- 

curred the resentment of the Council ter ; d. 1783. 

of the East India Company, and 10 Sir Thomas Pym Hales, fourth 

massacred the deputies sent to re- Baronet (d. 1773), M.F. for Downton. 

monstrate with him. The Company's u Major - General John Irwin 

troops took the field under Adams, (1728-1788), M.P. for East Grinstead; 

and in four months conquered afterwards K.B., and Governor of 

Bengal, forcing Mir Kasim to take Gibraltar, 
refuge in Oude. ' dive's old friend,' 

1764] To the Earl of Hertford 453 

We have not heard a word yet of the Hereditary Prince 
and Princess. They were sent away in a tempest, and I 
believe the best one can hope is, that they are driven to 

Good night, my dear Lord ; it is time to finish, for it is 
half an hour after one in the morning: I am forced to 
purloin such hours to write to you, for I get up so late, and 
then have such a perpetual succession of nothings to do, 
such auctions, politics, visits, dinners, suppers, books to 
publish or revise, &c., that I have not a quarter of an hour 
without call upon it ; but I need not tell you, who know 
my life, that I am forced to create new time, if I will keep 
up my correspondence with you. You seem to like I should, 
and I wish to give you every satisfaction in my power. 

Tuesday, February 7, Four o'clock. 

I tremble whilst I continue my letter, having just heard 
such a dreadful story ! A captain of a vessel has made oath 
before the Lord Mayor, this morning, that he saw one of the 
yachts sink on the coast of Holland ; and it is believed to be 
the one in which the Prince was. The City is in an uproar ; 
nor need one point out all such an accident may produce, if 
true ; which I most fervently hope it is not. My long letter 
will help you to comments enough, which will be made on 
this occasion. I wish you may know, at this moment, that 
our fears are ill-placed. The Princess was not in the same 
yacht with her husband. Poor Fanshawe, as Clerk of the 
Green Cloth, with his wife and sister, was in one of them. 

Here is more of the Due de Pecquigny's episode. An 
officer was sent yesterday to put Virette under arrest. His 
servant disputed with the officer on his orders, till his 
master made his escape. Virette sent a friend, whom he 
ordered to deliver his letter in person, and see it read, with 
a challenge, appointing the Due to meet him at half an hour 

454 To the Earl of Hertford [1764 

after seven this morning, at Buckingham Gate, where he 
waited till ten to no purpose, though the Due had not been 
put under arrest. Virette absconds, and has sent M. de 
Pecquigny word, that he shall abscond till he can find 
a proper opportunity of fighting him. Your discretion will 
naturally prevent your talking of this ; but I thought you 
would like to be prepared, if this affair should anyhow 
happen to become your business, though your late discus- 
sion with the Due de Chaulnes will add to your disinclina- 
tion from meddling with it. 

I must send this to the post before I go to the Opera, and 
therefore shall not be able to tell you more of the Prince of 
Brunswick by this post.